Skip to main content

Full text of "Astronautics and aeronautics"

See other formats


ASTRONOMY 


NASA  SP-4006 


\STRONAUTICS  AND 
AERONAUTICS,   1965 


CHRONOLOGY  ON 
SCIENCE,  TECHNOLOGY, 
AND  POLICY 


NATIONAL  AERONAUTICS  AND  SPACE  ADMINISTRATION 


y 


NASA  SP-4006 


ASTRONAUTICS   AND 
AERONAUTICS,    1965 

Chronology  on   Science,  Technology,  and  Policy 


NASA  Historical  Staff, 
Office  of  Policy  Analysis 


^y^^^^MTo-^/       Scientific  and  Technical  Information  Division  19  6  6 

NATIONAL   AERONAUTICS   AND   SPACE   ADMINISTRATION 


Washington,  D.C. 


For  Sale  by  the  Superintendent  of  Documents, 

U.S.  Government  Printing  Office,  Washington,  D.C.  20402 

Price  $2.25  (paper  cover) 

Library  of  Congress  Catalog  Card  Number  66-60096 


Foreword 

The  year  1965  recounted  by  this  volume  was  an  outstanding  one  in  the 
U.S.  space  program.  In  his  space  report  to  Congress,  President  Johnson 
called  it  "the  most  successful  year  in  our  history."  It  was  one  filled  with 
noteworthy  milestones  deriving  from  less  noticed  decisions,  actions,  and 
labors  of  previous  years.  In  the  same  way,  milestones  of  the  future  are  to 
be  seen  in  their  formative  stages  in  this  chronology  for  1965. 

Man  received  his  first  close-up  view  of  our  neighboring  planet  Mars 
when  on  July  14,  mariner  iv  relayed  to  earth  its  photographs  of  lunar-like 
craters  on  the  Martian  surface.  The  conclusion  of  the  Ranger  program  was 
witnessed  by  millions  of  Americans  who  watched  on  live  television  as  the 
cameras  of  ranger  ix  approached  the  moon  on  March  24.  alouette  ii 
was  orbited  by  NASA  for  Canada  in  November  and  FR-1  for  France  in 
December. 

The  orbiting  of  ten  Gemini  astronauts  in  a  series  of  five  spectacular  flights 
during  the  year  ended  a  22-month  gap  since  the  last  Mercury  flight,  faith 
7.  The  man-rated  version  of  the  Air  Force  Titan  II  reliably  launched  aU 
Gemini  flights.  Astronauts  Grissom  and  Young  in  March,  as  well  as  McDi- 
vitt  and  White  in  June,  the  latter  marking  his  "space  walk"  outside  the 
GEMINI  IV  spacecraft.  The  eight-day  mission  of  Astronauts  Cooper  and 
Conrad  in  GEMINI  V  demonstrated  that  trained  space  pilots  were  physically 
capable  of  a  lunar  mission.  Orbital  rendezvous  techniques  were  thoroughly 
demonstrated  by  the  flights  of  gemini  vii  and  vi.  Astronauts  Borman  and 
Lovell  in  gemini  vii  took  another  long  step  in  astronautics  with  their  four- 
teen-day mission  in  December  of  206  revolutions.  Throughout  the  Gemini 
operation,  the  team  effort  involved  closest  cooperation  of  all  of  NASA  and  the 
military  services,  contractors,  and  the  scientific  community. 

Milestones  in  the  lunar-landing  Apollo  program  were  not  as  well  publi- 
cized as  Gemini  but  marked  significant  progress.  The  Project  Fire  success 
in  atmospheric  entry  of  a  test  vehicle  at  speeds  simulating  a  return  from 
the  moon  provided  a  geometric  jump  in  reentry  physics.  The  first  full- 
duration  test  of  the  gigantic  Saturn  V  first  stage  of  7.5  million  pounds  of 
thrust  on  August  5  was  a  significant  milestone  in  an  engine  program  begun 
in  1958.  As  the  Saturn  I  concluded  its  operational  life  with  ten  straight 
successes  with  the  orbiting  of  Apollo  boilerplate  capsules  and  three  Pegasus 
micrometeoroid  satellites,  the  Saturn  IB  was  being  erected  on  the  launch 
pad  to  begin  its  flight  tests  in  1966. 

Spectacular  scientific  and  manned  spaceflight  events  of  1965  could  not 
overshadow  the  practical  utility  to  man  on  earth  of  communications  and 
meteorological  satellites,  tiros  x,  placed  in  orbit  for  the  Weather  Bu- 
reau, maintained  service  to  worldwide  needs  for  weather  data,  while 
tiros  IX  provided  the  first  complete  picture  of  the  cloud-cover  over  the 
entire  earth  on  February  13.     nasa  launched  early  bird  I  for  the  Com- 

III 


IV  FOREWORD 

munications  Satellite  Corporation  in  April.  During  the  same  month,  NASA 
turned  operational  control  of  syncom  hi  over  to  the  Department  of  Defense 
for  service  in  important  Far  East  communications. 

A  chronology  is  not  an  adequate  substitute  for  a  documented  narrative 
history.  But  in  this  chronology,  spliced  alongside  the  U.S.  space  events  of 
1965,  one  can  note  the  less  publicized  decisions,  actions,  and  discussions 
concerned  with  the  shaping  of  the  future.  About  90  percent  of  NASA's 
$5,175  billion  went  to  contractors  for  work  done  by  almost  400,000  people 
in  the  factories  and  laboratories  of  some  20,000  prime  contractors  and 
subcontractors.  In  the  university  program  about  10.000  scholars  at  100 
universities  in  all  fifty  states  were  working  on  space-related  topics. 

In  addition  to  NASA-related  events  the  chronology  gives  some  of  the  im- 
pact on  the  American  scene  of  the  space  effort,  including  critical  comment 
testing  in  democratic  fashion  the  pace  and  scale  of  space  efforts.  Actions, 
deliberations,  and  comment  as  part  of  international  cooperation  and  com- 
petition are  likewise  represented  in  these  pages.  Hopefully  this  volume 
will  serve  the  serious  student  of  today  as  he  seeks  knowledge  of  past  events 
so  as  to  better  understand  the  future. 

The  late  Hugh  L.  Dryden  once  wrote: 

Free  peoples  everywhere  must  retain  a  reliable  perspective  from  which  to  dis- 
cern better  the  future  scientific,  social,  economic,  political,  and  strategic  con- 
sequences of  dynamic  advances  now  underway.  The  manner  of  the  impact 
of  technology  upon  society  in  the  future  will  partly  result  from  the  broadest 
possible  appreciation  of  its  full  significance. 

His  passing  on  December  2  of  this  eighth  year  of  the  Space  Age  was  noted 
throughout  the  world.  He  leaves  lasting  contributions  to  the  development 
of  space  technology  and  of  a  sound  philosophy  of  astronautics.  This  vol- 
ume helps  to  document  12  months  marking  what  Dr.  Dryden  called  "the 
opening  of  a  brilliant  new  stage  in  man's  evolution."  It  should  assist  its 
readers  in  gaining  helpful  perspective  upon  man's  challenging  venture  into 
space. 

James  E.  Webb 

Administrator 

National  Aeronautics  and 

Space  Administration 


Contents 


PAGE 

FOREWORD   III 

Admimstrator  James  E.  Webb 

PREFACE   VII 

JANUARY  1 

FEBRUARY     48 

MARCH 100 

APRIL 162 

MAY   213 

JUNE 264 

JULY 307 

AUGUST 363 

SEPTEMBER 410 

OCTOBER 458 

NOVEMBER    500 

DECEMBER    533 

APPENDIX   A:     satellites,   space    probes,   and   manned   space 

FLIGHTS,  1965 575 

APPENDIX  B:   major  nasa  launchings,  1965 605 

APPENDIX  C:    summary  chronology  of  manned  space  flights, 

1961-1965    609 

APPENDIX  D:   abbreviations  of  references 619 

INDEX    623 

V 


Preface 


This  chronology  is  designed  to  collect  in  preliminary  form  pertinent  in- 
formation on  aeronautical  and  space  affairs.  Future  historical  research 
and  narratives  will  of  course  deepen  the  process  of  documentation  and 
enrich  perspective  on  the  high  velocity  of  contemporary  science  and  tech- 
nology, as  well  as  their  impact  and  implications.  The  volume  was  pre- 
pared from  open  public  sources  to  provide  a  reference  for  future  historians 
and  other  analysts,  scholars,  students,  and  writers.  Its  detailed  index  was 
intended  to  provide  ready  access  to  most  specialized  needs. 

The  entire  NASA  Historical  Staff  in  Headquarters  participated  in  source 
collection,  review,  and  publication.  The  Science  and  Technology  Division 
of  the  Library  of  Congress  was  responsible  for  drafting  of  the  text  proper, 
in  the  persons  of  Miss  Lynn  Catoe,  Mrs.  Anne  Horton,  and  Miss  Shirley 
Medley.  The  index  was  prepared  by  Arthur  G.  Renstrom,  also  of  the  Li- 
brary of  Congress.  General  editor  of  the  entire  Astronautics  and  Aeronau- 
tics, 1965  project  was  Dr.  Frank  W.  Anderson,  Jr.,  Deputy  NASA  Historian; 
Mrs.  Helen  T.  Wells  was  technical  editor.  Lloyd  Robbins  and  Creston 
Whiting  (atss-t)  provided  timely  translations  of  Russian  materials.  His- 
torians and  historical  monitors  throughout  NASA  contributed  useful  inputs: 
validation  was  the  constant  concern  of  many  busy  persons  throughout  NASA. 

Appendix  A,  "Satellites,  Space  Probes,  and  Manned  Space  Flights- 19'65," 
and  Appendix  B,  "Major  NASA  Launchings,  1965,"  were  prepared  by  Dr. 
Anderson.  Appendix  C,  "Summary  Chronology  of  Manned  Space  Flights, 
1961-1965,"  was  prepared  by  William  D.  Putnam,  Assistant  NASA  Historian 
for  Manned  Space  Flight.  Mrs.  Weils  prepared  Appendix  D,  "Abbrevia- 
tions of  References." 

This  preliminary  chronicle  is  but  a  first  step  in  the  historical  process  of 
documenting  the  dynamic  and  complex  events  of  space  exploration  and 
exploitation.  Comments,  additions,  and  criticism  are  welcomed  at  any 
time. 

Eugene  M.  Emme 
NASA  Historian  (EPH) 
Office  of  Policy  Analysis 

VII 


1 


January    1965 


January  1:  Operation  of  syncom  ii  and  syncom  ill  communications  satel- 
lites was  transferred  to  DOD  by  NASA,  which  had  completed  its  R&D  ex- 
periments. Telemetry  and  command  stations  and  range  and  range- 
rate  equipment  operated  by  NASA  for  the  Syncom  program  would  be 
transferred  to  dod  along  with  the  satellites.  DOD  had  furnished  the 
communications  ground  stations  used  to  relay  transmissions  via  the 
two  Syncoms  for  the  past  two  years  and  would  provide  NASA  with  cer- 
tain telemetry  and  ranging  data  of  continuing  scientific  and  engineer- 
ing interest,  syncom  ill  was  to  prove  useful  in  dod's  Vietnam  com- 
munications.     (NASA  Release  65-5) 

•  About  500  employees  of  the  Manned  Spacecraft  Center's  Florida  Opera- 

tions were  transferred  to  the  Kennedy  Space  Center,  effective  today, 
under  a  realignment  announced  Dec.  24.  1964,  by  NASA  Hq.  Elements 
of  the  manned  space  flight  organization  were  regrouped  to  meet  the 
requirements  imposed  by  concurrent  Gemini  and  Apollo  launch  sched- 
ules,     (msc  Roundup,  1/6/65,  1) 

•  Two  hrs.  and  20  min.  of  radio  signals  from  Jupiter  were  received  around 

midnight  New  Year's  Eve  as  predicted  by  George  A.  Dulk  of  the  Univ. 
of  Colorado.  The  signals  were  received  at  the  Altitude  Observatory  of 
the  National  Center  for  Atmospheric  Research  at  Boulder,  which  had 
kept  its  radiotelescope  operating  for  the  event.  (Osmundsen,  NYT, 
1/2/65,  1) 
January  2:  NASA  had  compromised  the  scientific  value  of  the  interplanetary 
research  program  by  spending  too  little  on  the  Deep  Space  Net  com- 
munications system,  according  to  Frank  Drake,  prof,  at  Cornell  Univ., 
in  Saturday  Revieiv  article.  Drake  noted  that  mariner  iv  would  only 
be  able  to  relay  22  photos  of  Mars  back  to  earth  and  that  these  would 
be  of  lesser  quality — all  because  of  communications  limitations:  ".  .  . 
one  concludes  that  the  space  program  could  well  use  an  array  con- 
taining a  hundred  or  more  85-ft.  antennas.  One  array  might  cost 
S40.000,000,  still  only  a  few  per  cent  of  what  will  almost  certainly  be 
spent  on  planetary  exploration  in  the  next  ten  years."      iSR,  1/2/65) 

•  Soviet  cosmonaut  Col.  Vladimir  Komarov.  who  commanded  the  three- 

man  spacecraft  voskhod  I  on  its  orbital  flight,  told  a  Havana  news- 
paper: "I  believe  I  will  take  part  in  a  similar  trip — if  not  to  the  moon, 
then  to  another  place."  Komarov  was  a  member  of  the  Soviet  delega- 
tion in  Havana  for  celebration  of  the  sixth  anniversary  of  Fidel  Castro  s 
revolution.  {New  Orleans  Times-Picayune,  1/3/65;  AP,  Hartford 
Courant,  1/3/65) 


2  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

January  2:  Bell  Telephone  Laboratories,  Inc.,  received  the  first  patent  for 
a  satellite  communication  system  with  its  own  orbit  pattern.  The  satel- 
lite would  linger  for  a  considerable  period  over  each  of  two  widely 
separated  areas;  while  hovering  virtually  stationary,  it  could  relay 
television  and  radio  programs  within  its  range,  and  also  store  programs 
from  one  area  to  play  later  on  the  other  side  of  the  globe.  (Jones, 
NYT,  1/2/65;  Chic.  Trib.,  1/3/65) 

•  U.K.  was  said  to  be  considering  the  possibility  of  a  licensing  agreement 

with  the  U.S.  that  would  enable  British  manufacturers  to  make  parts  of 
late-model  aircraft  produced  in  the  U.S.  American  planes  under  con- 
sideration were:  McDonnell  Aircraft  Corp's  f4c  (Phantom  ii)  carrier- 
based  attack  aircraft;  F-111  low-level  strike  aircraft  made  by  General 
Dynamics  Corp.  and  Grumman;  and  c-141  and  Orion,  both  made  by 
Lockheed  Aircraft  Corp.  ( Farnsworth,  NYT,  1/3/65,  13 ) 
January  3:  mariner  iv  changed  the  rate  of  sending  scientific  data  from  33^/3 
to  81/^  bits  of  information  per  second  by  an  automatic  switching  op- 
eration. This  was  the  first  command  initiated  by  the  spacecraft  itself 
since  it  performed  its  mid-course  maneuver  Dec.  5.  mariner  iv  had 
traveled  nearly  63  million  miles  in  its  325-million-mile  flight  to  Mars; 
the  straight-line  distance  between  earth  and  the  spacecraft  was  6,156,- 
704  miles.  Systems  were  operating  normally  after  36  days  in  space. 
(NASA  Release  65-4) 

•  More  than   50   million   Europeans — including   viewers   behind   the   Iron 

Curtain — had  received  same-day  transmission  of  the  Tokyo  Olympic 
Games  via  U.S.  satellites  syncom  hi  and  relay  I  last  October,  nasa 
announced.      (  nasa  Release  65-2 ) 

•  Japan's  Ministry  of  Telecommunications  said  signals  from  what  they  had 

thought  a  new  Soviet  satellite  turned  out  to  be  Italian-U.S.  san  marco 
I.  launched  Dec.  15,  1964.  (ap,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  1/2/65;  AP,  Wash. 
Sun.  Star,  1/3/65) 

•  Dr.    Albert   J.    Kelley,    Deputy    Director   of   NASA    Electronics    Research 

Center,  said  in  an  article  in  Boston  Sunday  Globe:  "The  need  for 
increased  electronics  research  to  develop  devices  which  will  meet  the 
demands  and  rigors  of  long  space  flights  wiU  affect  our  industrial 
outlook  and  economy  in  many  ways.  By  requiring  a  'new  look'  at 
electronics,  NASA,  led  by  ERC,  will  provide  a  research  emphasis  such  as 
we  have  not  had  since  World  War  II  when  the  golden  age  of  electronics 
started. 

"We  have  been  in  the  'rocket  phase'  and  are  now  entering  the  'elec- 
tronic phase'  of  space  flight  development,  a  phase  which  will  affect  us 
dramatically  over  many  years."      (Boston  Sun.  Globe,  1/3/65) 

•  British  designers  had  perfected  a  miniature  rocket  costing  only  $2,240 

per  copy,  it  was  reported.  Nine  ft.  in  length  with  a  7l/i>-in,  diameter, 
the  rocket  would  use  solid  fuel  and  reach  a  speed  of  3,500  mph. 
sending  the  casing  containing  scientific  instruments  to  maximum 
altitude  of  80  mi.  plus.      ( AP,  Kansas  City  Times,  1/4/65) 

•  Scientists  concluded  that  explosions   and   resultant  earth-craters  created 

by  giant  meteorites  bore  a  striking  similarity  to  the  effect  produced  by 
the  larger  nuclear  weapons;  hence  a  meteorite  fall  might  be  mistaken 
for  a  nuclear  explosion.  Opinions  varied  as  to  the  size  of  the  body 
that  could  couge  a  crater  as  large  as  the  Meteor  Crater  of  Arizona — 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  3 

anywhere  from  30.000  tons  to  2.6  million  tons,  with  an  explosive  force 
of  20  million  tons  of  TNT.  Both  the  size  of  the  meteorite  and  its 
velocity  on  impact  would  be  factors  in  producing  a  crater.  ( Sullivan, 
NYT,  i  3  65,  6E ) 
January  3:  Semyon  A.  Kosberg,  61,  one  of  the  Soviet  Union's  leading  de- 
signers of  airplane  engines,  was  killed  in  an  automobile  accident.  He 
had  been  given  the  title  "Hero  of  Socialist  Labor"  and  had  won  a  Lenin 
prize  for  his  designs.      {NYT,  L'5/65,  12) 

•  Writing    in    Pravda,    I.    Akulinichev,    Dr.    of    Medical    Sciences,    said: 

".  .  .  Of  course,  the  question  of  lunar  laboratories  is  now  only 
at  the  level  of  scientific  planning.  ...  To  bring  this  possibility  closer 
to  our  times,  it  is  necessary  to  accomplish  manned  flights  to  the  region 
of  the  Moon.  Further,  we  need  to  solve  reliably  the  question  of  meth- 
ods to  use  for  a  successful  lunar  landing  of  a  spacecraft  and  the  return 
of  the  cosmonauts  to  Earth.  In  my  view,  the  first  lunar  laboratories 
will  initially  study  the  possibilities  of  the  prolonged  sojourn  of  man  on 
the  Moon.  Scientists  will  investigate  ways  of  using  the  lunar  condi- 
tions for  assisting  the  normal  life  activity  of  people.  .  .  .  Finally,  the 
scientists  will  study  the  conditions  of  orientation  on  the  Moon  and  the 
possibilities  of  the  navigation  of  interplanetary  spacecraft." 

In  the  same  issue  of  Pravda,  Soviet  Academician  B.  Konstantinov 
wrote:  "In  this  New  Year's  article,  I  wish  to  dwell  on  the  possibility  of 
international  cooperation  in  the  use  of  solar  energy.  .  .  .  What  ap- 
pears most  attractive  is  the  conversion  of  solar  energy  into  electrici- 
ty. In  the  foreseeable  future,  man  may  solve  this  problem;  along  with 
this,  it  is  conceivable  that  the  problems  of  controlling  the  weather  and 
climate  will  also  be  solved."  ( Pravda,  1/3/65,  4,  ATSS-T  Trans.) 
January  4:  Gemini  GT-3  spacecraft  arrived  at  NASA  Kennedy  Space  Center 
for  final  flight  preparations  before  the  nation's  first  two-man  flight  this 
spring.      ( KSC  Release  3-65 ) 

•  According  to  Dr.  Harold  B.  Finger,  Manager  of  aec-NASA  Space  Nuclear 

Propulsion  Office  (snpo),  nasa  would  not  spend  any  further  funds  on 
Project  Orion  (nuclear-pulse  propulsion  project).  The  decision  was 
based  on  the  fact  that  such  a  system  could  not  be  used  while  the  nuclear 
test  ban  treaty  was  in  effect.  In  addition,  NASA  felt  there  were  more 
urgent  projects  on  which  to  spend  the  money.      (M&R,  1/4/65,  9) 

•  Dr.  Barry  Commoner,  professor  of  plant  physiology  at  Washington  Univ. 

in  St.  Louis  and  chairman  of  the  aaas  Committee  on  Science  in  the 
Promotion  of  Human  Welfare,  told  Aviation  Week  and  Space  Tech- 
nology that  the  question  of  the  probability  of  finding  life  on  Mars  had 
not  been  "fully  and  fairly  aired,"  and  that  an  "overbalance  of  the 
positive  viewpoint  has  been  presented  to  Congress  and  the  public  by 
NASA  officials."  Dr.  Commoner  said  that  if  asked  his  views  on 
Voyager  as  a  tax-paying  citizen,  his  feeling  would  be  that  "the  value  of 
pursuing  a  program  to  find  life  on  Mars  at  this  time  is  not  worth  the 
$1.25  billion  to  be  invested  because  the  problem  of  finding  life  there 
has  not  been  adequately  explored."  He  had  made  similar  charges  in  a 
speech  at  the  aaas  meeting  last  December  in  Montreal. 

Dr.  Homer  E.  Newell,  NASA  Associate  Administrator  for  Space 
Science  and  Applications,  was  reported  by  Aviation  Week  and  Space 
Technology  as  listing  six  major  points  in  defending  NASA's  position 


4  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

regarding  Mars  exploration:  (1)  Numerous  competent  scientists  had 
said  there  was  little  liquid  water  on  Mars  and  that  the  planet  had 
a  dry,  dusty  surface  with  high  ultraviolet  radiation.  Changing  pat- 
terns on  the  planet  indicated  some  form  of  seasonal  change,  how- 
ever. (2)  With  the  evidence  at  hand,  it  was  not  possible  to  say  there 
was  life  on  Mars,  only  that  life  might  be  there.  (3)  If  there  were  life 
on  Mars  it  might  be  similar  to  basic  life  forms  on  earth.  (4)  The  only 
reasonable  approach  we  could  take  to  the  exploration  of  Mars  would 
be  to  make  sure  we  looked  for  life  before  the  planet  was  contaminated 
from  earth.  If  life  was  not  found  on  Mars,  it  still  would  be  valuable 
to  determine  how  far  the  planet's  chemical  processes  had  progressed 
toward  life  formation.  (5)  The  Voyager  program  had  not  been  sold 
to  Congress  on  the  basis  that  there  was  life  on  Mars.  It  has  been 
pointed  out  during  budget  hearings  that  there  might  not  be  life  on  the 
planet  but  nobody  could  responsibly  take  the  position  that  there 
wasn't.  Therefore,  the  early  emphasis  of  Project  Voyager  was  on 
bioscience.  (6)  The  Mars  exploration  was  part  of  an  overall  program 
to  explore  the  solar  system,  including  the  moon,  comets,  and  other 
planets.  Mars  happened  to  be  the  planet  NASA  was  focusing  its  at- 
tention on  because  it  would  be  in  the  optimum  launch  position  through 
the  mid-1970's.  (Av.  Wk,  1/4/65,  18) 
January  4:  Dr.  Gerard  P.  Kuiper,  director  of  the  Lunar  and  Planetary 
Laboratory  of  the  Univ.  of  Arizona  and  principal  scientific  investiga- 
tor on  the  Ranger  project,  replied  to  Robert  C.  Co  wen's  article,  "Was 
the  Ranger  Worth  the  Cost?",  which  appeared  in  the  Christian  Science 
Monitor  Nov.  18.  Mr.  Cowen  had  raised  four  principal  questions:  (1) 
Was  the  recent  ranger  vii  mission  scientifically  justifiable?  (2)  Was 
it  well  planned  and  executed?  (3)  Were  the  results  up  to  expecta- 
tions? (4)  Where  do  we  go  from  here?  Dr.  Kuiper  said  in  letter  to 
CSM:  "Ranger  was  the  U.S.  pioneering  program  of  deep-space  research 
and  accomplished  much  more  than  getting  the  4,300  lunar  photographs. 
It  established  the  worth  and  feasibility  of  the  'parking  orbit'  and  other 
concepts  of  space  ballistics,  power  supply,  and  communication,  as  well 
as  preparation  for  Mars  and  Venus  probes.  .  .  .  The  cost  of  the  4,300 
lunar  records  is  therefore  not  the  full  $270  million  (which  moreover 
includes  Rangers  viii  and  ix,  not  yet  flown)  but,  say,  S50-$100  mil- 
lion. No  ground-based  effort,  even  with  the  300-400-inch  telescope 
costing  over  $100  million,  would,  even  in  the  absence  of  our  disturbing 
atmosphere,  have  yielded  100th  of  the  magnification  (resolution)  ob- 
tained in  Ranger  vii.  I  definitely  know  of  no  better  and  cheaper  way 
to  get  high-resolution  photographs.  .  .  ." 

In  a  reply  to  Dr.  Kuiper,  Mr.  Cowen  quoted  from  a  letter  by  Dr. 
Andrew  T.  Young  of  Harvard  College  Observatory  and  published  in 
Science:  ".  .  .  It  is  clear  that  there  are  some  things  that  can  only  be 
learned  above  the  atmosphere,  and  it  is  important  that  we  have  a 
program  directed  at  learning  them.  .  .  .  [But]  many  things  that  can 
be  learned  from  above  the  atmosphere  can  also  be  learned,  much  more 
cheaply,  by  ground-based  techniques.  For  example,  some  of  the  most 
convincing  evidence  for  life  on  Mars  is  based  on  a  few  hours  of  twi- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  5 

light  observations  with  the  200-inch  telescope.  .  .  .  But  the  200-inch 
telescope  has  been  available  for  planetary  research  only  a  few  times, 
generally  during  daylight  or  twilight.  .  .  .  Rocket-borne  research  in- 
volves many  costly  failures,  but  a  duplicate  200-inch  telescope  could 
easilv  be  built  and  staffed  for  the  $28  million  that  Ranger  7  alone 
cost.\  .  ."  (C5M,  1/4/65) 
January  4:  Gen.  Bernard  A.  Schriever  (usaf)  announced  the  activation  of 
the  Contract  Management  Div..  Air  Force  Systems  Command  (afsc), 
under  the  command  of  Col.  Fred  L.  Rennels,  Jr.  (usaf).  Located  at 
Los  Angeles  Air  Force  Station,  the  new  division  would  be  responsible 
for  DOD  contract  management  activities  in  those  plants  assigned  to  the 
Air  Force  under  the  DOD  National  Plant  Cognizance  program,  (afsc 
Release  6L64) 

•  USAF    announced    that    Electro-Optical    Systems,    Inc.,    was    receiving    a 

$1,056,700  final  increment  to  an  existing  contract  for  production  of 
ion  thrustor  systems  for  orbital  flight,      (dod  Release  917-65) 

•  Col.  John  H.  Glenn,  Jr.,  former  NASA  astronaut  and  first  American  to 

orbit  the  earth,  retired  from  the  Marine  Corps  after  22  yrs.  in  the 
service.  Glenn  said  he  would  spend  much  of  his  time  as  a  consultant 
to  NASA.  He  would  also  be  a  director  of  Royal  Crown  Cola  Co.  (dod 
Release  912-64;  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  1/4/65;  Wash.  Post,  1/5/65;  Bait. 
Sun,  1/5/65;  Chic.  Trih.,  1/5/65) 
January  5:  NASA  announced  plans  to  negotiate  with  Lockheed  Missile  and 
Space  Co.  to  modify  five  Agena  D  second-stage  launch  vehicles  for  use 
in  Lunar  Orbiter  missions.  Modifications  under  the  incentive  con- 
tract would  include  vehicle  engineering  support;  systems  testing;  over- 
all system  integration  functions;  shroud,  adapter  and  interface  co- 
ordination; and  design  fabrication  of  ground  equipment.  The  Lunar 
Orbiter  program  would  secure  topography  data  of  the  moon's  surface 
to  extend  scientific  knowledge  and  to  help  select  and  confirm  landing 
sites  for  the  Apollo  manned  moon  landings,      (nasa  Release  65-6) 

•  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  had  received  an  estimated  1,351  appli- 

cations or  letters  of  interest  relating  to  the  scientist-astronaut  program. 
The  deadline  for  filing  applications  had  been  Dec.  31,  1964.  {Houston 
Post,  1/5/65) 

•  J.   Stalony-Dobrazanski   of  the  Northrop   Corp.   reported   at  aiaa  meet- 

ing in  New  York  that  spaceships  could  be  kept  cool  automatically 
during  reentry  by  a  new  guidance  system.  Network  of  supersensitive 
thermometers  imbedded  in  the  outer  skin  of  the  spacecraft  would 
monitor  the  temperature,  then  computer  would  order  correction  in  vehi- 
cle's trajectory  or  orientation  if  friction  of  the  atmosphere  raised  skin 
temperature  above  a  certain  point.      (Wash.  Daily  News,  1/26/65) 

•  Western  Electric  Company  had  received  a  $90,644,200  modification  to 

an  existing  cost-plus-incentive-fee  contract  for  research  and  develop- 
ment of  Nike-X  missile  system,  dod  announced,      (dod  Release  3-65) 

•  Federal  Aviation  Agency  (faa)  announced  completion  of  the  new  Federal 

Aviation  Regulations  (fars) — a  simplification  of  rules  governing  the 
Nation's  pilots,  airlines,  and  airplane  manufacturers.  Number  of  regu- 
lations was  reduced  from  125  to  55.      (faa  Release  65-2) 


6  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

January  5:  In  a  television  interview,  Israeli  Premier  Levi  Eshkol  urged 
West  Germans  to  end  the  activity  of  German  rocket  experts  in  the 
United  Arab  Republic,  said  that  these  experts  were  helping  the  Arabs 
to  prepare  a  war  against  Israel.  The  West  German  government  had 
officially  deplored  the  participation  of  German  scientists  and  military 
experts  in  Arab  rocket  projects,  but  had  not  interfered  on  the  grounds 
that  the  group  was  composed  of  private  citizens  who,  according  to  the 
German  Constitution,  could  work  where  they  pleased.  German  rocket 
expert  Prof.  Wolfgang  Pilz,  leader  of  Germans  working  for  the  U.A.R., 
spoke  in  an  interview  of  the  pressure  brought  to  bear  by  the  Israeli 
Government,  particularly  the  terrorist  tactics  of  Israeli  secret  agents 
which  made  it  necessary  for  Germans  to  be  accompanied  by  body 
guards  at  all  times.      (NYT,  1/7/65,  5;  Buchalla,  NYT,  1/8/65,  1) 

January  6:  NASA  Nike- Apache  sounding  rocket  reached  a  peak  altitude  of 
91.1  mi.  from  Wallops  Island,  Va.  Purpose  was  to  simultaneously 
measure  the  altitude  of  sodium  airglow  with  sodium  vapor  and  inter- 
ference filters  and  determine  atmospheric  density  with  a  26-in.,  metal- 
lized, inflated  mylar  sphere,      (nasa  Rpt.  srl) 

•  F-111a  was  flown  successfully  for  the  second  time  from  Carswell  afb, 

Tex.  Flight  data:  maximum  altitude,  27,000  ft.;  maximum  speed,  400 
knots  (460  mph)  ;  flight  time,  1  hr.  and  2  min.  General  Dynamics  test 
pilots  Richard  L.  Johnson  and  Val  E.  Prahl  conducted  stability  and 
control  tests  at  10,000  and  20,000  ft.,  operating  the  wing  sweep  mecha- 
nism from  16°  takeoff  position  to  26°  position,  then  43°,  back  to  40° 
to  make  sure  the  system  worked,  and  finally  to  full-swept  72.5° 
position.  This  was  the  first  time  that  wing  position  was  varied  in  the 
flight  of  a  military  aircraft.  The  major  test  objective  of  the  flight  was 
accomplished — 10  min.  of  flight  with  wings  fuUy  aft.  Flight  plans 
calling  for  an  evaluation  of  stability  at  30,000  ft.  were  called  off  be- 
cause fuel  flow  and  temperature  in  one  of  the  two  jet  engines  appeared 
to  be  outside  normal  limits,  but  this  involved  no  reduction  in  flight 
time.  General  Dynamics  reportedly  would  receive  a  bonus  amounting 
to  more  than  $800,000  for  completing  this  milestone  flight  24  days 
ahead  of  schedule.  (Thomis,  Chic.  Trib.,  1/7/65;  Witkin,  NYT, 
1/7/65,  1;  Av.  JVk.,  1/11/65,  19) 

•  Air  Force  Secretary  Eugene  M.  Zuckert  placed  further  restrictions  on 

simulated  bombing  missions  of  B-58  Hustlers  over  Chicago:  the  super- 
sonic bombers  would  fly  at  higher  altitudes  (48,000-49,000  ft.  instead 
of  41,000-44,000-ft.  range  originafly  programed)  to  reduce  impacts 
of  sonic  booms;  flights  would  be  canceled  during  bad  weather.  It  had 
been  announced  earlier  that  the  number  of  training  missions  per  day 
would  be  reduced  from  a  maximum  of  four  to  two.  {Chic.  Trib., 
1/7/65) 

•  Federal  Aviation  Agency  Administrator  Najeeb  E.  Halaby  proposed  that 

a  10-day  international  aerospace  and  science  exposition  be  held  at  the 
Dulles  International  Airport  in  June  1966.  Purpose  of  the  exposition 
would  be  to  stimulate  aerospace  exports.      {NYT,  1/8/65,  10) 

•  Indonesian  Air  Vice  Admiral  Budiardjo,  deputy  air  force  chief  for  logis- 

tics, claimed  that  Indonesia  had  begun  surveys  for  space  flights  and 
would  be  able  to  launch  its  first  astronaut  by  1968.  (ap,  Wash.  Post., 
1/7/65,  A13) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  7 

January  7 :  mariner  iv  was  70  million  mi.  on  its  325-million-mi.  flight  to 
Mars  after  40  days  in  space.  All  systems  were  operating  normally 
(AP,  ?h\\.Eve.  Bull,  1/7/65) 

•  Dr.  William  A.  Lee  of  nasa  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  announced  new- 

launch  schedule  for  Saturn  IB  and  Saturn  V:  1966,  three  unmanned 
and  one  manned  launches  of  Saturn  IB;  1967,  two  unmanned  Saturn 
V  launches,  one  manned  Saturn  IB,  Lem  test  with  Saturn  IB,  one 
manned  flight  with  complete  Apollo  spacecraft,  using  Saturn  IB,  and 
one  manned  flight  using  either  Saturn  IB  or  Saturn  V,  whichever  was 
farthest  along  in  development:  1968,  a  dress  rehearsal  for  the  lunar 
mission  in  earth  orbit  for  one  week  with  astronauts  partici- 
pating. "Then  the  moon."  said  Dr.  Lee.  "We  have  a  fighting  chance 
to  make  it  by  1970  and  also  stay  within  the  $20  billion  price  tag  set 
for  the  mission  bv  former  President  Kennedy."  (ap,  Wash.  Eve.  Star, 
1/7/65) 

•  NASA    Administrator    James    E.    Webb    swore    in    R.    Walter    Riehlman, 

former  Republican  member  of  the  House  of  Representatives  from  New 
York's  34th  District  (Syracuse)  as  a  consultant  on  policy 
matters.      ( NASA  Release  65-9 ) 

•  ComSatCorp  asked  nine  foreign  companies  to  propose  studies  of  launch 

vehicles  for  medium  altitude  communications  satellites  in  addition  to 
the  16  American  companies  approached  a  month  ago.  The  deadline 
for  submitting  proposals  was  extended  from  Jan.  11  to  Feb.  1.  (Com- 
SatCorp) 

•  AEC  report  said  that  nuclear  fuel  aboard  a  spacecraft  which  failed  to 

go  into  orbit  last  April  21  had  burned  up  harmlessly  at  high  altitude. 
This  was  a  reply  to  Russian  and  other  critics  who  had  accused  the 
U.S.  of  causing  radiation  hazards  by  putting  atomic  generators  aboard 
spacecraft.  The  generator  involved  was  a  Snap-9A  aboard  a  Navy 
navigation  satellite  launched  from  Vandenberg  afb,  Calif.  (UPI,  Phil. 
Eve.  Bull,  1/8/65) 

•  Sen.   Leverett  Sahonstall    (R. — Mass.)    introduced  in  the   Senate   a  bill 

designed  to  set  aside  March  16  of  every  year  in  honor  of  Dr. 
Robert  H.  Goddard,  "the  father  of  modern  rocketry."  The  bill  was 
referred  to  the  Committee  on  the  Judiciary.      (CR,  1/7/65,  283) 

•  Vice  Adm.  H.  G.  Rickover    (USN)    spoke  before  the  Publishers'  Lunch 

Club  of  New  York.  In  his  speech  Admiral  Rickover  said:  "How  to 
resolve  the  antithesis  between  technology  and  individual  liberty;  how 
to  insure  that  technology  will  be  beneficial,  not  harmful,  to  man,  to 
society,  and  to  our  democratic  institutions — this,  I  would  say,  is  a 
public  question.  I  raise  it  here  because  I  believe  the  members  of 
this  audience  are  particularly  well  qualified  to  explore  this 
problem.  In  your  business  the  conflict  between  technology  and  liberty 
— so  prevalent  everywhere  else  in  our  society — is  muted,  if  not  absent 
altogether. 

"Improvements  in  the  mechanics  of  producing  and  selHng  books 
have  not  diminished  the  importance  of  the  author.  Your  success  stiU 
depends  on  him.  He  cannot  be  rendered  obsolete  by 
automation.  The  human  factor  therefore  continues  to  outweigh  the 
technical.  As  in  the  past,  your  main  function  is  to  discover  talent  and 
help  bring  it  to  fruition.     You  know  that  liberty  enhances  creativity, 


8  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

that  men  with  a  special  competence  must  be  allowed  to  follow  their 
own  judgment.   .   .   . 

"How  to  make  technology  most  useful  to  ourselves  and  our  society, 
yet  prevent  it  from  controlling  our  lives — that  is  the  problem.  The 
problem  is  aggravated  by  the  bureau-cratization  of  American  life,  itself 
largely  a  result  of  technology."  (Text,  CR,  1/29/65,  1522-24) 
January  7:  USAF  announced  that  AFSC  Space  Systems  Div.  had  awarded  a 
$1,783,500  increment  to  an  existing  contract  for  procurement  of  stand- 
ard launch  vehicle  boosters  to  Douglas  Aircraft  Co.,  Inc.  (dod  Re- 
lease 8-65) 

•  Britain  would  go   ahead  with  the  $880-million   U.K. -France  project  to 

build  the  Concorde  supersonic  airliner,  according  to  the  London  Daily 
Express.  Two  Concorde  prototypes,  and  possibly  as  many  as  six, 
would  be  built  with  work  shared  by  the  British  Aircraft  Corp.  and 
France's  Sud  Aviation.  There  had  been  no  official  French  response 
to  British  Labor  government's  proposal  that  the  Concorde  project  be 
cut  back,  but  French  government  as  well  as  British  union  leaders  were 
said  to  be  hostile  to  the  proposed  "review."  (ap,  Wash.  Eve.  Star, 
1/7/65;  Av.  Wk.,  1/11/65,  32) 

•  Julius  E.   Kuczma,   executive  secretary  of  the   U.S.   Labor-Management 

Government  Commission,  said  his  group  had  decided  to  hold  a  hearing 
and  take  any  steps  necessary  to  resolve  the  labor  dispute  that  had 
halted  construction  work  at  Cape  Kennedy  last  month.  (UPI,  Orl. 
Sen.,  1/8/65) 
January  8:  faa  announced  that  contracts  for  industry  study  in  the  super- 
sonic transport  program  had  been  extended  an  additional  two  months. 
(AP,  Bah.  Sun,  1/9/65) 

•  Dr.  Richard  Shorthill  of  Boeing  Scientific  Research  Laboratories  report- 

ed that  from  400  to  800  "hot  spots"  were  observed  on  the  moon  dur- 
ing the  eclipse  of  December  18,  1964.  The  lunar  face  had  been 
scanned  at  infrared  wavelengths  from  the  Helwan  Observatory  near 
Cairo,  Egypt.  Recent  impacts  from  meteors,  which  would  create 
rocky  craters  slower  to  cool  after  the  sunlight  was  obscured,  might 
account  for  the  "hot  spots."  It  was  already  known  that  prominent 
craters  from  which  rays  radiated  in  all  directions,  such  as  Tycho,  were 
slow  to  cool,  compared  to  the  normal  surface,  which  was  thought  to  be 
carpeted  with  dust.  While  the  total  number  of  slow-cooling  locations 
would  remain  uncertain  until  the  tape-recorded  results  had  been  plot- 
ted by  computer.  Dr.  Shorthill  felt  that  if  the  technique  produced  an 
inventory  of  young  craters,  it  would  help  in  spotting  new  ones  when 
they  occurred  and  in  estimating  the  rate  at  which  the  moon  and  the 
earth  were  bombarded  by  debris  from  space.  (Sullivan,  NYT, 
1/9/65) 

•  Application  for  patents  on  a  recoverable  single-stage  spacecraft  booster 

was  filed  with  the  U.S.  Patent  Office  by  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight 
Center.  Invented  by  Philip  Bono,  a  space  engineer  at  Douglas  Missile 
and  Space  Systems  Div.,  the  booster  was  called  Rombus  (Reusable 
Orbital  Module — Booster  and  Utility  Shuttle)  and  would  have  the  ca- 
pability of  placing  approximately  1  million  lb.  in  circular  orbit  175  mi. 
high   and   could   be   reused   20   times.     Rombus   would   have   its   own 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  9 

propulsion  for  orbiting,  deorbiting,  and  landing  retrothrust,  would  em- 
ploy eight  strap-on,  jettisonable  liquid  hydrogen  fuel  tanks.  The  vehi- 
cle resulted  from  a  NASA-funded  study  but  was  not  presently  being 
developed.  (Marshall  Star,  1/13/65,  1-2;  Seattle  Post-Intelligence, 
1/8/65) 
January  9:  At  Vatican  City,  Pope  Paul  vi  saw  a  movie  made  up  of  photos 
taken  by  ranger  vii  as  it  neared  the  moon.  NASA  Associate  Ad- 
ministrator Robert  Seamans,  Jr.,  in  Europe  on  other  business,  and 
NASA  European  representative,  Gilbert  W.  Ousley,  were  received  by  the 
Pope,  showed  him  the  movie,  and  answered  his  questions.  {N.Y.  Her- 
ald Trib.,  1/11/65;  AP,  Bait.  Sun.,  1/11/65) 

•  Dr.  Eric  Ogden,  Chief  of  the  Environmental  Biology  Division  at  NASA 

Ames  Research  Center,  was  recipient  of  a  Research  Committee  Citation 
presented  by  the  American  Heart  Association  in  New  York.  His  work 
for  the  Heart  Association  had  been  primarily  in  planning  and  evaluat- 
ing heart  research  projects,      (arc  Release  65-1) 

•  Tass  announced  that  the  Soviet  Union  would  launch  new  types  of  space 

rockets  into  the  Pacific  Ocean  from  Jan.  11  until  Mar.  1  to  gather 
experimental  data,  and  had  asked  other  governments  using  sea  or  air 
routes  in  the  Pacific  to  make  arrangements  for  ships  and  aircraft 
not  to  enter  the  impact  area  between  noon  and  midnight  during  the 
launching  period.  The  carrier  rockets  would  be  fired  to  a  point 
within  a  radius  of  74  mi.  from  a  center  with  coordinates  of  1.58° 
north  latitude  and  164.17°  west  longitude.  (Reuters,  NYT,  1/10/65; 
Tass,  Izvestia,  1/12/65,  4,  atss-t  Trans.) 

•  Working  on  the  assumption  that  a  leveling  off  of  defense  expenditures  in 

the  Federal  budget  would  be  accompanied  by  diversion  of  some  defense 
funds  for  other  public  needs,  California  was  taking  steps  to  find  new 
customers  for  its  aerospace  industries.  37  per  cent  of  California's 
manufacturing  industry  was  concentrated  in  ordnance,  aircraft,  elec- 
trical, and  instrument  production,  all  of  which,  according  to  Gov. 
Edmund  G.  Brown,  would  be  vulnerable  to  cutbacks  and  phaseouts 
in  the  Government's  space  and  defense  programs.  The  state  was  pre- 
pared to  finance  study  contracts  in  four  major  problem  areas:  waste 
management,  data  collection,  care  of  the  mentally  and  criminally  ill, 
and  transportation  systems.  Aerojet-General  Corp.  had  already  signed 
a  six-month.  $100,000  contract  to  develop  long-range  state  plans  to 
manage  all  kinds  of  waste,  including  air  and  water  pollution.  (Davies, 
NYT,  1/10/65,  12) 

•  Univ.  of  Louisville  would  be  the  first  engineering  school  in  the  U.S.  to 

have  installed  an  electric  system  linking  its  computers  with  all  labora- 
tories and  classrooms  in  its  Speed  Scientific  School.  Students  work- 
ing on  experiments  would  signal  measurements  directly  to  a  computer 
for  immediate  calculation  and  correlation.  Experiments  could  be 
shown  on  closed  circuit  TV.  Eventually  the  computers  would  be  pro- 
gramed to  direct  experiments  by  automatically  changing  temperatures, 
mixtures,  pressure  rates,  or  liquid  flows.  [NYT,  1/10/65,  44) 
January  10:  NASA  signed  a  one-year  S70,000  contract  with  Flight  Safety 
Foundation  to  report  and  evaluate  research  and  development  projects 
and  events  related  to  rough  air  in  the  atmosphere.  The  study  would 
be  conducted  from  FSF  Offices  in  New  York  City,  Phoenix,  Ariz.,  and 
Los  Angeles,      (nasa  Release  65-10) 


10  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

January  10:  In  an  article  entitled  "The  Pentagon,  the  'Madmen,'  and  the 
Moon,"  Maj.  Gen.  of  the  Soviet  Air  Force  B.  Teplinskiy  said:  "Sober 
voices  in  the  United  States  call  for  collaboration  with  the  U.S.S.R.  in 
space  research.  The  Saturday  Evening  Post  said:  'When  we  reach  the 
moon  and  the  stars,  we  shall  find  the  solutions  to  the  most  profound 
secrets  of  the  universe.  How  much  more  easily  accessible  all  this 
would  be  if  we  would  fly  there  together.' 

"It  is  known  throughout  the  entire  world  that  the  lag  in  this  respect 
does  not  depend  on  the  Soviet  Union.  It  is  the  spiteful  policy  of  those 
U.S.  circles,  which  do  not  hide  their  military  space  plans,  which  consti- 
tute the  obstacle.  These  plans  are  widely  trumpeted  by  the  press, 
television,  and  radio.  Such  a  position  is  not  accidental.  On  the  one 
hand  it  allegedly  pursues  the  aim  of  enhancing  U.S.  prestige  while  it 
actually  is  aimed  at  blowing  up  the  psychosis  around  the  space  arma- 
ments race  and  at  trying  to  provoke  the  Soviet  Union  into  retalatory 
measures  or  to  intimidate  it  by  the  alleged  U.S.  possibilities.  A  naive 
scheme."      (Krasnaya  Zvezda,  1/10/65,  3) 

•  Data  from  solrad.  the  Naval  Research  Laboratory's  satellite  monitoring 

the  sun's  x-ray  behavior  during  the  1964^65  International  Years  of 
the  Quiet  Sun  (iQSYj,  indicated  that  the  sun  was  at  its  quietest  during 
May,  June,  and  July,  1964.  Information  from  solrad  also  suggested 
that  the  x-ray  region  of  the  corona,  instead  of  being  a  homogeneous 
region  of  a  million  miles  or  so,  was  a  series  of  small  cells  that  flared 
up  to  emit  hard  x-rays  and  then  decayed  rapidly.  What  was  seen  on 
earth  was  the  net  effect  of  many  knots  of  very  hot,  flashing  gas 
giving  the  appearance  of  a  homogeneous  region.  ( Simons.  Wash.  Post, 
1/11/65;  Hines,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  1/11/65;  M&R,  1/18/65) 

•  Eight  NASA  astronauts  began  geology  field  training  in  Hawaii,  where  they 

visited  lava  fields  of  Mauna  Loa  and  Kilauea,  active  volcanoes,  as  well 
as  upper  elevations  of  dormant  Mauna  Kea.  Geologists  believed  that 
these  shield  volcanoes  contained  features  similar  to  those  of  the  lunar 
surface. 

Study  emphasis  was  on  mechanics  of  lava  flow,  fissure  eruption, 
deep  lava  lakes;  examples  of  hot  and  cold  basaltic  flows;  physical 
composition  of  lava  rock;  and  topographic  forms  of  shield 
volcanoes.  Underfoot  textures  theorized  as  being  typical  of  lunar  ter- 
rain ranged  from  the  glassy  form  of  "pahoehoe"  lava,  through  the 
crusty  snow  effect  of  "aa"  lava,  to  the  sinking  feeling  of  loose  cinders 
and  pumice. 

The  study  was  conducted  by  Dr.  Ted  Foss,  head  of  the  Geology  and 
Geochemistry  Section  at  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center.  Astronauts 
were  Charles  Conrad,  Jr.,  Clifton  C.  Williams,  David  R.  Scott,  Edwin 
E.  Aldrin,  Jr.,  Alan  L.  Bean,  Donn  F.  Eisele,  Roger  Chaffee,  and  Ri- 
chard Gordon.  ( UPi,  Houston  Chron.,  1/11/65;  Bryan,  Houston 
Post,  1/14/65) 

•  U.S.  Chamber  of  Commerce  released  a  report  entitled  "Criteria  for  Fed- 

eral Support  of  Research  and  Development,"  which  proposed  the 
establishment  of  a  forum  for  debating  scientific  and  technical  issues 
(such  as  space  exploration  and  desalting  of  the  oceans)  before  they 
became  national  policy.  The  council,  to  be  composed  of  representa- 
tives of  industry,  labor,  the  Government,  and  the  academic  industry, 
would  investigate  the  inherent  worth  of  proposed  programs  and  their 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  H 

value  to  society  to  increase  public  understanding  of  issues  that  were 
usually  decided  by  the  Government  alone  and  debated  afterward. 
(Clark,  NYT,  1  11/65.  46) 
January  11:  Dr.  Edward  C.  Welsh,  Executive  Secretary  of  the  National 
Aeronautics  and  Space  Council,  said  before  the  New  York  Academy  of 
Sciences  that  '"scientists  should  not  set  themselves  up  to  judge  the 
overall  value"  of  the  national  space  program.  Past  advice  from  scien- 
tists had  not  always  been  sound  advice,  he  noted.  ".  .  .  Organized 
science  has  not  always  been  outstanding  for  its  courage,  its  vision,  or 
its  optimism  regarding  goals  for  human  efforts.  Elements  of  con- 
servatism, parochialism,  and  even  reactionary  thinking  do  appear 
among  scientists  just  as  they  do  among  many  other  groups  in  our 
society." 

Dr.  Welsh  was  also  critical  of  the  practice  of  criticizing  the  space 
program  "by  narrowly  comparing"  the  dollars  spent  for  space  with 
what  those  same  dollars  might  accomplish  "if  devoted  to  other  endeav- 
ors, scientific  or  otherwise."  He  said  that  often  such  dollars  were  not 
transferable;  that  space  dollars  might  change  the  general  climate  to 
one  favoring  broader  aid  to  the  whole  spectrum  of  science;  and  that 
since  space  expenditures  sought  broader  goals  than  those  of  science, 
"the  comparison  may  well  be  invalid  on  the  face  of  it." 

He  continued:  "The  visionaries,  whether  primarily  scientists  or  poli- 
cy makers,  must  be  given  the  opportunity  to  point  out  the  many 
benefits  which  can  flow  from  the  manned  and  unmanned  uses  of 
aerospace.  But,  given  such  opportunity,  they  should  use  it  effectively 
and  affirmatively.  Regardless  of  their  motivations,  the  pessimists  who 
cry  out  against  aerospace  research  and  technological  endeavors  have 
clearly  set  themselves  against  progress.  The  United  States  can  no 
longer  relax  and  rest  on  its  past  industrial  laurels.  The  race  for  sur- 
vival, literally  and  philosophically,  is  on.  Of  course,  we  would  all  like 
to  believe  in  the  solely  non-aggressive  uses  of  aerospace  by  all  coun- 
tries which  have  the  needed  technology.  However,  the  realities  of  life 
dictate  adequate  preparation  to  preserve  our  national  and  Free  World 
security.  We  should  follow  the  axiom  that  a  pound  of  prevention  is 
worth  mega-tons  of  cure." 

Howard  Simons  commented  in  the  W ashington  Post  that  these  re- 
marks were  probably  precipitated  by  a  report  from  a  committee  of  the 
American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science  which  had 
charged  that  social,  economic,  military,  and  political  pressures  were 
distorting  the  traditional  values  and  effectiveness  of  science.  The  re- 
port was  highly  critical  of  Project  Apollo:  "The  Apollo  program,  in  its 
present  form,  does  not  appear  to  be  based  on  the  orderly,  systematic 
extension  of  basic  scientific  investigation."  (Text,  CR,  1/28/65, 
A364-65;  Simons,  Wash.  Post,  1/12/65) 
•  NASA  announced  that  Launch  Complex  16  at  Cape  Kennedy  would  be 
modified  to  convert  the  former  Titan  missile  facility  into  static  test 
stands  for  the  Apollo  manned  lunar  spacecraft.  Construction  bids 
were  expected  to  be  opened  by  Army  Corps  of  Engineers,  late  this 
month.  The  modified  test  facility  would  replace  an  Apollo  static  test 
stand  originally  planned  for  the  NASA  Kennedy  Space  Center's  Merritt 
Island  facihty.     Officials  estimated  that  the  modification  of  Complex 


12  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

16  would  represent  a  cost  reduction  of  about  72  per  cent  under  the 
original  S7  million  construction  estimate  for  test  stands  on  Merritt 
Island.      (KSC  Release  7-65) 

January  11:  NASA  Langley  Research  Center  scientist  Windsor  L.  Sherman 
proposed  conversion  of  Project  Mercury  spacecraft  into  unmanned, 
recoverable  orbiting  telescope  platforms.  Equipment  would  include  a 
76-cm.  Cassegrainian  telescope,  a  camera  recording  system,  and  an 
attitude  control  system.  The  system  would  weigh  approximately 
4,700  lb.  and  would  be  aimed  for  a  300-mi.  orbit.  The  observatory 
would  remain  in  orbit  100-200  days,  exposing  four  frames  of  film  on 
each  orbit  for  a  total  of  6,000  frames.  After  all  film  was  exposed,  the 
system  would  be  braked  out  of  orbit  and  would  descend  into  the 
Bermuda  recovery  area  of  the  Eastern  Test  Range,  using  the  same  re- 
covery techniques  developed  for  the  manned  Mercury  landings.  In 
addition  to  its  capacity  to  perform  a  variety  of  such  astronomical  ob- 
servations as  high  resolution  photography,  photometry,  and  spectros- 
copy, Sherman  said,  the  recoverable  observatory  would  permit  reuse 
of  capsule,  optical,  and  control  systems.  It  would  allow  study  of 
space  effects  on  equipment,  and  the  system  could  serve  as  a  test  bed 
for  advanced  orbiting  telescopes.      (Av.  Wk.,  1/11/65,  23) 

•  Dr.  John  J.  Brennan,  Jr.,  Chairman  of  the  Committee  for  the  Preserva- 
tion of  Cambridge  Industries,  said  he  would  take  to  Washington  the 
committee's  fight  to  keep  the  NASA  Electronic  Research  Center  out  of 
Cambridge.  Dr.  Brennan  said  the  City  of  Cambridge's  claim  that  the 
renewal  project  would  cost  the  Federal  government  $15  million  was 
way  off.  He  said  costs  would  be  between  $40  million  and  $50 
million.  In  a  letter  to  the  House  and  Senate  Appropriations  Commit- 
tees and  the  House  and  Senate  space  committees,  Brennan  stated:  "We 
are  taking  every  proper  course  of  action,  legal  and  otherwise,  to  stop 
this  senseless  destruction.  .  .  .We  do  not  believe  that  the  overall  de- 
struction will  bear  judicial  scrutiny." 

Paul  Frank,  director  of  the  Cambridge  Urban  Redevelopment  Au- 
thority, said  Brennan's  figures  were  inaccurate  and  that  the  $40-$50 
million  figure  was  wrong.  He  claimed  the  overall  cost  would  bring  it 
down  to  $14,500,000.  Of  this  figure,  the  Federal  government  cost 
would  be  $9,600,000  with  the  remaining  $4,900,000  paid  by  the  City 
of  Cambridge,  he  asserted.      [Boston  Globe,  1/11/65) 

During  the  week  of  January  11:  Titan  III  program  director  Brig.  Gen. 
Joseph  S.  Bleymaier  (usaf)  said  at  a  meeting  of  the  New  York  Acad- 
emy of  Sciences  that  the  launch  of  the  Titan  Iii-A,  on  Dec.  10,  1964, 
may  have  gained  the  most  accurate  orbit  ever  achieved  in  the  U.S. 
space  program.  The  vehicle  achieved  an  orbit  with  102-n.  mi.  apo- 
gee and  a  99-n.  mi.  perigee  against  a  planned  100-n.  mi.  nominal 
orbital  altitude.  Deviation  from  a  true  circle  was  0.00075  against  a 
predicted  value  of  0.00050.  Time  for  a  single  orbit  was  88.2  min., 
within  0.04  min.  of  the  time  predicted.      [M&R,  1/18/65.  10) 

January  11:  U.S.S.R.  orbited  cosmos  lii  earth  satellite.  Orbital  data: 
apogee,  304  km.  (188.9  mi.);  perigee,  205  km.  (127.4  mi.);  period 
89.5  min.;  inclination  to  the  equator,  65°.  The  satellite  carried 
scientific  equipment  "for  the  further  investigation  of  outer  space 
in   accordance  with   the  program  announced  by  Tass  on   the   16th   of 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  13 

March,  1962."  (Tass.  Komsomolskaya  Pravda,  1/12/65,  1,  atss-t 
Trans. ) 
January  11:  North  American  Air  Defense  Command  (norad)  tracked  a 
new  Russian  satellite  ( COSMOS  Lii )  for  several  hours  before  Moscow 
announced  the  launching.  As  of  this  date,  norad's  space  detection  and 
tracking  system  was  observing  488  man-made  objects  in  space,  of 
which  29  were  actual  payload  satellites  and  the  rest  debris  from  pre- 
vious launchings.      (ap,  Bait.  Sun,  1   12/65) 

•  Arthur  D.  Little,  Inc..  released  a  54-page  study  entitled  "Strategies  for 

Survival  in  the  Aerospace  Industry,"  which  predicted  that  in  the  next 
five  years  the  production  portion  of  the  defense  budget  would  decline 
about  30  per  cent  and  research  and  development  would  decline  about 
15  per  cent.  The  report  recommended  that  "in  view  of  a  declining 
market  and  fewer  opportunities  within  the  market,  the  aerospace  in- 
dustry's principal  objective  within  the  next  few  years  should  be  to 
achieve  stability,  rather  than  to  search  for  growth  opportuni- 
ties."     (  Duggan,  N.Y.  Her.  Trib.,  1/12/65  I 

•  In  January,   Dr.   Donald   F.   Hornig  began  his  second   year  as  science 

adviser  to  President  Johnson  and  director  of  the  White  House  Office  of 
Science  and  Technology.  In  interview  he  mentioned  that  his  job  was 
created  to  prevent  a  recurrence  of  the  kind  of  official  surprise  that 
greeted  Russia's  launching  of  the  sputnik  I  on  Oct.  4,  1957.  Hornig 
said  the  policy  questions  that  he  encountered  were  not  ones  of  "right 
or  wrong,  but  wise  or  less  wise."      (Av.  Wk.,  1/11/65,  16) 

•  U.S.  Junior  Chamber  of  Commerce  named  Capt.  Joseph  H.  Engle  (USAF) 

one  of  the  ten  outstanding  young  men  of  1964.  Captain  Engle,  the 
youngest  of  the  x-15  pilots,  had  logged  nine  flights  in  the  x-15. 
Awardees  would  be  honored  at  an  awards  congress  Jan.  15-16  in  Santa 
Monica,  Calif,  (ap,  Des  Moines  Register,  1/12/65) 
January  12:  Kiwi-TNT  (Transient  Nuclear  Test)  was  successfully  completed 
at  Jackass  Flats,  Nev.  This  was  a  safety  test  to  verify  predictions  of 
behavior  of  graphite  nuclear  reactor  during  a  maximum  power 
excursion.  Using  data  from  the  test  scientists  would  establish  safety 
standards,  particularly  for  launching  nuclear-powered  rockets.  Nu- 
clear energy  released  in  the  test  was  well  within  the  designated  maxi- 
mum of  nuclear  test  ban  treaty  of  1963.  Preliminary  test  results  indi- 
cated: (1)  from  l/)-mi.  to  50-mi.  downwind  from  the  test  site, 
radiation  did  not  approach  accepted  danger  levels;  (2)  lethal  radia- 
tion was  confined  to  200-to-300-ft.  radius  of  the  site,  and  beyond  500- 
to-600-ft.  radius  "a  person  would  probably  have  survived  unhurt  un- 
less struck  by  a  piece  of  debris";  (3)  pre-test  predictions  of  the 
reactor's  behavior  were  accurate;  and  (4)  cleaning  up  radioactivity  at 
the  site  was  easier  than  expected.  Kiwi  ground-test  version  of  a  nu- 
clear-reactor rocket  engine  was  a  nasa-aec  project.  (UPI,  Wash. 
Post,  1/13/65;  NYT,  1/13/65;  ap,  Bait.  Sun,  1/13/65;  JAMA, 
2/8/65,  27-29;  Rover  Chron.,  n.d.) 

•  USN    announced    the    Transit    navigational    satellite    system    was    opera- 

tional and  had  been  in  use  since  July  1964.  The  three  gravity-gra- 
dient-stabilized satellites,  weighing  between  110  and  160  lbs.  each, 
were  launched  on  Thor-Able-Star  boosters  into  near-circular  600-mi. 
polar  orbits  from  Pt.  Mugu,  Calif.  Operational  lifetime  of  the  satel- 
lites was  expected  to  be  about  two  years.     The  satellites  emitted  radio 


14  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

signals  which  ships  used  to  determine  their  positions,  and  could  pro- 
vide ships  with  navigational  fixes — accurate  to  0.1  mi. — about  every 
90  min.  The  shipboard  computer  operated  automatically,  beginning 
when  the  satellite  approached,  receiving  the  data,  computing  the  ship's 
position,  and  typing  the  results  for  the  navigator.  A  number  of  fleet 
units  were  reported  to  be  using  the  system.  Capt.  F.  H.  Price,  Jr. 
(usn),  who  tested  the  system  from  the  nuclear-powered  cruiser  U.S.S. 
Long  Beach,  called  the  system  "the  most  reliable  means  of  providing 
navigation&l  information"  and  said  it  met  the  requirement  of  an  "ac- 
curate, dependable,  worldwide,  all-weather,  24-hour-a-day  capabili- 
ty." This  was  the  first  continuous  use  of  space  technology  in  direct 
support  of  the  fleet.  It  was  predicted,  but  not  officially  confirmed, 
that  the  Polaris  missile-firing  submarines  would  adopt  the  navigational 
satellite  system.  NASA  was  studying  commercial  applications  of  a 
navigational  satellite  system  and  considering  the  possibility  of  de- 
veloping its  own  system  if  it  proved  economically  feasible.  (DOD  Re- 
lease 16-65;  AP,  Chic.  Trib.,  1/13/65;  Watson,  Bait.  Sun,  1/13/65; 
M&R,  1/18/65,  14) 
January  12:  S.  Walter  Hixon,  Jr.,  Supervisory  Employee  Development 
Officer  at  the  NASA  Langley  Research  Center,  was  selected  for  his  edu- 
cational activities  as  the  Federal  Civil  Service  Employee  of  the  Year  in 
the  Hampton  Roads  area.  Hixon  had  conducted  four  major  programs 
at  Langley  including  graduate  study,  advanced  in-house  training,  a 
cooperative  college  education  plan,  and  an  apprenticeship  training 
system.      (LaRC  Release) 

•  France's  newest  satellite  tracking  station,  located  outside  Pretoria,  South 

Africa,  was  nearing  completion  and  would  probably  be  operational  by 
July  1965.  The  $840,000  station  would  be  used  to  track  France's  first 
satellite,  scheduled  to  be  orbited  around  the  earth  in  1965,  (ap,  Bait. 
Sun,  1/13/65) 

•  The  first  95-passenger  DC-9  jet  liner  rolled  off  the  Douglas  Aircraft  Co. 

assembly  line.  A  short-haul,  twin-engine  jet,  the  DC-9  would  be  able 
to  land  on  most  conventional  airstrips  and  would,  therefore,  serve  98 
per  cent  of  the  Nation's  civil  airports.  58  planes  had  been  ordered 
and  options  were  taken  on  60  more,  but  development  costs  would  not 
be  met  until  the  200  mark  was  reached.  Flight  tests  would  begin  in 
March  1965  or  sooner,  and  airlines  operating  the  new  jet  expected  to 
start  passenger  service  early  in  1966.      (UPi,  NYT,  1/12/65,  72) 

•  DOD  announced  Peter  Kiewit  Sons  Company  had  received  a  $9,495,000 

contract  for  modification  of  Titan  ii  launch  facilities  in  the  vicinity  of 
Davis-Monthan  afb,  Ariz.;  Little  Rock  afb.  Ark.;  McConnell  afb,  Kan.; 
and  at  Vandenberg  afb,  Calif.  The  Army  Corps  of  Engineers  awarded 
the  contract.      (DOD  Release  18-65) 

•  A  Canadian  company,  Jarry   Hydraulics,   Ltd.,   designed   and   built  the 

variable-wing  sweep  device  for  the  USAf's  f-111  fighter  bomber.  The 
actuator,  consisting  of  a  unit  in  the  fuselage  which  controlled  two 
booms,  could  withstand  more  than  500,000  lbs.  tension  and  could  set 
the  wings  within  .015  of  an  inch  of  the  position  selected  by  the  pilot, 
at  a  rate  of  200°  per  minute.      (Toronto  Globe  and  Mail,  1/12/65) 

•  DOD  would  be  using  1,274  computers  by  the  end  of  FY  1965,  compared  to 

the  815  computers  which  were  in  use  when  Robert  S.  McNamara  first 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  15 

became  Secretary  of  Defense,  nasa  would  be  using  224  computers  in 
various  branches  of  its  operations.  (Fay,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  1/12/65) 
January  13:  x-15  No.  3  flown  by  NASA  pilot  Milton  0.  Thompson  to  maxi- 
mum altitude  of  99.400  ft.  and  maximum  speed  of  3,712  mph  (mach 
5.48 ) .  Purpose  of  the  flight  was  to  collect  air  flow  data  and  record 
measurements  of  skin  friction  on  the  aircraft's  surface,  (nasa  x-15 
Proj.  Off.;  FRC  Release;  X-15  Flight  Log) 

•  NASA  launched   a  two  part  994b.   sounding   rocket  payload  from   NASA 

Wallops  Station  which  reached  an  altitude  of  614  mi.  but  did  not 
separate  in  flight  as  planned.  Launched  on  a  four-stage  Javelin  (Argo 
D-4)  and  designed  as  "mother-daughter"  experiment,  the  payload  was 
to  separate  into  two  sections  at  about  170-mi.  altitude  with  radio  signals 
to  be  sent  from  daughter  to  mother  as  they  continued  to  rise  separately. 
The  technique  was  devised  to  provide  more  accurate  profiles  of  elec- 
tron density  in  the  upper  atmosphere.  Telemetry  data  would  be 
analyzed  to  determine  why  the  sections  did  not  separate.  (Wallops 
Release  65-3;  NASA  Rpt.  SRL) 

•  NASA   successfully   launched  an   Aerobee   150a  sounding  rocket  to  peak 

altitude  of  110  mi.  from  Wallops  Island,  Va.,  with  instrumented  pay- 
load  to  measure  the  ultraviolet  and  visible  light  emitted  from  the  earth's 
atmosphere  between  37  mi.  and  125  mi.  An  Attitude  Control  System 
(ACs)  was  also  flown.  Good  spectral  data  were  collected,  (nasa 
Rpt.  srl) 

•  Reported  that  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  had  ruled  against  a 

protest  by  a  group  of  nasa  astronauts  of  the  NASA  decision  to  limit  the 
first  manned  Gemini  flight  to  three  orbits.  The  astronauts  had  re- 
quested that  the  GT-3  flight  should  be  "open-end,"  leaving  it  to  the 
astronauts  as  to  whether  they  should  go  for  three  or  even  30  orbits. 
(Macomber,  Copley  News  Service.  San  Diego   Union,   1/13/65) 

•  XC-142A  V/Stol,  flown  by  Ling-Temco-Vought  test  pilots  John  Konrad 

and  Stuart  Madison,  made  a  flawless  first  transition  flight.  The  trans- 
port aircraft  took  off  like  a  helicopter,  adjusted  its  wings  for  conven- 
tional flight,  and  then  circled  the  field,  reversed  the  process,  and  made 
a  vertical  landing.  The  xc-142a's  first  transition  flight  came  only 
six  flights  after  its  initial  hover  flight  on  Dec.  29,  1964.  It  was  the 
Nation's  first  V/Stol  built  for  operational  evaluaticri  rather  ^han 
research,      (ap,  CSM,  1/13/65) 

•  NASA  Langley  Research  Center  scientists  Harry  W.  Carlson  and  Francis 

E.  McLean  said  that  for  the  first  time  there  was  hope  for  a  significant 
reduction  in  the  sonic  booms  expected  from  proposed  supersonic  air- 
liners. A  plane  flying  faster  than  the  speed  of  sound  compresses  the 
air  around  it  into  shock  waves  trailing  from  the  nose,  wings,  engine 
inlets,  tail,  and  any  other  protuberances.  Near  the  plane  there  would 
be  separate  waves,  producing  "near  field  effects."  Traced  on  a  graph 
to  show  changes  in  pressure,  the  waves  would  make  a  jagged  line 
resembling  the  letter  "N."  As  the  waves  traveled  toward  the  ground, 
they  would  coalesce  into  two  powerful  waves — one  appearing  to  trail 
from  the  nose  and  one  from  the  tail — producing  "far-field  effects" 
also  shaped  as  a  letter  "N"  in  terms  of  pressure  patterns.  The  sharp 
peaks  of  this  N-shaped  wave  were  suspected  of  causing  most  of  the 


16  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

annoyance  and  structural  damage  possible  from  sonic  booms.  Carlson 
and  McLean  discovered  that  planes  the  length  and  shape  of  super- 
sonic airliner  designs  would  not  fly  far  enough  away  from  the  earth 
for  their  far-field  effects  to  be  felt  on  the  ground,  leaving  only  the 
less  bothersome  near-field  effect  to  be  taken  into  account. 

It  was  hoped  that  this  new  finding  would  mean  that  designs  current- 
ly submitted  to  the  Government  in  the  design  competition  for  super- 
sonic transport,  or  minor  refinements  of  them,  would  fit  within  Gov- 
ernment-imposed sonic  boom  limitations  and  that  still  further 
improvement  through  design  changes  would  bring  further  decreases  in 
the  boom. 

Dr.  Floyd  L.  Thompson,  LaRC  Director,  called  what  had  been 
learned  "significant  new  knowledge"  and  said  it  could,  under  the  best 
of  circumstances,  "have  great  significance."  He  pointed  out  that  the 
best  of  circumstances  were  seldom  found  in  designing  an  airplane — 
particularly  the  supersonic  transport,  which  he  said  was  "at  least  as 
sophisticated  technically  as  the  Apollo."  (Clark,  ATT",  1/14/65,  1, 
12) 

January  13:  DOD  announced  that  during  the  next  six  months  150  iCBMs 
scheduled  for  deactivation  (27  Atlas  E,  69  Atlas  F,  and  54  Titan  I  mis- 
siles) would  be  put  into  storage  at  Norton  afb,  Calif.  Some  of  these 
missiles  would  be  used  eventually  as  spacecraft  boosters,  others  would 
be  employed  in  the  Nike-X  program.  They  would  be  replaced  by  the 
more  advanced  Minuteman  icbms,  of  which  a  total  of  1,000  were 
authorized  by  Congress.  It  had  cost  almost  $1  million  a  year  to  keep 
each  of  the  older  icbms  combat-ready,  as  compared  to  $100,000  a  year 
for  each  Minuteman.      ( Sehlstedt,  Bait.  Sun,  1/14/65;  A&A,  1/65,  92) 

•  Dr.  John  C.  Evvard,  Deputy  Associate  Director  for  Research  at  NASA 
Lewis  Research  Center,  discussed  possible  propulsion  systems  for  fu- 
ture space-flight  beyond  the  moon  before  the  Conference  on  Civilian 
and  Military  Uses  of  Aerospace  sponsored  by  the  New  York  Academy 
of  Sciences.  He  cited  a  manned  Mars  project  as  a  prime  example  of  a 
mission  that  could  be  performed  by  a  number  of  different  propulsion 
concepts.  For  example,  manned  trips  by  chemical  rockets  would  be 
weight-restricted,  but  chemical  rocket  systems  would  have  the  advan- 
tage of  having  been  extensively  flight-tested  on  many  other 
missions.  Although  the  reactor  for  planned  nuclear  propulsion  sys- 
tems had  only  been  ground  tested,  evaluations  of  complete  nuclear 
rocket  engine  systems  were  expected  within  the  next  few  years.  Elec- 
tric propulsion  systems  for  manned  spaceflight  were  even  further  in  the 
future  and  might  not  be  ready  by  1980;  but  by  then  the  mission 
capability  of  the  nuclear  rocket  would  have  been  so  thoroughly  demon- 
strated that  it  would  be  more  attractive  than  chemical  engines  for 
those  missions  requiring  increased  propulsion  capability.  Even  fur- 
ther into  the  future  were  nuclear  systems  such  as  the  gaseous-core- 
cavity  reactor  which  would  yield  higher  performance.  (LRC  Release 
65-5) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  17 

January  14:  mariner  iv  had  functioned  in  space  for  more  than  1,100  hr. 
on  its  6.000-hr.  flight  to  Mars,  and  had  flown  81.3  miUion  mi.,  leaving 
some  245  miUion  mi.  to  be  travefled  before  the  spacecraft  would  en- 
counter Mars  next  July.  The  earth-MARiNER  distance  was  8,342,946 
mi,  at  9  a.m.  est  with  the  spacecraft  travelling  9,276  mph  relative  to 
the  earth  and  69,462  mph  relative  to  the  sun.  (nasa  Release  65-12, 
1/14/65) 

•  Vincent  R.  Lalli  of  NASA  Lewis  Research  Center  described  to  the  11th  Na- 

tional Symposium  on  Reliability  and  Quality  Control  in  Miami  Beach 
the  R&QA  procedure  applied  at  Lewis  to  engine  subsystems  of  the  Sert-I 
(Space  Electric  Rocket  Test)  spacecraft  to  establish  reliability  stand- 
ards for  equipment  never  flown  in  space  before.  He  said  an  experi- 
mental assembly  of  components,  or  "electrical  breadboard,"  was  built 
for  electrical  stress  measurements;  once  the  analysis  of  stresses  during 
operation  was  complete,  safety  factor  could  be  defined.  "Stress"  did 
not  refer  to  mechanical  stress  but  to  all  physical  factors — fatigue,  cor- 
rosion, current,  temperature,  etc. — that  could  degrade  or  destroy  equip- 
ment. 

Lalli  pointed  out:  "The  real  uniqueness  of  this  process  is  revealed  in 
the  stress  analysis  area  where  the  role  of  the  reliability  engineer  is 
extended  beyond  the  analytical  approach  into  obtaining  transient  ex- 
perimental stress  data."      (LRC  Release  65-4) 

•  Houston  Chronicle  reported  that  preliminary  funds  for  the  unmanned 

exploration  of  Mars  would  be  included  in  the  NASA  FY  1966  budget. 
On  Oct.  30,  1964,  the  Space  Science  Board  of  NAS  had  recommended 
to  NASA  that  Mars  be  the  next  goal  because  it  was  the  likeliest  of  the 
planets  to  be  inhabited  by  living  things  and  would  therefore  be  of 
greater  scientific  importance  than  the  moon  or  proposed  manning 
orbiting  laboratories.      (Mackaye,  Houston  Chron.,  1/14/65) 

•  The  Enrico  Fermi  Medal  was  conferred  on  Vice  Adm.  Hyman  G.  Rick- 

over  (usn)  by  President  Johnson.  Adm.  Rickover,  the  first  nonsden- 
tist  to  receive  the  award,  was  cited  for  "engineering  and  administrative 
leadership  in  the  development  of  safe  and  reliable  nuclear  power  and 
its  successful  application  to  our  national  security  and  economic 
needs."  He  was  also  credited  with  almost  single-handedly  convincing 
Congress  and  DOD  to  start  the  nuclear  submarine  program.  (UPI, 
NYT,  1/14/65,  14) 

•  In  London,  10,000  British  aircraft  workers  marched  to  protest  the  ru- 

mored intention  of  the  Labor  Government  to  curtail  production  of 
British  military  planes.  Defense  Minister  Denis  Healey  reportedly 
recommended  that  development  and  production  of  the  TSR-2  (tactical- 
strike-reconnaissance)  aircraft  be  canceled  and  that  Britain  buy 
F-lll's  from  U.S.,  thus  cutting  defense  costs.  Two  other  projects 
subject  to  cancellation  were  the  P-1154  vertical-takeoff  fighter  and  a 
short-takeoff  fighter,  both  at  a  less  advanced  stage  of  development 
than  the  TSR-2.  Leaders  of  the  British  aircraft  industry,  which  em- 
ployed slightly  more  than  one  per  cent  of  the  nation's  work  force,  said 
such  a  cutback  would  cause  widespread  unemployment  in  the 
industry.  (Lewis,  NYT,  1/13/65,  9;  Lewis,  NYT,  1/15/65;  Farns- 
worth,  NYT,  1/16/65) 


18  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

January  15:  usaf  launched  a  Thor-Agena  D  booster  with  an  unidentified 
satellite  toward  polar  orbit  from  Vandenberg  afb.  (upi,  Denver  Post, 
1/17/65) 

•  USAF  successfully  launched  a  four-stage  Athena  reentry  research  vehicle 

from  Green  River,  Utah.  Impact  occurred  within  a  predetermined 
target  area  in  the  White  Sands  Missile  Range,  N.  Mex.  {M&R,  1/25/ 
65,  8) 

•  The  U.S.S.R.  filed  a  brief  report  with  the  International  Aviation  Federa- 

tion on  the  flight  of  VOSKHOD  I  (Oct.  12-13,  1964)  for  confirmation  of 
the  flight  achievements  as  absolute  world  records,  and  of  world  records 
in  the  orbital  flight  class  in  multiseat  spacecraft:  duration  of  flight,  24 
hrs.,  17  min.,  0.3  sec;  flight  distance,  416,195,878  mi.  (669,784,027 
km.)  ;  flight  height,  254  mi.  (408  km.)  ;  and  maximum  weight  raised 
to  the  flight  height,  11,729  lbs.  (5,320  kg.).  (Pravda,  1/15/65,  6; 
Krasnaya  Zvezda,  1/15/65,  4,  atss-t  Trans.) 

•  Top  fuel  experts  of  the  Coordinating  Research  Council  of  New  York  re- 

ported that  adoption  of  a  single  type  of  jet  fuel  by  the  entire  airline 
industry  "would  not  significantly  improve  the  over-aU  excellent  safety 
record  of  commercial  aviation."  The  study  on  fuel  safety  was  re- 
quested by  Federal  Aviation  Agency  Administrator  Najeeb  E.  Ha- 
laby  following  the  fatal  in-flight  explosion  that  occurred  in  a  jet  air- 
liner December  8,  1963,  near  Elkton,  Md.  The  aircraft  was  carrying 
a  mixture  of  JP-4  and  kerosene  when  it  exploded  in  a  lightning  storm, 
giving  rise  to  the  question  of  the  relative  safety  of  the  two  fuels  includ- 
ing the  effects  of  mixing  the  two.  Consensus  of  the  group  was  that 
the  airlines  should  continue  their  policy  of  being  individually  respon- 
sible for  selecting  fuels  and  for  safety  practices  associated  with  han- 
dling such  fuels.  Another  conclusion  was  that  aircraft  safety  depend- 
ed less  upon  the  particular  type  of  fuel  used  than  upon  equipment 
design  and  proper  fueling  techniques,      (faa  Release  65-9) 

•  aec  entered  into  33  mo.  contracts  with  Combustion  Engineering,  Windsor, 

Conn.,  and  Atomics  International,  Canoga  Park,  Calif.,  for  joint  re- 
search and  development  work  on  the  heavy  water-moderated,  organic- 
cooled  reactor  concept.  This  concept  could  lead  to  construction  of 
large  central  station  power  plants  and  applications  to  large-scale  water 
desalting  operations,      (aec  Release  H-12) 

•  U.S.  recorded  seismic  signals  from  an  underground  event  in  the  Soviet 

nuclear  testing  area  in  the  Semipalatinsk  region.  The  event  was  re- 
portedly 75  times  stronger  than  previous  explosions  registered  from 
the  same  area,  (aec  Release  H-13;  ap,  New  Orleans  Times-Picayune, 
1/17/65) 
January  16:  NASA  announced  it  would  request  preliminary  design  proposals 
from  private  industry  for  the  unmanned  Voyager  spacecraft  that  would 
land  scientific  instruments  on  Mars  in  1971.  From  these  proposals, 
several  contractors  would  be  chosen  to  perform  a  3-mo.  program  de- 
sign definition.  Previous  NASA  studies  had  indicated  the  system  might 
consist  of  a  spacecraft  "bus"  or  main  body,  a  propulsion  and  braking 
system,  and  a  landing  capsule,      (nasa  Release  65-15) 

•  Addressing  the  Houston  Junior  Chamber  of  Commerce,  Gen.  Bernard  A. 

Schriever  (usaf)  emphasized  the  importance  of  technology  in  main- 
taining national  security:   "Recent  events  show  a  number  of  applica- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  19 

tions  of  technology  designed  to  increase  our  national  security.  These 
include  the  first  flights  of  the  supersonic  XB-70  aircraft,  the  YF-12a 
long-range  interceptor,  the  F-111  supersonic  fighter,  the  Titan  IIIA 
space  booster,  and  the  Minuteman  ii  missile.  .  .  . 

"Research  not  only  supports  today's  weapon  systems  but  also  pro- 
vides the  advanced  technology  from  which  new  systems  will 
emerge.  .  .  . 

"To  name  some  specifics,  a  new  high-strength,  lightweight  material 
— formed  from  boron  fibers  and  a  plastic  binder — would  make  possi- 
ble great  weight  savings  in  aircraft  and  space  vehicle  structures  with 
no  sacrifice  of  either  strength  or  stiffness.  We  have  already  produced 
laboratory  samples  of  this  boron  composite.  It  is  potentially  as  strong 
as  the  high-strength  steels,  structurally  rigid,  and  as  light  as 
magnesium.  It  may  have  higher  temperature  capabilities  than  alumi- 
num and  magnesium,  should  be  easy  to  fabricate,  and  should  have  a 
high  resistance  to  corrosion. 

"Another  advance  in  the  materials  area  is  the  use  of  oxide-dispersed 
metals  in  aircraft  engines  tO'  provide  strength  at  high  temperatures. 
This  development  will  make  possible  a  substantial  increase  in  the  op- 
erating temperature  of  turbojet  engines,  which  in  turn  will  make  for 
greater  operating  efficiency  and  improved  thrust-to-weight  ratios." 
(Text,  AFSC  Release) 
January  17:  Robert  L.  Sohn,  scientist  at  Space  Technology  Laboratories, 
proposed  to  use  the  gravity  field  of  Venus  as  a  brake  for  manned 
spacecraft  returning  from  Mars. 

"We  don't  expect  to  have  boosters  powerful  enough  to  launch  space- 
craft of  the  1970s  that  can  carry  extra  propulsion  to  brake  reentry 
speeds.  .  .  .  The  landing  corridor  will  be  so  narrow  that  a  small  frac- 
tional error  in  navigation  would  send  the  spacecraft  into  an  eternal 
orbit  around  the  sun."  He  said  traveling  near  Venus  on  the  return 
journey  from  Mars  would  slow  a  spacecraft  as  it  passed  through  the 
Venutian  gravity  field.  Then,  with  some  midcourse  maneuvering  and 
navigation,  the  astronaut  could  return  to  earth  and  reenter  earth's 
atmosphere  with  greater  margin  of  error.  (Macomber,  San  Diego 
Union,  1/17/65) 
•  Dr.  I.  M.  Levitt,  Director  of  the  Fels  Planetarium,  said  in  the  Philadel- 
phia Inquirer:  "As  of  this  moment,  the  Soviets  have  tentatively  deter- 
mined that  the  maximum  'safe'  period  of  weightlessness  is  24 
hr.  They  hold  that  after  this  period,  'irreversible  physiological 
changes  begin  to  occur  in  the  human  system  which,  if  not  corrected, 
will  eventually  lead  to  death'.  .  .  . 

"The  Soviets  have  also  discovered  a  correlation  between  high  accel- 
erations and  weightlessness.  They  believe  that  when  an  astronaut  is 
subjected  to  high  accelerations  on  launch  he  tends  to  overestimate  or 
to  overcompensate  for  his  movements.  Once  the  astronaut  is  weight- 
less, then  a  radical  reversal  takes  place  in  which  the  astronaut  under- 
compensates  and  may  suffer  disorientation.  .  .  . 

"The  Soviets  appear  to  have  concluded  that  flight  crews  of  the  fu- 
ture will  be  selected  as  medical  teams,  and  they  will  further  be  selected 
on  the  basis  of  biological  and  bacteriological  compatibility.  The  crew 
will  be  concerned  with  developing  means   for  forecasting  their   own 


20  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

health  during  the  entire  trip  so  as  to  preserve  it."  (Phil.  Inq., 
1/17/65) 

January  17:  Tass  reported  that  a  Soviet  archeologist  had  discovered  a  Neo- 
lithic drawing  in  a  cliff  gallery  in  Soviet  Central  Asia  resembling  a 
cosmonaut.  The  figure  carried  "something  resembling  an  airtight  hel- 
met with  antennae  on  its  head"  and  "some  sort  of  contraption  for 
flight"  on  its  back.      (Reuters,  JVash.  Post,  1/18/65;  NYT,  1/23/65) 

January  18:  USAF  launched  an  unidentified  satellite  on  a  Thor-Altair 
booster  from  Vandenberg  AFB,  Calif.  Altair  was  normally  the  solid- 
fuel  fourth  stage  of  the  Scout  booster.      (AP,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  1/19/65) 

•  In  an  editorial  in  Aviation  Week  and  Space  Technology,  Editor  Robert 

Hotz  said:  "This  is  a  year  in  which  we  will  hear  much  about  the 
growing  pains  of  Apollo.  It  would  be  most  amazing  if  we 
didn't.  For  Apollo  is  now  in  the  midst  of  that  difficult  period  when 
the  problems  of  creating  this  incredibly  intricate  and  complex  techni- 
cal system  are  being  hammered  the  hardest  toward  solutions.  It  is 
also  the  period  when  the  effectiveness  of  the  management  structure  in 
welding  all  of  the  complex  subsystems  into  a  successfully  functioning 
overall  system  within  the  time  and  money  boundaries  already  estab- 
lished becomes  most  vital."      (Av.  Wk.,  1/18/65,  17) 

•  In  his  defense  message  to  Congress,  President  Johnson  cited  major  new 

developments  in  strategic  weapon  systems  slated  to  begin  this  year: 

"A  new  missile  system,  the  Poseidon  [new  name  for  Polaris  b-3],  to 
increase  the  striking  power  of  our  missile-carrying  nuclear  submarines. 
The  Poseidon  missile  will  have  double  the  payload  of  the  highly  success- 
ful Polaris  A-3.  The  increased  accuracy  and  flexibility  of  the  Poseidon 
will  permit  its  use  effectively  against  a  broader  range  of  penetration  of 
enemy  defenses. 

"A  new  Short  Range  Attack  Missile  (sram)  that  can,  if  needed,  be 
deployed  operationally  with  the  B-52  or  other  bombers.  This  aerody- 
namic missile — a  vast  improvement  over  existing  systems — would  per- 
mit the  bomber  to  attack  a  far  larger  number  of  targets  and  to  do  so 
from  beyond  the  range  of  their  local  defenses. 

"A  series  of  remarkable  new  payloads  for  strategic  missiles.  These 
include:  penetration  aids,  to  assure  that  the  missile  reaches  its  target 
through  any  defense;  guidance  and  re-entry  vehicle  designs,  to  in- 
crease many-fold  the  effectiveness  of  our  missiles  against  various  kinds 
of  targets;  and  methods  of  reporting  the  arrival  of  our  missiles  on 
target,  up  to  and  even  including  the  time  of  explosion." 

In  addition,  he  said  that  development  of  the  C-5A  ( formerly  the 
ex)  cargo  transport  and  procurement  of  the  Air  Force  F-111  fighter- 
bomber  and  new  A-7  Navy  attack  aircraft  would  begin. 

Finally,  regarding  the  role  of  science  and  technology  in  the  Nation's 
security,  the  President  said: 

"We  are  currently  investing  more  than  $6  billion  per  year  for  mili- 
tary research  and  development.  .  .  .  About  $2  billion  a  year  of  this 
program  is  invested  in  innovations  in  technology  and  in  experimental 
programs.  Thus,  we  provide  full  play  for  the  ingenuity  and  inven- 
tiveness of  the  best  scientific  and  technical  talent  in  our  Nation  and  the 
Free  World. 

"American  science,  industry,  and  technology  are  foremost  in  the 
world.     Their    resources    represent    a    prime    asset    to    our    national 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  21 

security."  (Text.  Wash.  Post,  1/19/65;  ap,  NYT,  1/19/65,  16;  Nor- 
ris,  Wash.  Post,  1/22/65) 
January  18:  The  new  Sram  (short-range  attack  missile),  cited  by  President 
Johnson  in  his  defense  message  to  Congress,  would  be  expected  to 
travel  150  mi.  from  the  launching  plane  to  its  target.  The  Sram 
would  be  designed  for  launching  initially  from  a  B-52,  but  later  from 
smaller  aircraft  such  as  the  F-4c  or  the  F-111.  It  would  be  launched 
toward  the  rear  after  the  aircraft  had  passed  its  target,  would  climb  to 
100,000-ft.  altitude,  powered  by  its  own  solid-propellant  motor,  then 
plunge  vertically  toward  its  target  having  allowed  the  launch  plane 
time  to  escape  its  nuclear  warhead  detonation.  (Watson,  Bait.  Sun, 
1/19/65;  Miles,  Wash.  Post,  1/20/65) 

•  Alfred  Gessow,  Chief  of  Fluid  Physics  Research,  NASA,  discussed  before 

the  Compressed  Gas  Association  in  New  York  City  the  problems  of 
spacecraft  deceleration  and  heating  involved  in  return  through  the 
earth's  atmosphere.  He  explained  why  the  blunt  shape  solved  de- 
celeration and  much  of  the  heat  problem  in  returning  Mercury 
spacecraft  from  orbit  through  the  atmosphere  to  earth.  Looking 
beyond  the  satellite  return  speed  (Mercury  and  Gemini)  and  lunar 
return  speed  (Apollo),  return  from  interplanetary  flight  poses  the 
problem  of  much  higher  spacecraft  speed  (and  thus  heating).  Re- 
search indicates  "that  the  more  pointed  shape,  although  it  doesn't  show 
up  too  well  at  the  lower  re-entry  speeds,  is  better  than  the  blunt  nose  at 
the  higher  speeds  because  the  bow  shock  is  weaker,  thus  producing 
lower  radiant  heating  losses.  Thus,  in  a  very  short  time  scale,  but 
taking  a  big  leap  forward  in  the  velocity-temperature  scale,  we  find 
ourselves  going  into  another  phase  of  the  blunt  vs.  pointed  nose  cycle. 

".  .  .  The  switching  between  slender  and  blunt  shapes  is  not  new  in 
the  race  for  higher  speeds  at  all  times  of  history.  Going  through 
history,  compact  rocks  were  replaced  by  slender  arrows;  the  concept  of 
powder  guns  created  round  cannonballs;  the  rocket  age  produced 
slender  forms  again,  which  ironically,  finally  got  blunt  noses.  It  is 
interesting  to  see  how  long  it  took  to  make  such  changes  empirically 
and  how  rapidly  these  variations  have  been  made  by  following 
scientific  principles.  .  .  ."      (Text) 

•  Japan  expected  to  orbit  a  satellite  within  the  next  three  years,  New  York 

Times  reported.  Although  Japan's  progress  in  the  missile  field  had 
been  slowed  by  the  limited  annual  budget  allocations  of  the  Defense 
Forces,  scientific  advances,  particularly  in  the  field  of  electronics,  plus 
stimulus  to  Japanese  industry  provided  by  the  Korean  War,  had 
brought  marked  advances  in  rocketry  and  missiles.      (NYT,  1/18/65) 

•  The  Communist  New  China  News  Agency   (ncna)    said  in  a  broadcast 

that  Indonesia  had  successfully  launched  a  two-stage  scientific  rocket 
Jan.  5  from  somewhere  in  West  Java.  The  rocket  was  reportedly 
made  by  the  Indonesian  air  force.  There  were  no  other 
details.  (UPI,  Miami  Her.,  1/18/65) 
January  19:  An  unmanned  instrument-packed  Gemini  spacecraft  (gt-2) 
was  launched  from  Cape  Kennedy  on  Titan  ii  launch  vehicle  in  subor- 
bital shot  preliminary  to  U.S.'s  first  two-man  venture.  Aboard  was  an 
automatic  sequencer  which  issued  orders  at  precise  times  en  route  to 
fire  the  rocket's  second  stage,  to  separate  the  spacecraft  from  the  rock- 


22  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

et,  to  jettison  the  spacecraft's  storage  section,  to  cartwheel  the  space- 
craft into  a  reentry  attitude,  and  to  open  the  spacecraft's  parachutes. 

The  rocket  reached  a  maximum  altitude  of  98.9  mi.  and  a  speed  of 
16,708.9  mph  before  impacting  2,127.1  mi.  downrange.  The  Gemini 
spacecraft  descended  by  parachute  into  the  Atlantic  16  mi.  short  of  the 
planned  impact  point  and  52  mi.  from  the  carrier  U.S.S.  Lake  Cham- 
plain  which  recovered  the  capsule  an  hour  and  45  min.  after  launch. 
The  capsule  was  reported  in  excellent  condition. 

Major  experiments  for  which  the  test  was  intended  were  apparently 
complete  successes:  a  test  of  the  heat  shield;  a  test  of  the  retrorocket 
system;  and  a  test  of  the  sequencing  system. 

Despite  its  successes,  the  test  had  some  difficulties:  a  fuel  cell  that 
would  be  the  primary  electrical  system  in  the  spacecraft  during  long- 
duration  manned  flights  failed  to  operate  before  launching  because  of 
a  stuck  valve;  the  temperature  was  found  to  be  too  high  in  the  cooling 
system  of  the  spacecraft.  (NASA  Release  64-296;  MSC  Roundup, 
1/3/65,  1;  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  1/19/65;  Houston  Chron.,  1/19/65;  UPI, 
Rossiter,  Wash.  Post,  1/20/65;  ap.  Bait.  Sun,  1/20/65) 
January  19:  Dr.  Burton  I.  Edelson,  staff  member  of  the  National  Aero- 
nautics and  Space  Council,  spoke  on  communications  satellites  at  the 
AIAA  meeting  in  Las  Cruces,  N.Mex.  He  said:  "There  is  a  general  grow- 
ing interdependence  of  politics,  economics,  and  technology,  and  in  no 
area  do  these  forces  interact  more  noticeably,  than  in  international 
communications.  When  we  try  to  predict  the  course  that  communica- 
tions satellites  systems  will  follow  in  the  years  to  come  we  must  con- 
sider not  only  decibels  and  megacycles,  rocket  thrusts  and  orbital  ele- 
ments, but  the  competitive  economic  pressure  of  transoceanic  cables 
and  the  political  aspirations  of  developing  nations.   .   .   . 

"Finally,  I  believe  the  words  of  Arthur  Clarke,  the  visionary  who 
first  conceived  of  the  communications  satellite,  will  be  fulfilled:  'Com- 
sats  will  end  ages  of  isolation  making  us  all  members  of  a  single 
family,  teaching  us  to  read  and  speak,  however  imperfectly,  a  single 
language.  Thanks  to  some  electronic  gear  twenty  thousand  miles 
above  the  equator,  ours  will  be  the  last  century  of  the 
savage.' "  (Text) 
January  20:  President  Lyndon  B.  Johnson  was  inaugurated.  In  his  Inau- 
gural Address,  he  said : 

"For  every  generation,  there  is  a  destiny.  For  some,  history 
decides.     For  this  generation,  the  choice  must  be  our  own. 

"Even  now,  a  rocket  moves  toward  Mars.  It  reminds  us  that  the 
world  will  not  be  the  same  for  our  children,  or  even  for  ourselves  in  a 
short  span  of  years.  The  next  man  to  stand  here  will  look  out  on  a 
scene  different  from  our  own. 

"Ours  is  a  time  of  change — rapid  and  fantastic  change — baring  the 
secrets  of  nature — multiplying  the  nations — placing  in  uncertain  hands 
new  weapons  for  mastery  and  destruction — shaking  old  values  and 
uprooting  old  ways.   .   .   . 

"Change  has  brought  new  meaning  to  that  old  mission.  We  can 
never  again  stand  aside,  prideful  in  isolation.  Dangers  and  troubles 
we  once  called  'foreign'  now  live  among  us.  If  American  lives  must 
end,  and  American  treasure  be  spilled,  in  countries  we  barely  know, 
that  is  the  price  that  change  has  demanded  of  conviction. 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  23 

"Think  of  our  world  as  it  looks  from  that  rocket  heading  toward 
Mars. 

"It  is  like  a  child's  globe,  hanging  in  space,  the  continents  stuck  to 
its  side  like  colored  maps.  We  are  all  fellow  passengers  on  a  dot  of 
earth.  And  each  of  us,  in  the  span  of  time,  has  only  a  moment  among 
his  companions. 

"How  incredible  it  is  that  in  this  fragile  existence  we  should  hate 
and  destroy  one  another.  There  are  possibilities  enough  for  all  who 
will  abandon  mastery  over  others  to  pursue  mastery  over 
nature.  There  is  world  enough  for  all  to  seek  their  happiness  in  their 
own  way. 

"Our  own  course  is  clear.  We  aspire  to  nothing  that  belongs  to 
others.  We  seek  no  dominion  over  our  fellow  man,  but  man's  domin- 
ion over  tyranny  and  misery.  .  .  ."  (Text) 
January  20:  Dr.  Robert  J  astro  w,  Director  of  NASA's  Goddard  Institute  for 
Space  Studies,  said  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Franklin  Institute  in 
Philadelphia:  "Beyond  military  and  political  advantages  of  getting  to 
the  moon  are  possibilities  we  cannot  conceive."  The  moon,  he  said 
could  prove  to  be  "the  Rosetta  stone  of  the  universe.  Its  lifeless  sur- 
face could  s;ive  us  the  clue  to  the  process  of  life."  (Phil.  Eve.  Bull., 
1/21/65) 

•  Lockheed  Missiles  and  Space  Co.  conducted  successful  static  firings  of 

the  Agena  target  vehicle  for  Project  Gemini.  The  firing  tests,  which 
included  simulated  maneuvers  to  be  made  by  Agena  during  rendezvous 
with  the  Gemini  spacecraft,  included  five  separate  firings  of  the  main 
engine  and  of  the  secondary  propulsion  system.  The  tests  lasted  some 
12  hrs.  and  were  termed  by  Lockheed  "complete  captive  flight."  All 
systems  of  the  actual  flight  Agena  were  tested,  including  command 
from  earth  transmitters,  programmed  commands  within  the  Agena, 
telemetry,  and  docking  simulation.  Previous  Gemini  Agena  firings 
had  tested  the  vehicle's  engines  only.      [Huntsville  Times,  1/22/65) 

•  Dr.  M.  P.  Lansberg  of  the  National  Aeromedical  Center,   Soesterberg, 

The  Netherlands,  told  scientists  attending  the  symposium  on  the  inner 
ear  at  the  Naval  School  of  Aviation  Medicine  at  Pensacola  Air  Station 
that  one  role  of  space  flight  would  be  the  exploration  of  the  function- 
ing of  the  vestibular  organ.  "This  might  well  be  the  most  important 
and  fascinating  side  of  space  flight,"  said  Dr.  Lansberg.  "Not  what  it 
will  reveal  to  us  of  distant  worlds,  but  what  it  wiU  unveil  to  us  about 
ourselves." 

Dr.  Lansberg  also  warned  against  expecting  too  much  from  experi- 
ments conducted  here  on  earth  in  trying  to  determine  how  much  grav- 
ity-producing spinning  man  could  stand.  In  recommending  rates  of 
speed  to  space  engineers,  he  said  "we  should  be  conserva- 
tive."     {Harris,  Pensacola  Journal,  1/21/65) 

•  In  an  article  in  The  Huntsville  Times,  Richard  Lewis  said:  "If  Project 

Apollo  continues  at  its  present  pace,  the  United  States  will  be  able  to 
attempt  the  landing  of  astronauts  on  the  moon  in  1968.  .  .  . 

"This  impression  of  the  status  of  ApoUo  .  .  .  was  gained  by  this 
reporter  in  tours  of  both  industrial  and  test  centers  for  the  mammoth 
project.  .  .  . 

"The  story  at  these  centers  is  this:  no  new  breakthroughs  in  elec- 
tronics, mechanics,  metaUurgy,  propulsion  or  guidance  and  navigation 


24  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

are  required  for  the  program.  All  major  problems  are  settled.  They 
have  been  solved  or  'worked  around.'  .  .  . 

"So  well  does  Apollo  appear  to  be  running  that  there  is  a  strong 
probability  it  will  overtake  the  later  flights  of  Project  Gemini,  the 
two-man  spacecraft  program."  (Lewis,  Chicago  Sun-Times,  Hunts- 
ville  Times,  1/20/65) 
January  20:  It  was  reported  that  Lockheed  Propulsion  Co.  had  successfully 
test-fired  a  new  solid-propellant  rocket  motor  at  the  proving  ground  in 
Redlands,  Calif.  The  lightweight  "pulse  motor"  measured  10  ft.  in 
length,  2  ft.  in  dia.,  and  contained  40  solid-propellant  wafers,  each  of 
which  could  develop  more  than  1,000  lbs.  of  thrust.  This  was  possi- 
bly the  rocket  motor  that  would  power  the  Sram  (short-range  attack 
missile)  mentioned  by  President  Johnson  in  his  defense  message  to 
Congress  [See  Jan.  18,  1965].  (Miles,  Wash.  Post,  1/20/65;  SBD, 
1/18/65,  74) 

•  USAF  successfully  launched  its  first  Minuteman  icbm  of  1965  from  Van- 

denberg  afb,  Calif.  The  missile  was  sent  on  a  5,000-mi.  course  to- 
ward a  target  in  the  Pacific.  (UPI,  L.A.  Herald  Examiner,  1/21/65) 
January  21:  mariner  iv  completed  nearly  one-quarter  of  its  iy2-Tno. 
journey  to  Mars  and  was  more  than  10  million  mi.  from  earth.  The 
craft  was  traveling  10,680  mph  relative  to  the  earth;  velocity  relative 
to  the  sun  was  68,255  mph;  total  distance  traveled  was  over  93  million 
mi.  After  54  days  in  space,  all  systems  were  functioning  normally 
except  the  solar  plasma  probe  which  ceased  returning  intelligible  data 
one  week  after  launch,      (nasa  Release  65-17) 

•  Laser  beam  was  bounced  off  nasa's  explorer  xxii  ionosphere  satellite 

and  photographed  by  Air  Force  Cambridge  Research  Laboratories 
scientists  Robert  Iliff  and  Theodore  Wittanen.  This  was  first  such 
photo  and  was  important  verification  of  feasibility  of  use  of  laser  for 
both  satellite  tracking  and  geodetic  purposes.  When  such  laser  reflec- 
tions off  satellites  were  photographed  against  a  star  background '  from 
two  ground  stations  of  known  locations  and  other  ground  stations  in 
the  field,  triangulation  of  the  simultaneous  photos  would  locate  the 
position  of  field  stations  with  an  accuracy  hitherto  not  possible  by 
other  means.  This  success  with  Largos  (Laser  Activated  Reflecting 
Geodetic  Optical  Satellite)  also  set  a  distance  record  for  photo  or 
photoelectric  detection  of  reflected  laser  signals;  slant  range  to  satellite 
was  950  mi.      (afcrl  Release  2-65-2) 

•  USAF   launched    a    100-lb.    arv    (Aerospace    Research    Vehicle)    satellite 

pickaback  aboard  an  Atlas  icbm  from  Vandenberg  afb,  Calif.  The 
satellite,  carrying  instrumentation  to  sample  radiation  and  microme- 
teoroids,  was  the  first  to  be  sent  toward  westward  orbit  around  the 
earth.  Satellite  Situation  Report  for  January  31,  1965,  did  not  indi- 
cate that  the  satellite  had  achieved  orbit,  (ap,  Wash.  Post,  1/22/65; 
M&R,  2/1/65,  9;  SSR,  1/31/65,  13) 

•  Sen.  Margaret  Chase   Smith    (R-Me.),   ranking  member  of  the   Senate 

Aeronautical  and  Space  Sciences  Committee,  told  nana  in  an  inter- 
view that  the  United  States  was  giving  more  to  the  Soviets  than  it 
got  in  a  lopsided  exchange  of  space  data.  She  said  that  for  several 
months  weather  information  derived  from  "conventional"  sources  in 
the  Soviet  Union  had  been  sent  through  a  communications  link  be- 
tween Moscow  and  Suitland,  Md.     "The  weather  information   is  not 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  25 

that  derived  from  a  satellite  as  provided  for  by  the  agreement,"  she 
asserted. 

"Up  to  the  present  time,  based  on  the  information  I  have  available, 
the  Soviets  are  realizing  more  from  the  1962  Geneva  Agreement  than 
we  are." 

Senator  Smith  added  that  measuring  the  results  of  the  Geneva 
Agreement  strictly  on  scientific  knowledge  gained  "is  not  a  broad 
enough  yardstick.  Any  real  plusses,  it  seems  to  me,  must  be  measured 
in  the  light  of  what  we  seek  to  accomplish,  namely,  the  mastering  of 
space  for  the  benefit  of  all  mankind.  The  fact  that  the  Geneva  Agree- 
ment ever  came  into  existence  shows  an  awareness  of  the  magnitude  of 
the  task  confronting  man  if  he  expects  to  operate  successfully  in 
space."  (Glaser,  nana,  Indianapolis  Star,  1/21/65) 
January  21 :  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  received  an  honorary  doc- 
torate from  Wayne  State  Univ.,  Detroit,  Mich.  During  a  speech 
there  he  said : 

"Our  goal  is  100  per  cent  assurance  of  [space  booster] 
success.  This  is  difficult  to  achieve,  but  until  we  are  certain  in  our 
own  minds  that  we  can  count  on  success  we  do  not  go  [on]  with  a 
manned  shot.  My  directive  on  this  is  very  clear.  It  came  first  from 
President  Kennedy  and  has  been  restated  by  President  Johnson.  It  is 
'Go  when  ready  and  don't  go  until  ready.'  "      (Text) 

•  As  part  of  the  ceremonies  dedicating  the  Capt.  Theodore  C.   Freeman 

Memorial  Library  of  Astronautics  at  the  Houston  Baptist  College, 
Faith  L.  Freeman,  lO-yr.-old  daughter  of  the  late  astronaut,  was 
awarded  a  scholarship  to  the  college.  {Houston  Post,  1/22/65;  MSC 
Roundup,  2/3/65,  8) 

•  Federal  Aviation  Agency  announced  that  Alitalia  had  reserved  three  ad- 

ditional delivery  positions  for  the  U.S.  supersonic  transport  plane, 
bringing  the  Italian  carrier's  total  to  six.  The  new  total  of  reserved 
positions  for  the  SST  was  96;  the  number  of  airlines  holding  positions 
was  2 1 .      ( FAA  Release  65-12 ) 

•  The    newspaper    La    Mariana    said    "flying    saucers"    had    appeared    in 

Uruguay.  Several  readers  had  reported  saucers  zigging  and  zagging 
at  great  speed,  and  said  they  "could  only  be  manned  space 
ships."  (UPi,  Wash.  Daily  News,  1/22/65) 
January  22:  NASA's  TIROS  ix  successfully  injected  into  a  polar  orbit  by  a 
three-stage  Delta  rocket  launched  from  Cape  Kennedy.  The  spacecraft 
was  to  have  gone  into  a  circular  orbit  about  460  mi.  above  the  earth 
but  the  second  stage  of  Delta  burned  11  sec.  too  long  and  pushed 
TIROS  IX  into  an  elliptical  orbit  with  apogee  1,602  mi.,  perigee  426 
mi.,  inclination  81.6°,  and  period  119  min.  First  NASA  attempt  to 
place  a  satellite  in  near-polar  sun-synchronous  orbit  from  Cape  Ken- 
nedy involved  three  dog-leg  maneuvers.  In  a  sun-synchronous  orbit 
the  precession  (westward  drift)  of  the  satellite  would  be  about  1° 
daily,  the  same  rate  and  direction  as  the  earth  moves  around  the  sun. 

A  hat-box  shaped  structure,  tiros  ix  was  an  18-sided  polygon,  22- 
in.  high,  42-in.  in  dia.,  weighing  305  lbs.,  with  one  of  its  flat  sides  facing 
earth  when  initially  injected  into  orbit.  Ground  signals  to  the  control 
system  tipped  the  craft  up  90°  so  that  it  assurned  the  appearance  of  a 
fat  wheel  rolling  on  a  track  around  the  earth.  Two  cameras  were 
placed  on  the  perimeter  opposite  each  other  so  that  as  the  wheel  rolled 


26 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 


January  22:  tiros  ix  photograph  of  ice-covered  U.S.  Great  Lakes  area. 

at  10  rpm,  each  camera,  in  turn,  would  roll  into  position  and  snap  a 
picture,  triggered  by  an  infrared  horizon  sensor. 

The  combination  of  tiros  ix's  polar  orbit  (83.4°)  and  rolling 
wheel  was  expected  to  provide  100%  photographic  coverage  of  the 
earth's  cloud  cover  during  daylight  hours. 

Primary  purpose  of  the  tiros  IX  launching  was  to  test  the  new 
cartwheel  concept  as  a  forerunner  of  a  joint  NASA-Weather  Bureau 
Tiros  Operational  System  (TOs)  of  weather  satellites.  (NASA  Release 
65-7;  Goddard  News,  1/25/65;  ap,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  1/22/65;  upi. 
Wash.  Daily  News,  1/22/65;  ap.  Bait.  Sun,  1/23/65;  Appel,  NYT, 
1/23/65,  9;  Hixson,  N.Y.  Her.  Trib.,  1/23/65) 
January  22:  A  $5,178,000  contract  was  awarded  to  a  joint  venture  of 
Blount  Brothers  Corp.,  Montgomery,  Ala.,  and  Chicago  Bridge  and 
Iron  Co.,  Oak  Park,  111.,  for  a  large  space  chamber  to  be  built  at  NASA 
Lewis  Research  Center's  Plum  Brook  Station.  Facility  would  be  used 
for  evaluation  and  developmental  testing  of  complete  spacecraft,  as 
well  as  nuclear  electric  power  generation  and  propulsion  systems.  It 
would  be  one  of  the  world's  largest  space  environment  chambers 
(cylindrical  chamber  100  ft.  in  diameter  and  122  ft.  to  the  top  of  its 
hemispherical  dome).      {Lewis  News,  1/22/65,  1) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  27 

January  22:  On  the  Les  Crane  Show  (abc-tv),  Dr.  Charles  S.  Sheldon  of 
the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Council  staff  said  in  his  opening 
debate  statement:  ".  .  .  what  is  the  space  program? 

"It  is  a  program  in  general  science  which  seeks  answers  to  the  most 
fundamental  processes  of  nature,  and  will  support  a  great  jump  for- 
ward in  our  mastery  of  these  forces  for  human  betterment. 

"The  space  program  is  one  of  practical  applications.  .  .  . 

"The  space  program  is  one  of  exploration,  opening  the  whole  solar 
system  to  the  coming  generation.  .  .  . 

"Space  science  is  neither  good  nor  evil.  It  is  what  men  choose  to 
do  with  such  knowledge.  This  country's  intent  is  to  develop  space  for 
the  benefit  of  all  mankind,  and  space  offers  us  new  opportunities  for 
international  cooperation.  Our  hope  is  space  can  become  a  substitute 
for  war  by  diverting  man's  restless  energies  into  a  supreme  challenge 
of  a  constructive  nature."      (Text) 

•  Maj.  Gen.  Samuel  C.  Phillips,  Apollo  program  director  in  NASA's  Office 

of  Manned  Space  Flight,  said  that  1965  would  be  a  year  of  "heavy 
ground  testing"  in  NASA's  lunar  program.  Among  the  major  events  he 
anticipated  were  completion  of  testing  of  the  Apollo  spacecraft  for  the 
first  manned  flight;  qualification  of  all  elements  of  the  Saturn  IB 
launch  vehicle  and  delivery  of  first  flight  stages  to  Cape  Kennedy;  and 
initial  testing  of  Saturn  V  elements.  (  naa  S&ID  Skywriter,  1/22/65,  4) 
January  23:  Atlas- Agena  D  launch  vehicle  with  unidentified  satellite  pay- 
load  was  launched  by  USAF  from  Western  Test  Range.  {U.S.  Aeron.  & 
Space  Act.,  1965,  132) 

•  Secretary   of   Defense  Robert  S.   McNamara  announced  proposals  were 

being  requested  from  industry  for  design  studies  to  assist  in  develop- 
ing cost  and  technical  information  required  to  proceed  with  develop- 
ment of  the  manned  orbiting  laboratory  (Mol).  Three  contractors 
would  be  selected.  Decision  whether  to  proceed  with  full-scale  devel- 
opment of  Mol  would  be  made  upon  completion  of  the  design  studies. 
( DOD  Release  42-65 ) 
January  24:  French  scientists  bounced  laser  beams  off  NASA  satellite  ex- 
plorer XXII  three  times,  according  to  French  Ministry  of  Scientific 
Research  on  Feb.  3.  Laser  beams  were  reflected  from  glass  prisms  on 
the  satellite.      (AP, /VF^,  2/4/65,  3) 

•  Eldridge  H.  Derring,  Executive  Assistant  to  the  Associate  Director  and 

head  of  the  Research  Staff  Office,  LaRC,  died  after  an  illness  of  several 
months.  {Langley  Researcher,  1/29/65,  8) 
January  25:  President  Johnson  sent  FY  1966  Budget  Request  to  Congress, 
recommending  a  total  space  budget  of  S7.114  billion.  Of  this  sum, 
NASA  would  receive  $5.26  billion,  DOD  $1,6  billion,  AEC  $236  million, 
Weather  Bureau  $33  million,  and  National  Science  Foundation  $3  mil- 
lion. 

The  NASA  request  provided  for  initiation  of  a  major  new  project — 
Project  Voyager,  budgeted  at  $43  million — and  intensive  study  of 
Apollo-X,  with  funding  of  $50  million.  Hardware  development  funds 
were  requested  for  the  Advanced  Orbiting  Solar  Observatory  ($25.1 
million),  and  the  Radio  Astronomy  Explorer  Satellite.  Advanced  re- 
search was  reduced  by  cancellation  of  development  of  the  260-in.-dia. 
soHd-fuel  rocket  motor,  the  M-1  liquid-hydrogen  engine  (1.2-million- 
Ib. -thrust) ,  and  Snap-8  nuclear  electric  power  unit. 


28  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

NASA  Associate  Administrator  Dr.  Robert  C.  Seamans,  Jr.,  labeled 
the  budget  an  austere  one,  but  said  the  chances  of  landing  a  man  on 
the  moon  by  1970  were  still  good.  In  discussing  the  new  programs, 
Dr.  Seamans  said  the  requested  $43  million  for  Voyager  would  be 
spent  on  project  definition  of  the  spacecraft  bus  and  landing  capsule  to 
explore  Mars  in  the  next  decade.  This  funding  would  also  enable 
NASA  to  make  a  Martian  fly-by  in  1969  to  test  the  spacecraft  and 
launch  vehicle  prior  to  the  1971  and  1973  missions. 

Major  portions  of  the  DOD  space  budget  were  alloted  for  the  follow- 
ing: (1)  pre-program  definition  phase  of  the  Manned  Orbiting  Labo- 
ratory (Mol)  ;  (2)  accelerated  research  on  reentry  and  recovery  of 
spacecraft;  (3)  continued  development  of  the  Titan  ill  space  booster; 
(4)  development  of  the  Defense  Communications  Satellite  System. 

Two  thirds  of  AEc's  budget  request  was  earmarked  for  development 
of  nuclear  rocket  propulsion  and  nuclear  power  sources  for  space 
applications.  The  nuclear  propulsion  program.  Project  Rover,  was  al- 
loted $84. 1  million;  the  nuclear  power  source  program,  Snap,  $70.5 
million;  and  advanced  projects  applicable  to  space,  $12  million.  The 
Pluto  reactor  program  was  not  included  in  the  budget  request. 

The  Weather  Bureau  would  start  its  investment  in  an  advanced 
weather  satellite  system  in  FY  66  with  a  $500,000  request  for  sensors 
and  subsystem  studies  in  conjunction  with  NASA  studies.  Funds  for 
three  Tiros  Operational  System  (Tos)  satellites  and  four  Delta  launch 
vehicles  to  be  delivered  in  two  years,  $21.6  million,  were  included  in 
the  budget  request.  Most  of  the  rest  was  requested  for  the  National 
Weather  Satellite  Center  (nwsc)  and  would  be  spent  to  convert  the 
present  Tiros  command  and  data  acquisition  facilities  to  full-time, 
operational  centers  run  solely  by  the  Weather  Bureau. 

President  Johnson  asked  Congress  for  $650  million  as  a  White 
House  contingency  fund  to  meet  the  possible  need  to  accelerate  super- 
sonic transport  development.  (Text,  M&R,  2/1/65,  10-17;  Text, 
NYT,  1/26/65,  26-28;  Av.  Wk.,  2/1/65,  16-17;  nasa  Budget  Briefing 
FY  1966) 
January  25:  President's  message  sending  budget  for  Fiscal  Year  1966  in- 
cluded the  following  remarks:  "Space  research  and  technology:  This 
Nation  has  embarked  on  a  bold  program  of  space  exploration  and 
research  which  holds  promise  of  rich  rewards  in  many  fields  of  Ameri- 
can life.  Our  boldness  is  clearly  indicated  by  the  broad  scope  of  our 
program  and  by  our  intent  to  send  men  to  the  moon  within  this  dec- 
ade. 

"The  costs  are  high — as  we  knew  they  would  be  when  we  launched 
this  effort.  We  have  seen  a  rise  in  annual  expenditures  for  the  space 
program  from  less  than  one-half  billion  dollars  in  1960  to  over  $4 
billion  in  1964. 

"Expenditures  are  continuing  to  increase.  However,  we  have  built 
up  momentum  and  are  concentrating  on  our  highest  priority 
goals.  Therefore,  we  will  no  longer  need  to  increase  space  out-lays  by 
huge  sums  each  year  in  order  to  meet  our  present  objectives. 

"This  budget  proposes  that  expenditures  increase  by  $22  million  in 
1966  over  1965.  This  is  the  smallest  annual  increase  since 
1959.  The  new  obligational  authority  requested  is  about  the  same  as 
enacted  for  1965."     (nasa  lar  iv/16) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  29 

January  25:  nasa  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  and  DOD  Secretary  Robert 
S.  McNamara  announced  nasa-dod  agreement  on  the  Manned  Orbiting 
Laboratory  (Moll,  released  in  conjunction  with  FY  1966  budget: 
".  .  .  Planning  for  the  Defense  manned  orbiting  laboratory  program 
will  also  consider,  in  cooperation  with  NASA,  broader  objectives  of  sci- 
entific and  general  technological  significance. 

"To  determine  the  essential  characteristics  of  the  vehicle  that  will  be 
required,  the  DOD  will  continue  intensive  studies  and  design  of  experi- 
ments and  systems  aimed  at  the  primary  military  objectives. 

"Cooperative  studies,  by  NASA  and  Defense,  will  identify  and  define 
scientific  and  general  technological  experiments  which  might  be  car- 
ried out,  with  NASA  participation,  in  conjunction  with  the  military 
program. 

"dod.  with  assistance  from  NASA,  will  compare  configurations  of 
Apollo  which  may  be  suitable  for  military  experiments  with  the  Gemi- 
ni B-MOL  configuration  to  determine  the  complete  system  that  can  meet 
the  primary  military  objectives  in  a  more  efficient,  less  costly,  or  more 
timely  fashion. 

"On  the  basis  of  these  studies,  a  decision  will  be  made  whether  to 
proceed  with  full-scale  development  by  Defense  of  a  manned  orbiting 
laboratory  system  and  what  the  specific  developments  and  vehicle 
configurations  are  to  be.  The  Defense  budget  includes  $150  million 
in  FY  1966  for  the  program.  .   .  . 

"Depending  upon  the  manned  orbiting  laboratory  decision,  upon  the 
progress  in  the  Gemini  and  Apollo  programs,  and  upon  the  results  of 
NASA  studies,  a  decision  will  be  made  whether  to  proceed  with 
modifications  to  the  Apollo  system  and  the  nature  and  timing  of  neces- 
sary specific  developments.  The  NASA  1966  budget  includes  about  $50 
million  for  proceeding  with  design  and  pacing  developments.  .  .  ." 
(NASA  Budget  Briefing  FY  1966) 
•  NASA  Associate  Administrator  Dr.  Robert  Seamans  said  during  FY 
1966  budget  briefing:  ".  .  .  it  is  conceivable  .  .  .  that  the  lunar 
landing  would  occur  in  early  1970  ...  we  feel  actually  greatly  en- 
couraged at  the  progress  that  has  been  made  freezing  the  design,  and 
we  feel  very  reassured  at  the  test  results  we  are  achieving  on  our 
propulsion  systems  and  with  our  stages.  So  that  we  really  feel  that 
there  is  more  chance  that  we  can  get  off  the  flight  on  an  earlier  mis- 
sion than  I  would  have  said  a  year  ago." 

Dr.  Seamans  said  Apollo  gave  the  nation  a  capability  for  a  wide 
variety  of  scientific  and  technological  flights  in  earth  orbit,  in  orbit 
around  the  moon,  and  also  for  an  extended  lunar  stay  time.  He  com- 
mented that  the  objectives  of  the  current  extended  Apollo  (Apollo-X) 
design  and  feasibility  studies  were  to  extend  the  time  of  the  lunar 
mission  out  to  the  order  of  two  weeks.  He  also  said  that  Apollo-X 
circumlunar  flights,  in  polar  orbit  about  the  moon  and  taking  pho- 
tographs of  the  entire  lunar  surface,  on  missions  that  could  involve 
staytimes  on  the  moon  of  up  to  one  or  two  weeks,  all  would  have  great 
possibility  and  would  offer  great  interest  scientifically.  In  comment- 
ing on  an  earlier  agreement  (1963)  with  the  Pentagon  for  developing 
of  a  manned  orbiting  laboratory.  Dr.  Seamans  said:  "At  the  time  of 


30  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

that  agreement,  we  were  really  thinking  of  something  that  we  now 
realize  is  further  out  in  time,  namely,  a  more  permanent  space  station 
that  could  stay  in  orbit  for  a  year's  time  and  could  be  resupplied,  and 
would  permit  the  crew  to  be  ferried  into  orbit  and  bring  them 
back.  The  study  really  related  to  that  kind  of  possibility  which  we 
now  realize  is  much  further  out  in  time  ...  we  may  end  up  with 
what  is  called  the  MOL,  and  we  may  also  find  that  there  are  important 
uses  for  the  Apollo  system  beyond  the  present  manned  lunar  landing 
program." 

He  said  NASA  studies  of  improving  both  the  Saturn  IB  and  the  Sat- 
urn V  launch  vehicles  indicated  that  "these  two  launch  vehicles  can 
take  care  of  our  needs  for  an  extended  period  of  time."  ( NASA  Budget 
Briefing  FY  1966) 
January  25:  nasa  announced  two  Radio  Astronomy  Explorer  satellites 
(rae-a  and  rae-b)  would  be  designed  to  investigate  low-frequency 
(long  wavelength)  emissions  from  our  galaxy,  its  planets,  and  the 
stars.  These  emissions  are  mostly  intercepted  by  the  ionosphere  so 
that  little  can  be  learned  about  them  from  ground-based  receivers. 
This  would  be  the  first  attempt  to  map  the  galaxy  for  low-frequency 
emissions.  The  280-lb.  spacecraft  would  be  launched  by  Thrust- 
Augmented  Delta  into  circular  orbits  at  altitudes  of  about  3,700  mi. 
and  would  measure  the  intensity  of  the  signals,  their  frequency,  times 
of  emission  and,  within  limitations,  define  the  regions  of  space  in 
which  they  originated.  Proposed  designs  called  for  the  development 
of  two  750-ft.,  V-shaped  antennas  that  would  be  mounted  opposite 
each  other,  forming  a  giant  X.  They  would  be  anchored  to  the  basic 
spacecraft,  a  cylinder  of  about  40-by-40  in.,  capped  by  two  truncated 
cones.  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  would  design,  integrate, 
and  test  the  two  spacecraft.  First  launch  was  not  expected  before 
1967.      (NASA  Release  65-20) 

•  AEC  announced  that  the  Snap-lOA  nuclear  generator  designed  for  space- 

craft had  produced  electricity  for  the  first  time  in  a  ground  test  at 
Canoga  Park,  Calif.,  by  its  builder.  Atomics  International.  The 
system  would  ultimately  provide  power  for  spaceship  propulsion  sys- 
tems such  as  the  ion  engine,  (aec  Release  H-18;  Wash.  Post, 
1/26/65) 

•  Univ.  of  Miami,  Coral  Gables,  Fla.,  bestowed  an  honorary  dectorate  upon 

NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb.  Mr.  Webb  said  in  a  speech  there: 
".  .  .  space  science  and  technology  are  not  remote  and  esoteric  pur- 
suits but  rather  are  deeply  woven  into  the  fabric  of  our  society.  The 
space  scientist  does  not  practice  a  new  art.  He  is  an  astronomer,  a 
physicist,  a  chemist,  a  geologist,  rooted  in  our  university  system  of 
vigorous  effort  to  expand  our  knowledge  of  the  universe  in  which  we 
live.  The  space  technologist  is  an  engineer  of  materials,  structures, 
fuels,  power  sources,  electronics,  rooted  in  our  industrial  and  govern- 
ment laboratory  systems.  Both,  however,  are  directing  their  interests 
and  talents  to  the  newest  and  most  exciting  frontiers — where  the  most 
rapid  progress  is  made  and  the  breakthroughs  scored.  The  knowledge 
they  gain  feeds  back  into  our  scientific  and  technical  communities  and 
into  our  industrial  laboratories.  .  .  .  Thus,  the  talents,  the  skills, 
and  the  funds  for  space  exploration  are  all  drawn  broadly  from  our 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  31 

society  and  continue  to  feed  back  into  it,  in  the  forefront  of  scientific 
and  technical  progress — the  unique  hallmark  of  the  American 
way."  (Text) 
January  25:  ComSatCorp  filed  with  the  FCC  its  intent  to  contract  for  24 
satellites  that  could  be  used  by  ComSatCorp  to  provide  a  global  com- 
munications service  for  DOD.  The  satellites  would  be  made  available 
for  three  launchings  which  DOD  had  slated  for  the  early  part  of  1966 
on  either  a  Titan  iiic  or  Atlas-Agena  D  launch  vehicle.  DOD  would 
pay  only  for  service  rendered  following  successful  launch,  with  Com 
SatCorp  assuming  the  risk  if  the  satellites  did  not  work  satisfactorily 
in  orbit.  This  proposal  was  separate  from  the  program  managed  by 
ComSatCorp  to  develop  an  international  commercial  communications 
satellite  system.      (ComSatCorp  Release) 

•  USAF  was  reported  to  be  considering  the  use  of  surplus  Wing  1  Minute- 

man  ICBMS  as  Guidance  Error  Analysis  Vehicles  (Geav).  Accord- 
ing to  Air  Force  Central  Inertial  Guidance  Test  Facility  (cigtf), 
surplus  Minuteman  boosters  could  be  the  cheapest  means  to  evaluate 
future  inertial  guidance  systems  in  a  true  missile  environment.  ETR 
was  selected  for  Geav  because  no  other  range  could  measure  missile 
velocity  in  three  axes  to  the  required  accuracy.  The  Minuteman  guid- 
ance system  itself  would  be  reprogramed  and  located  in  a  recoverable 
payload  for  reasons  of  economy.      {M&R,  1/25/65,  34) 

•  Dr.  A.  J.  Drummond  of  Eppley  Laboratory,  Newport,  R.I.,  told  Missiles 

and  Rockets  that  a  number  of  Russian  cosmonauts  were  said  to  have 
died  in  booster  failures  at  launch.  Dr.  Drummond  got  his  informa- 
tion through  unofficial  sources  while  attending  a  technical  meeting  in 
Leningrad  last  year.  He  also  said  there  were  no  large  solar-simulation 
testing  facilities  in  the  Soviet  Union  and  that  Soviet  spacecraft  used 
crude  bulk  insulation  for  thermal  control  instead  of  emission-absorp- 
tion coatings.  ( M&R.  1/25/65,  7 ) 
January  26:  USN  fired  a  Hydra-Iris  sea-launched  sounding  rocket,  to  184- 
mi.  altitude  carrying  a  100-lb.  payload.  The  rocket  was  launched 
from  a  point  about  1,400  mi.  east  of  Montevideo,  Uruguay.  Mission 
was  to  measure  radiation  intensity  within  the  inner  Van  Allen  radia- 
tion belt.      (M&/?,  2/8/65,  8) 

•  The  first  j-2  liquid-hydrogen  rocket  engine  built  to  flight  configuration 

was  delivered  to  Douglas  Aircraft  Co.,  Sacramento,  for  installation  and 
testing  in  the  Saturn  S-IVB  battleship  stage.  The  200,000-lb.-thrust 
engine  had  been  recently  accepted  by  NASA  from  Rocketdyne  Div., 
North  American  Aviation,  Inc.      {Marshall  Star,  1/27/65,  1,  6) 

•  Dr.  John  D.  Nicolaides,  Chairman  of  Notre  Dame's  Aerospace  Engineer- 

ing Dept.,  formerly  Special  Assistant  to  the  NASA  Associate  Administra- 
tor for  Space  Science  and  Applications,  told  National  Space  Club  at  a 
Washington,  D.C.,  luncheon  that  we  must  realize  we  were  "not  yet  first 
in  the  race  for  space  supremacy.  .  .  .  The  [Soviet]  lead  in  both 
numbers  and  weights  of  unmanned  launchings  continues  to 
increase.  They  are  publishing  just  as  many  scientific  papers  as  we  are 
and  they  are  just  as  good."  Nicolaides  added  that  he  was  not  includ- 
ing their  work  in  life  sciences  "which  is  well  ahead  of  ours  by  virtue 
of  the  simple  fact  that  they  have  been  experimenting  in  space." 

Dr.   Nicolaides  said  he  was   alarmed   by  the  U.S.S.R.'s   "extensive 
planetary  program."     They  started  early  and  continued  a  truly  mas- 


32  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

sive  effort  compared  to  ours,  he  said.  "They  are  launching  their 
heavy  spacecraft  at  each  opportunity  to  both  Mars  and  Venus,  while 
we  have  abandoned  Venus  completely  and  are  only  studying  scientific 
measurement  on  Mars  in  1971.  .  .  ."  (NSC  Newsletter,  2/65) 
January  26:  usaf  selected  Thiokol  Chemical  Corp.  and  Lockheed  Propul- 
sion Co.  to  develop  and  test  new  156-in.-dia.  solid-propellant  motors 
during  1965.  Lockheed  would  develop  two  of  the  three  motors.  The 
first  would  be  a  flight-weight  motor  with  thrust  in  excess  of  three 
million  pounds.  The  second  motor  would  be  in  the  one-million- 
pound-thrust  class  and  would  incorporate  a  submerged  nozzle.  Both 
motors  would  use  advanced  liquid  injection  thrust  vector  control  to 
explore  methods  of  guiding  huge  motors  of  this  size.  Thiokol's  Wa- 
satch Div.  of  Brigham  City,  Utah,  would  develop  the  third 
motor.  This  flight-weight  motor  would  have  a  thrust  of  over  320,000 
lb.,  and  incorporate  a  deeply  submerged  nozzle  permitting  the  total 
motor  length  to  be  under  21  ft.      (dod  Release  52-65) 

•  At  the  AIAA  Aerospace   Sciences   Meeting   and   Honors   Convocation   in 

New  York,  awards  were  made  to  men  who  had  made  valuable  con- 
tributions to  development  of  the  aerospace  industry: 

Dr.  Eugene  N.  Parker,  associate  professor  at  the  Enrico  Fermi  Insti- 
tute of  Nuclear  Studies,  Univ.  of  Chicago,  received  the  Space  Science 
Award  "for  distinguished  individual  research  on  the  causes  and  prop- 
erties of  the  solar  wind." 

Arthur  E.  Raymond,  responsible  for  the  design  of  the  Douglas  DC 
series  of  commercial  transports  received  the  Sylvanus  Albert  Reed 
Award.  He  was  honored  for  "numerous  and  distinguished  con- 
tributions to  the  aeronautical  sciences  and  the  development  of  aircraft 
during  the  last  30  years." 

Igor  I.  Sikorsky  and  Michael  Gluhareff  were  given  the  1964'  Elmer 
A.  Sperry  Award.  Mr.  Sikorsky  was  cited  as  a  helicopter  pioneer  for 
"the  concept  and  development  of  a  new  form  of  aerial  transportation 
capable  of  carrying  and  placing  large  external  loads  over  any 
terrain."  Mr.  Gluhareff  was  honored  for  his  engineering  con- 
tributions in  the  development  of  the  multipurpose  helicopter. 

Dr.  Wallace  D.  Hayes,  professor  of  aerospace  engineering  at  Prince- 
ton University,  received  aiaa's  fourth  annual  Research  Award  for  his 
leading  role  in  the  development  of  supersonic  and  hypersonic  flow 
theory. 

Sir  Frank  Whittle,  British  engineer,  was  named  first  recipient  of  the 
Goddard  Award  for  his  "imagination,  skill,  persistence,  and  courage  in 
pioneering  the  gas  turbine  as  a  jet  propulsion  aircraft  engine,  thus 
revolutionizing  military  and  commercial  aviation  for  all  time." 

Harry  F.  Guggenheim,  who  had  supported  aerospace  endeavors,  re- 
ceived a  special  commendation  for  his  "contributions,  encouragement, 
and  personal  participation  in  the  development  of  aviation  and  rock- 
etry." {NYT,  1/21/65,  53M;  NYT,  1/27/65,  58;  NYT,  1/9/65,  50; 
Av.  Wk.,  1/25/65;  Av.  Wk.,  1/11/65,  13;  Langley  Researcher 
1/29/65) 

•  An  article  by  Omer  Anderson  on  U.A.R.  rocket  program  was  inserted 

in  the  Congressional  Record  by  Rep.  Silvio  Conte  (R-Mass.).  Based 
on  interviews  with  German  scientists  just  back  from  Egypt  and  with 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  33 

West  German  defense  ministry  officials  who  debriefed  them  after  their 
return,  the  article  said:  "Egypt's  missile  program  is  considerably 
further  advanced  than  is  generally  realized  in  the  West. 

"Some  of  these  scientists  who  have  returned  to  West  Germany  say 
that  Nasser  will  have  the  missiles  to  devastate  wide  areas  of  Israel  by 
late  1967  and  that  he  will  have  rockets  with  a  1-ton  payload  by  the  end 
of  1965. 

"West  German  defense  ministry  experts  who  have  questioned  the 
returning  rocket  scientists  regard  their  assessment  of  Nasser's  rocket 
potential  as  entirely  realistic  and  possibly  too  conservative. 

"The  scientists  say  Nasser  has  accelerated  greatly  his  rocket  pro- 
gram since  the  first  test  firing  of  four  missiles  on  July  22, 
1962."  (CR,  1/26/65,  1160) 
January  26:  Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge  Space  Technology  Laboratories 
chosen  as  the  winner  in  a  two-year  design  competition  to  produce  the 
rocket  engine  for  Apollo  Lunar  Excursion  Module  (Lem).  The  liquid- 
propellant  engine  was  designed  to  vary  its  power  output  between  a  low 
of  1,000  lb.  thrust  and  a  high  of  10,000  lb.      (NYT,  1/29/65) 

•  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics  began  a  two-day  seminar 

with  a  panel  discussion  on  science  and  technology,  with  specific  refer- 
ence to  aeronautics.  Speaker  of  the  House  John  W.  McCormack 
opened  the  seminar. 

Senate  Committee  on  Aeronautical  and  Space  Sciences  began  execu- 
tive hearings  on  the  subject  of  launch  vehicles.      ( NASA  LAR  iv/l7) 

•  In  U.S.  launch  vehicles  hearings  before  Senate  Committee  on  Aeronauti- 

cal and  Space  Sciences,  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  discussed 
recent  study  by  the  Aeronautics  and  Astronautics  Coordinating  Board's 
Launch  Vehicles  Panel: 

"In  considering  the  merits  of  canceling  certain  vehicles  in  order  to 
provide  quantity  production  of  the  remaining  vehicles,  the  Launch  Ve- 
hicle Panel  of  the  aacb  evaluated  several  alternatives  against  a  fore- 
cast of  dod's  and  nasa's  needs  over  the  next  10  years.  This  space- 
mission  forecast  served  as  a  basis  for  determining  the  number  of  launch 
vehicles  required  and  the  cost  of  producing  the  various  combinations 
of  these  launch  vehicles. 

"The  result  of  the  study  is  particularly  interesting  in  that  it  shows  a 
cost  difference  of  less  than  1  per  cent  among  the  alternative 
options.  This  difference  is  less  than  the  accuracy  of  the  data  used  in 
the  analysis.  The  results  indicate  that  any  economies  that  might  be 
realized  by  increased  quantity  production  of  boosters  would  be  lost 
through  cost  of  adapting  specific  mission  spacecraft  to  a  new  vehicle 
where  the  costs  of  such  work  have  already  been  incurred.  .  .  . 

"The  major  advantages  of  the  recent  comprehensive  study  .  .  .  ,  as 
distinct  from  previous  reviews,  were  the  development  of  much  im- 
proved methods  for  estimating  the  costs  of  launch  vehicles  considering 
the  effects  of  quantity  production,  variety  of  vehicles,  and  inplant 
workload;  the  use  of  an  inclusive  or  overall  forecast  as  a  basis  for 
determination  of  both  DOD  and  nasa  space  missions  against  which  total 
launch  vehicles  costs  could  be  calculated;  and  the  value  of  the  results 
of  the  study  to  NASA  to  confirm  our  judgment  on  the  use  of  the  SATURN 
I-B  for  the  APOLLO  and  voyager  missions. 


34  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

".  .  .  we  are  making  extensive  use  of  DOD-developed  launch  vehicles 
and  will  continue  to  do  so  for  some  time  to  come.  However,  a  wider 
variety  of  first-stage  boosters  and  upper  stages  is  required  by  NASA 
space  missions  than  by  those  of  the  DOD.  We  have  requirements  for 
a  wider  range  of  variety  of  size,  payload.  and  velocity  for  our  missions. 
We  have  been  carefully  investigating  our  future  vehicle  needs;  opti- 
mum vehicle  configurations:  and  the  most  promising  advanced  propul- 
sion methods  to  be  sure  that  our  program  will  provide  the  options  that 
the  country  will  need  in  making  decisions  to  undertake  future  missions. 

".  .  .  we  are  utilizing  the  channels  and  procedures  established  by 
the  DOD— NASA  launch  vehicle  agreement  and  by  the  AACB  to  coordinate 
the  needs  and  activities  of  NASA  and  the  DOD  to  assure  the  most  effective 
national  launch  vehicle  program.  However,  we  are  presenting  to  the 
Congress,  in  our  budgets  each  year,  the  specific  booster  needs  we  have 
over  and  above  those  which  can  be  met  by  DOD-developed  sys- 
tems. .  .  ."  (Hearings  .  .  .  National  Space  Launch  Vehicles,  6-19) 
January  26:  USN  began  tests  of  two  new  air-cushion  vehicles  variously 
called  hydro-skimmers,  hovercraft,  or  ground  effects  machines.  The 
craft  were  lifted  a  few  feet  above  the  surface  by  cushions  of  air  trapped 
beneath  their  hulls  and  were  driven  at  speeds  up  to  50  knots  by  air- 
craft propellers.  The  vehicles  would  be  tested  during  the  next  three 
to  six  months  to  determine  their  potential  usefulness  and  operational 
suitability  for  naval  operations.      (Baldwin,  NYT,  1/31/65,  88) 

•  Federal  Aviation  Agency  (faa)  Administrator  Najeeb  E.  Halaby  told  the 

House  Science  and  Astronautics  Committee  that  designs  of  U.S.  manu- 
facturers for  the  proposed  supersonic  airliner  "demonstrated  clearly 
the  feasibility"  of  building  a  plane  that  would  prove  as  profitable,  if 
not  more  so,  over  transcontinental  or  greater  ranges  as  current  jet 
airliners.  Presidential  Committee  to  evaluate  Sst  program  would  be- 
gin its  extensive  critical  review  late  next  month.  (Clark,  NYT,  1/27/ 
65,  19) 

•  Sen.  A.  S.  Monroney  (D-Okla.)   suggested  in  a  speech  before  the  Aero 

Club  of  Washington  that  the  experimental  RS-70  bomber  be  used  as 
a  test  plane  for  U.S.  supersonic  transport  program.  Monroney  was 
interested  in  more  extensive  use  of  the  RS-70  for  civil  airliner  studies 
than  had  been  made  by  NASA.  He  said  use  of  the  RS-70  could  produce 
savings  in  both  development  and  construction  costs  of  the  proposed 
airliner.      (Sehlstedt,  Bah.  Sun,  1/27/65) 

•  William   C.   Foster,   Director  of  U.S.   Arms   Control   and   Disarmament 

Agency,  said  in  testimony  before  House  Foreign  Affairs  Committee 
that  radioactive  leakage  from  Soviet  underground  nuclear  test  Jan.  15 
was  apparently  accidental.  The  radioactive  fallout  apparently  did  not 
violate  the  intent  of  the  1963  nuclear  test-ban  treaty.  (FonF,  1965, 
61) 

•  The  British  Defense  Ministry  announced  that  its  fleet  of  Valiant  bombers 

would  be  scrapped  because  of  weakened  structure  caused  by  metal 
fatigue.  Valiant  was  the  first  of  the  three  "V"  types  of  jet  bombers 
built  by  U.K.  following  World  War  ii.  They  had  been  in  service  nine 
years  and  only  about  half  the  original  force  remained  in  service  as 
reconnaissance  or  tankers.  This  would  not  affect  Britain's  con- 
tribution to  NATO  or  its  proposal  for  an  Atlantic  nuclear  force.  {NYT, 
1/27/65) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  35 

January  26:  Richard  E.  Horner,  former  Associate  Administrator  of  NASA 
(1959-60),  was  installed  as  1965  president  of  the  American  Institute 
of  Aeronautics  and  Astronautics.      {Av.  Wk.,  2/8/65,  13) 

January  27 :  President  Johnson  sent  to  the  House  and  Senate  his  message 
transmitting  annual  report  on  the  U.S.  space  activities.  In  his  letter, 
President  Johnson  said:  "The  advances  of  1964  were  gratifying  and 
heartening  omens  of  the  gains  and  good  to  come  from  our  determined 
national  undertaking  in  exploring  the  frontiers  of  space.  While  this 
great  enterprise  is  still  young,  we  began  during  the  year  past  to  realize 
its  potential  in  our  life  on  earth.  As  this  report  notes,  practical  uses 
of  the  benefits  of  space  technology  were  almost  commonplace  around 
the  globe — warning  us  of  gathering  storms,  guiding  our  ships  at  sea, 
assisting  our  mapmakers  and  serving,  most  valuably  of  all,  to  bring 
the  peoples  of  many  nations  closer  together  in  joint  peaceful  endeav- 
ors. 

"Substantial  strides  have  been  made  in  a  very  brief  span  of  time — 
and  more  are  to  come.  We  expect  to  explore  the  moon,  not  just  visit 
it  or  photograph  it.  We  plan  to  explore  and  chart  planets  as 
well.  We  shall  expand  our  earth  laboratories  into  space  laboratories 
and  extend  our  national  strength  into  the  space  dimension." 

A  hypersonic  aircraft — one  that  could  fly  the  Atlantic  in  less  than  an 
hour — had  reached  the  stage  where  models  were  being  constructed  for 
wind  tunnel  tests.  President  Johnson's  report  disclosed:  "Two  struc- 
tural models  embodying  design  concepts  applicable  to  the  fuselage  of  a 
hydrogen-fueled  hypersonic  aircraft  were  being  constructed  for  testing 
at  1,500-2,500°  F — temperatures  likely  to  be  encountered  in  hyperson- 
ic flight.  Equipment  was  developed  for  inducing  angular  oscillations 
in  the  test  section  flow  of  a  large  transonic  wind  tunnel  and  will  be 
used  to  obtain  the  dynamic  response  of  wind  tunnel  models."  {CR, 
1/27/65,  1366;  V.S.  News,  2/2/65) 

•  NASA  launched  a  Nike-Cajun  with  acoustic  grenade  experiment  at  Point 

Barrow,  Alaska,  to  obtain  upper  atmospheric  meterological  data  within 
the  Arctic  Circle.  12  grenades  were  ejected  and  detonated  at  intervals 
from  about  25  to  56  mi.  altitude  as  the  rocket  ascended.  By  recording 
the  sounds  on  five  sensitive  microphones  on  the  ground,  scientists 
could  obtain  wind  direction  and  velocity,  atmospheric  temperature, 
density,  and  pressure  data.  This  was  the  first  of  a  series  of  such  ex- 
periments to  gather  upper  atmospheric  data  within  the  Arctic  Circle. 
Point  Barrow  was  1,100  mi.  from  the  North  Pole  and  300  mi.  within 
the  Arctic  Circle,  at  71°  north  latitude.  (Wallops  Release  65-4;  AP, 
NYT,  1/29/65) 

•  NASA  Langley  Research  Center  requested  G.  T.  Schjeldahl  Co.  to  submit  a 

bid  for  construction  of  six  inflatable  100-ft.,  130-lb.  spherical  satellites 
to  be  used  in  the  national  geodetic  satellite  program.  They  would  be 
nearly  identical  to  echo  i  and  would  be  named  Pageos  (Passive 
Geodetic  Satellite  ( . 

Pageos  would  be  launched  in  1966  into  a  near-polar  orbit  at  an 
altitude  of  about  2,300  mi.  Ground  camera  stations  would  simultane- 
ously photograph  it  against  a  star  background  to  gather  precise  data 
for  locating  any  point  on  Earth. 


36  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

The  other  two  types  of  spacecraft  to  be  used  in  the  geodetic  satellite 
program  would  be  the  350-lb.  Geos  and  the  120-lb.  Beacon  Explorer- 
B.  (NASA  Release  65-22;  Beacon  Explorer-B  Press  Kit) 
January  27 :  nasa  Ames  Research  Center  discussed  for  the  press  the  major 
significant  advances  in  aeronautics  and  space-oriented  research  ac- 
complished by  the  Center  during  1964.  Accomplishments  cited  were: 
(1)  establishing  feasibility  of  manned  control  of  large  boosters;  (2) 
problem  definition  for  hypersonic  transport;  (3)  design  of  new  take- 
off and  landing  aid  to  precisely  locate  aircraft  position  on  the  runway ; 
(4)  design  of  probe  vehicle  to  define  Mars  atmosphere;  (5)  improve- 
ment of  M-2  maneuverable  atmosphere  entry  craft;  (6)  discovery  that 
Mars  contamination  problem  is  probably  not  severe;  (7)  development 
of  system  for  measuring  stress  in  humans;  (8)  demonstration  of  need 
for  special  training  for  jet  transport  pilots  to  combat  severe  air  turbu- 
lence; (9)  discovery  in  meteorite  of  an  extraterrestrial  mineral  un- 
known on  earth;  (10)  feasibility  demonstration  of  moon  and  planet 
mission  navigation  by  hand-held  sextant;  (11)  formulation  of 
certification  requirements  for  supersonic  transport  take-off;  (12)  de- 
sign of  ducted-fan  to  provide  efficient  airflow  for  flight  from  hover  to 
high  subsonic  speeds;  (13)  formation  of  organic  material  under  Mar- 
tian conditions;  (14)  development  of  a  new  magnetic  field  chamber; 
(15)  derivation  of  formula  for  simple  calculation  of  convective  (fric- 
tion) heating  of  spacecraft  in  planet  atmospheres;  (16)  tests  of  radia- 
tive heating  in  simulated  planet  atmospheres;  (17)  improvement  of 
techniques  for  prediction  of  heat  shield  performance;  (18)  develop- 
ment of  a  low-power,  high-performance  magnetometer;  (19)  measure- 
ments of  solar  wind  on  imp-b  and  OGO  ii;  (20)  feasibility  demon- 
stration of  new  pod  for  vertical-lift  engines  for  Vtol  aircraft  at  flight 
speeds  up  to  170  mph.      (arc  Release) 

•  Experiments  at  NASA  Ames  Research  Center  by  Dr.  John  Young  and  Dr. 

Cyril  Ponnamperuma  indicated  that  Mars  may  lie  under  a  steady  rain 
of  edible  sugars  produced  photochemically  in  the  Martian  atmosphere. 
It  was  speculated  that  the  sugars  and  other  compounds  might  drift  to 
the  Martian  surface,  seep  into  the  soil,  and  form  underground  reser- 
voirs of  nutrients. 

Results  of  tests  for  survival  of  50  strains  of  earth  bacteria  in  simu- 
lated Martian  atmosphere  indicated  that  the  strains  of  bacteria  which 
form  hard  spores  and  are  thus  most  likely  to  survive  space  flight  are 
most  sensitive  to  the  freeze-thaw  extremes  of  temperature  that  prevail 
on  Mars.  Thus,  while  the  bacteria  might  survive  on  Mars  in  spore 
form,  they  would  not  grow  there  and  would  not  contaminate  the 
planet.     Other  bacteria  would  die  en  route.      {S.F.  Chron.,  1/28/65) 

•  In  U.S.  launch  vehicles  hearings  before  Senate  Committee  on  Aeronau- 

tical and  Space  Sciences,  Dr.  Alexander  Flax,  Assistant  Secretary  of 
the  Air  Force  (r&d),  said: 

"In  general,  the  joint  dod-nasa  study  [by  the  aacb]  has  shown 
that  no  drastic  revisions  to  the  national  launch  vehicle  family  are 
required  to  meet  the  mission  demands  that  we  can  project  for  the 
immediate  future  and  that  further  no  drastic  revisions  can  be  justified 
on  purely  economic  grounds.  In  addition,  it  is  clear  that  the  exten- 
sive effort  on  the  part  of  both  the  dod  and  the  nasa  in  improving, 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  37 

launch  vehicle  system  reliability  has  been  paying  off,  and  that  we  can 
expect  a  continuing  trend  in  this  regard.  However,  it  is  important 
to  also  recognize  some  of  the  natural  limitations  inherent  in  any  long- 
range  projection  of  requirements  such  as  we  have  had  to  make  for  this 
study  period.  There  are  a  number  of  areas  in  which  unforeseen  in- 
creased mission  capability  demands  could  react  on  our  launch  vehicle 
performance  requirements.  We  must,  therefore,  continually  maintain 
effective  exploratory  and  advanced  development  programs  which  will 
provide  us  with  the  technology  to  meet  such  demands  in  the  fu- 
ture. .  .  ."  {Hearings  .  .  .  National  Space  Launch  Vehicles,  87) 
January  27:  William  M.  Allen,  president  at  the  Boeing  Co.,  addressed  Na- 
tional Defense  Transportation  Association  in  Washington,  D.C.:  "Our 
first  Boeing  study  of  a  supersonic  transport  was  made  in  1952.  Pre- 
liminary design  effort  was  started  more  seriously  in  1956  and  1957. 
Then  in  1958  the  SST  became  a  major  engineering  project  and  it  has 
continued  in  that  status  ever  since,  involving  many  of  our  top  engi- 
neers. 

"From  the  start  of  our  effort  to  the  present,  design  determinations 
have  come  in  an  orderly  and  unhurried  progression,  as  a  result  of  the 
integration  of  mountains  of  test  data,  much  of  it  worked  out  in  close 
conjunction  with  NASA  laboratories  which,  incidentally,  deserve  the 
sincere  thanks  of  the  American  people  for  their  pioneering  work  in 
this  field. 

"In  the  process  we  explored  290  configurations,  and  completed  wind 
tunnel  testing  on  56  different  high-speed  wings.  .  .  ."  (CR,  1/28/65, 
1454-56) 

•  Gen.  Bernard  A.  Schriever  (USAF),  Commander  of  the  Air  Force  Systems 

Command,  described  to  members  of  the  Charlotte,  N.C.,  Chamber  of 
Commerce  the  development  of  the  U.S.  ballistic  missile  program:  "In 
the  ballistic  missile  program,  of  course,  we  were  not  concerned  with 
the  missile  alone— complicatd  as  it  was- — but  also  had  the  problem 
of  constructing  the  facilities  to  test  the  missiles;  building  the  ground 
support  equipment;  and  training  crews  to  install,  service,  and  launch 
the  missiles.  This  was  a  $17  billion  program,  and  was  larger  in  scope 
than  the  Manhattan  Project  which  produced  the  atomic  bomb  during 
World  War  ii. 

"To  give  you  some  idea  of  the  size  of  the  task,  imagine  that  Henry 
Ford  in  the  early  days  had  not  only  had  the  problem  of  designing  and 
building  his  automobiles,  but  at  the  same  time  had  to  construct  all  the 
highways  and  bridges,  build  all  the  service  stations  and  garages,  and 
plan  and  conduct  driver  training  programs.  .  .  ."      (Text) 

•  R.  E.  Clarson,  Inc.,  St.  Petersburg,  Florida,  was  awarded  a  S2,179,000 

NASA  contract  for  miscellaneous  additions  and  changes  at  Launch  Com- 
plex 34  for  the  Saturn  IB.  Work  would  be  done  at  Cape  Kennedy, 
Florida.  The  contract  was  awarded  by  the  Army  Corps  of  Engineers. 
(dod  Release  53-65) 

•  National  Science  Foundation  announced  that  an  ocean  area  100  mi.  nne 

of  Maui  Island  of  the  Hawaiian  Islands  had  been  tentatively  selected 
as  the  site  for  the  attempt  to  drill  a  six-mi. -deep  hole  into  the  ocean 
bottom  to  penetrate  beyond  the  earth's  crust.     The  operation  would  be 


38  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

called  Project  Mohole  and  would  be  an  attempt  to  gain  knowledge  of 
the  earth's  origin  and  structure,  the  formation  of  minerals,  and  the 
causes  of  earthquakes.  Drilling  was  expected  to  begin  in 
1968.  (Clark,  NYT,  1/28/65,  50;  ap,  Wash.  Post,  1/28/65) 
January  27 :  Stellar  objects  dubbed  "interlopers"  had  been  discovered  by 
the  Mt.  Wilson-Palomar  Observatories  in  California.  Dr.  Allan  R. 
Sandage  of  Mt.  Wilson  said  an  effort  would  be  made  to  determine 
whether  the  new  objects  were  a  form  of  quasar.  He  said  an  alternative 
possibility  was  that  the  objects  were  a  rare  form  of  star  system  in 
which  two  stars  lay  so  close  to  each  other  that  the  presence  of  one 
caused  explosions  on  the  surface  of  the  other.  The  resulting  strongly 
ultraviolet  light  would  superficially  resemble  that  of  quasars.  Dr. 
Sandage  reported  that  so  far  about  45  quasars  had  been  identified. 
The  "interlopers,"  so  called  because  of  their  close  resemblance  to 
quasars,  had  been  found  at  the  rate  of  two  to  a  square  degree  of  sky 
in  the  Umited  region  studied.  So  far,  they  totaled  four.  (Sullivan, 
ISYT,  1/27/65,  31) 

•  J.  Gordon  Vaeth  of  the  U.S.  Weather  Bureau's  National  Weather  Satellite 

Center  told  the  American  Meteorological  Society  that  the  Weather 
Bureau  was  developing  a  system  in  which  buoys  moored  in  the  ocean 
would  broadcast  weather  data  to  communications  satellites  that  would 
rebroadcast  it  almost  instantaneously  to  almost  any  point  on  earth. 

Mr.  Vaeth  said  the  initial  optimum  number  of  buoys  would  be  300, 
spaced  about  600  mi.  apart  in  major  ocean  regions.  They  would  be 
moored  at  known,  fixed  points  and  would  send  data  on  sea  and  air 
temperature,  wind  direction  and  velocity,  and  barometric  pressure. 
Relays  from  the  satellites  would  be  by  very-high-frequency  radio  and 
would  be  picked  up  on  the  ground  by  inexpensive  receiving  stations, 
aircraft,  or  ships  at  sea.  . 

Mr.  Vaeth  saw  the  buoy  network  as  an  ideal  vehicle  for  internation- 
al cooperation  in  meteorology.      (Schmeck,  NYT,  1/28/65,  50) 

•  France   announced   it   would   build   a   launching   site   for   spacecraft    in 

French  Guiana,  on  the  northeast  coast  of  South  America,  to  be  ready 
Jan.  1,  1968.      (Reuters,  Wash.  Post,  1/28/65) 

•  USAF  said  in  its  Project  Blue  Book  that  no  Ufo  "has  ever  given  any 

indication  of  a  threat  to  our  national  security"  or  displayed  "tech- 
nological developments  or  principals  beyond  the  range  of  present  day 
scientific  knowledge."  Report  covered  8,908  sightings  during  past  18 
yrs,  including  532  during  1964.  (Noyes,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  1/27/65, 
28) 

•  A  new  theory  for  the  behavior  of  matter,  called  su-6,  was  presented  in 

New  York  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  American  Physical  Society  by 
Dr.  Abraham  Pais  of  the  Rockefeller  Institute.  The  concept,  based  on 
a  branch  of  mathematics  known  as  symmetry  group  theory,  supported 
views  that  all  matter  might  be  composed  of  basic  building  blocks,  or 
"quarks,"  that  could  be  either  real  fragments  or  mathematical  entities 
smaller  than  the  electron.  It  grouped  the  100+  known  fragments  of 
matter  into  groups  and  then  predicted  behavior.  A  modification 
makes  the  theory  also  compatible  with  Einstein's  relativity 
theory.      (Sullivan,  NYT,  1/28/65,  1,  10) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  39 

January  28:  mariner  iv,  launched  two  months  ago,  was  11,873,789  mi. 
from  earth  and  moving  toward  Mars  at  a  speed  of  12,291  mph  relative 
to  the  earth  at  9  a.m.  est.  Velocity  relative  to  the  sun  was  67,086 
mph.      (NASA  Release  65-21) 

•  The  first  major  Saturn  V  flight  component,  a  33-ft.-dia.,  60,000-lb.  corru- 

gated tail  section  which  would  support  the  booster's  five  1.5-million-lb.- 
thrust  engines,  arrived  at  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  from 
NASA  Michoud  Operations,  near  New  Orleans.     The  section  was  one  of 
five  major  structural  units  comprising  Saturn  V's  first  stage.      {Mar- 
shall Star,  1/27/65,  1) 

•  USAF   announced   a   four-stage   Blue   Scout  Jr.   rocket  combination  with 

a  scientific  payload  had  failed  after  launch  from  Cape  Kennedy.  The 
second  stage  developed  trouble  about  100  sec.  after  launching,  causing 
the  range  safety  officer  to  send  destruct  signal.  The  stage  broke  apart 
on  its  own.  The  third  stage,  meanwhile,  separated  from  the  second 
stage,  ignited,  and  followed  approximately  its  preplanned  path.  The 
fourth  stage  failed  to  ignite;  it  and  the  payload  plummeted  harmlessly 
into  the  Atlantic  Ocean  southwest  of  Ascension  Island.  The  probe 
was  to  have  sent  its  instrumented  payload  24,500  mi.  into  space  to 
study  earth's  magnetic  field.  (NYT,  1/29/65;  U.S.  Aeron.  &  Space 
Act.,  1965,  132) 

•  Construction    work   at   Cape   Kennedy   halted    as    3,700   building   trade 

workers  stayed  off  the  job  in  a  two-year-old  contract  dispute  with 
NASA.  The  present  dispute  was  between  building  trades  unions  and 
the  Marion  Power  Shovel  Co.,  a  NASA  contractor,  over  pay  scales. 
Work  on  44  projects  involving  contracts  totaling  $192  million  had 
been  brought  to  a  standstill.  The  biggest  project  affected  was  the 
52-story  Saturn  V  moon  rocket  assembly  building  that  was  to  be  ready 
for  the  first  of  these  rockets  within  two  years.  (UPI,  A^FT",  1/29/65, 
6;  AP,  Houston  Post,  1/29/65) 

•  President  Johnson,  on  the  advice  of  Defense  Secretary  McNamara,  and 

contrary  to  the  opinion  of  the  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff,  had  decided  to 
postpone  the  production  order  for  the  Nike-X  missile  defense  system, 
Neal  Stanford  of  the  Christian  Science  Monitor  asserted.  $2  billion 
had  already  been  spent  on  the  R&D  phase  of  the  Nike-X  and  an  addi- 
tional S20  billion  would  be  required  to  produce  and  deploy  it.  The 
FY  1966  budget  provided  approximately  S400  million  for  continued 
research  and  development  on  the  Nike-X  system  pending  the  decision 
on  whether  to  put  Nike-X  into  production.  (Stanford,  CSM, 
1/28/65) 

•  Army  XV-9a  experimental  pressure  jet  helicopter,  which  was  first  flown 

on  November  5,  1964,  gave  its  first  public  demonstration  in  Culver 
City,  Calif.  It  was  designed  and  developed  under  a  U.S.  Army  Trans- 
portation Research  Command  contract  with  the  Hughes  Tool  Company 
to  evaluate  the  hot-cycle  pressure  jet  system  which  would  eliminate  the 
requirement  for  heavy  gear  boxes,  complex  mechanical  drive  compo- 
nents, and  an  antitorque  tail  rotor.  Aircraft  based  on  this  concept 
could  carry  payloads  greater  than  the  empty  weight  of  the  aircraft 
itself.      (DOD  Release  55-65)  •       • 

January  29:  AEC  said  in  its  Annual  Report  to  Congress  that  the  United 
States  now  had  four  Vela  satellites  in  distant  orbits  to  detect  nuclear 


40  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

explosions  in  space.  Two  more  would  be  launched  this  year.  U.S. 
facilities  in  the  Pacific  had  been  brought  to  a  state  of  instant  readiness 
to  resume  atmospheric  testing  should  the  Soviet  Union  violate  the  lim- 
ited nuclear  test  ban  treaty,  (aec  Annual  Report,  76-77) 
January  29:  Speaking  on  the  Senate  floor.  Sen.  Richard  B.  Russell  (  D-Ga. ) 
said:  "I  am  greatly  disturbed  that  funds  for  the  continuation  of  the 
large  solid  rocket  engine  program  have  been  eliminated  from  the  1966 
budget  for  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration. 

"...  I  am  concerned  about  the  effect  that  the  proposed  termination 
of  this  program  will  have  over  our  long-range  space  effort  and  upon 
the  security  of  the  country.  For  it  will  cut  off,  at  a  particularly  inap- 
propriate time,  a  crucial  research  and  development  program  that  al- 
ready has  shown  significant  potential  for  fulfilling  future  space  booster 
needs — -for  both  defense  and  nondefense  purposes.  This  is  particu- 
larly true  for  launching  large  payloads  and  missions  into  deep  space 
that  are  contemplated  in  the  not-so-distant  future. 

"The  booster  technology  and  capability  that  we  are  developing 
under  the  large  solid  rocket  engine  program  could  become  a  vital 
factor  in  preventing  the  Russians  from  achieving  a  position  of  domi- 
nance in  space.  .  .  . 

"Indeed,  the  decision  to  terminate  this  program  appears  to  be  a 
direct  contradiction  of  Mr.  Webb's  own  views,  as  expressed  as  recently 
as  Tuesday  of  this  week  to  the  Committee  on  Aeronautical  and  Space 
Sciences.  He  said  unequivocally  that  space  missions  contemplated  for 
the  next  decade  and  beyond  will  require  'new  launch  vehicles  and  new 
space  vehicle  developments.'  He  said  our  experience  with  the  Apollo 
moon  program  has  shown  that  'a  policy  of  support  for  the  development 
of  carefully  selected  advanced  propulsion  systems  must  be  followed  if 
we  are  to  assure  they  will  be  available  when  needed.' 

"It  is  highly  inconsistent — to  say  the  least — to  speak  boldly  of  ex- 
ploring the  moon,  reaching  and  charting  the  planets,  establishing 
manned  stations  in  space,  and  extending  our  national  strength  into  the 
space  dimensions,  while  at  the  same  time  killing  off  one  of  the  most 
promising  programs  for  the  achievement  of  these  very  goals.  .  .  ." 
(CR,  1/29/65,  1535) 

•  NASA  approved  a  contract  with  the  McDonnell  Aircraft  Corp.  converting 

the  $712-million  Gemini  spacecraft  contract  from  a  cost-plus-fixed-fee 
to  a  cost-plus-incentive-fee.  This  was  the  largest  incentive  contract 
that  NASA  had  negotiated;  it  provided  profit  incentives  for  outstanding 
performance,  control  of  costs,  and  timely  delivery  as  well  as  potential 
profit  reductions  when  performance,  cost,  and  schedule  requirements 
were  not  met.      (  nasa  Release  65-26) 

•  The   National   Commission   on   Technology,   Automation   and    Economic 

Progress,  established  by  law  in  1964  to  find  out  what  technological 
change  was  doing  to  the  economic  and  social  fabric  of  the  country 
and  how  to  obtain  its  maximum  benefits  with  the  least  possible  harm, 
met  for  the  first  time  with  Vice  President  Hubert  Humphrey.  The 
Commission  would  meet  again  Feb.  18-19  to  determine  the  areas  to  be 
explored  intensively  and  possibly  to  select  outside  personnel  to  help 
with  basic  research  in  these  studies.      {NYT,  1/30/65,  6) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  41 

January  29:  c-141a  was  certified  as  a  commercial  cargo  jet.  faa  Ad- 
ministrator, Najeeb  E.  Halaby.  said  the  Lockheed  fanjet  could  "help 
give  civil  freight  transportation  the  kind  of  mobility  that  brings  suc- 
cess to  the  armed  forces."  The  plane  could  operate  at  550  mph,  and 
needed  only  a  6.000-ft.  runway.  The  certification  climaxed  an  unusual 
program  in  which  the  FAA,  USAF,  and  industry  had  jointly  developed, 
produced,  and  tested  the  new  craft.      Up,  NYT,  1/31/65,  27) 

•  U.S.    Army    formally    accepted    the    first   two   XV-5a   V/Stol    (Vertical/ 

Short  Take-Off  and  Landing  I  lift-fan  research  aircraft  at  Edwards 
AFB  where  they  were  being  readied  for  a  six-month  Army  flight  evalua- 
tion. Test  pilots  from  NASA,  USAF,  USN,  and  the  faa  would  assist  in 
the  evaluation,  (dod  Release  59-65) 
January  30:  cosmos  liii.  an  unmanned  satellite  containing  scientific 
equipment  for  outer  space  research,  was  orbited  by  the  Soviet 
Union.  Preliminary  orbital  data:  period,  98.7  min.;  apogee,  741  mi. 
(1.192  km.);  perigee,  141  mi.  (227  km.);  incHnation,  48.8°.  Equip- 
ment on  board  was  operating  normally.  (Tass,  Pravda,  1/31/65,  4, 
ATSS-T  Trans. ) 

•  Funeral  services  for  Sir  Winston  Churchill  were  televised  live  and  by 

delayed  transmission  from  London  via  telstar  ii  communications 
satellite.  Churchill  died  on  Jan.  24.  Earlier  in  the  week,  pictures  of 
Sir  Winston's  body  lying  in  state  in  Westminster  Hall  had  also  been 
transmitted  live  via  telstar  ii.      (nbc;  cbs;  Wash.  Post,  1/27/65) 

•  NASA   Ames   Research   Center   was   conducting  tests   on   a   Douglas   f5d 

aircraft  with  a  specially  designed  planform  wing  that  might  minimize 
landing  speeds  for  the  proposed  supersonic  transport.  A  tornado-like 
flow,  called  "vortex  airflow,"  and  resulting  from  the  sharp  difference 
between  the  low  pressure  on  the  top  of  the  wing  and  the  high  pressure 
on  the  underside,  was  generated  along  the  leading  edges  of  the  "S"- 
shaped  wing.  Engineers  said  use  of  the  sharply  angled  wings  with 
tornado  effect  on  top  had  these  advantages:  (1)  the  tornadoes  affected 
air  flow  over  the  entire  aircraft  and  eliminated  turbulence  that  would 
make  other  aircraft  directionally  unstable  when  coming  in  nose  high 
for  a  landing ;  ( 2 1  the  tornadoes  made  it  almost  impossible  for  the 
wings  to  lose  their  lift  completely.  Also,  it  was  felt  this  wing  shape 
took  maximum  advantage  of  the  cushioning  effect  produced  in  com- 
pressing air  between  the  underside  of  the  wings  and  the  ground  which 
would  make  it  necessary  to  level  off  sharply  at  the  last  moment  before 
touching  down. 

Existence  of  this  tornado-like  flow  along  the  leading  edges  of  the 
wing  encouraged  the  belief  that  a  supersonic  airliner  might  be  built 
without  resorting  to  variable-sweep  wings. 

In  current  design  competition  for  supersonic  transport  under  Gov- 
ernment auspices,  the  Lockheed  Aircraft  Corp.  had  taken  the  first 
approach.  The  Boeing  Co.  had  a  design  with  movable  wings,  (arc 
Release  65-3;  Witkin,  NYT,  1/30/65) 

•  An  article  published  in  The  New  Scientist  reported  that  experts  at  the 

Royal  Radar  Establishment  at  Malvern,  England,  beheved  that  the 
U.S.  communications  satellite  echo  ii — launched  Jan.  25,  1964,  and 
still  in  orbit — had  been  pierced  by  its  own  launching  canister  shortly 
after  injection  into  orbit. 


42  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

According  to  The  Neiv  Scientist,  the  shape  of  ECHO  ii  after  launch- 
ing was  flabby  and  elongated  rather  than  the  perfect  sphere  wanted  for 
some  of  its  communication  experiments. 

Analysis  of  Malvern's  radar  tracks  on  echo  II  revealed  writhing 
echoes  that,  according  to  their  theory,  arose  when  the  very  short  radar 
pulses  entered  a  hole  and  rebounded  from  the  aluminum-coated  interi- 
or of  the  balloon.  The  Malvern  team  thought  the  balloon  had  a  punc- 
ture about  18  in.  long  and  27  in.  wide  in  one  side. 

NASA  spokesmen  said  they  did  not  believe  echo  ii  had  been  punc- 
tured by  either  its  launching  canister  or  its  launching  vehicle  and  that 
sightings  from  more  than  a  dozen  radar  stations  had  contradicted  the 
Malvern  theory.  They  added  that  echo  ii's  ability  to  reflect  radio 
signals  had  not  been  seriously  impaired  and  many  messages  had  been 
bounced  off  in  the  last  year.  (Hillaby,  NYT,  1/31/65,  29) 
January  30:  Soviet  Union  launched  a  "new  type"  space  booster  that 
spanned  more  than  8,000  mi.  of  the  Pacific,  according  to  Tass.  The 
firing  was  said  to  have  been  so  successful  that  a  second  planned  shot 
was  canceled.      {M&R,  1/8/65,  8) 

•  Dr.  Joseph  Charyk,  president  of  Communications  Satellite  Corporation, 

speaking  in  Kaanapali,  Hawaii,  said  the  geographic  location  of  Hawaii 
ensured  that  the  impact  of  Early  Bird  comsat  would  be  "more  pro- 
found there  than  in  any  of  the  other  states  of  the  union."  Hawaii,  he 
noted,  would  not  have  to  wait,  as  it  does  now,  to  see  mainland  televi- 
sion programs.  Dr.  Charyk  envisioned  a  full  global  communications 
system  by  1967.  He  predicted  Hawaii  would  become  a  center  for 
communications  traffic  of  all  types.      {NYT,  1/31/65,  13) 

January  30:  Columnist  James  J.  Haggerty,  Jr.,  said:  "It  is  all  but  incredi- 
ble that  after  seven  years  of  space  research  no  manned  military  project 
has  reached  the  hardware  stage.  .  .  ."  (Haggerty,  J /Armed  Forces, 
1/30/65,  9) 

January  31:  Seventh  anniversary  of  the  first  U.S.  satellite,  explorer 
I.  In  defiance  of  the  original  predicted  lifespan  that  should  have 
ended  some  two  years  ago,  the  satellite  continued  to  pass  overhead 
every  104  min.,  with  perigee  of  214  mi.  and  apogee  of  983  mi.  Tra- 
jectory plotters  at  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  believed 
EXPLORER  I  would  plunge  into  the  atmosphere  and  burn  in  1968.  It 
had  slowed  down  since  launch  but  had  logged  904  million  mi.  around 
the  earth.      ( Marshall  Star,  1/27/65,  1,  6) 

•  Japan  launched  Lambda  iii-2,  the  largest  rocket  that  country  had  yet 

developed.  The  62-ft.,  three-stage  rocket  attained  an  altitude  of  620 
mi.  and  impacted  northwest  of  the  Mariana  Islands,  some  1,130  mi. 
from  the  launch  site  at  Tokyo  University's  space  center  on 
Kyushu.     (M&R,  2/8/65,  8) 

•  In  an  interview  on  the  eve  of  his  retirement  as  Air  Force  Chief  of  Staff, 

Gen.  Curtis  E.  LeMay  discussed  the  role  of  the  military  in  space: 
"Developing  military  capabilities  in  space  is  a  task  that  I  think  we 
ought  to  accept  as  an  unavoidable  requirement.  It  is  the  only  way 
that  we  can  establish  control  over  corridors  of  access  to  our  country 
that  would  otherwise  be  open  to  exploitation  by  aggressor  forces.  .  .  . 

"I  am  confident  that  man  will  prove  useful  in  this  medium.  Just  as 
he  has  adapted  aircraft  to  tasks  no  one  could  foresee  in  1903,  he  will 
undoubtedly  discover  uses  for  space  systems  over  the  years  ahead  that 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  43 

go  far  beyond  the  observation  and  inspection  functions  we  envision  at 
this  time."      (ap,  Haugland,  Bait.  Sun,  2/1/65) 
January  31 :  Tass  had  reported  that  Soviet  astronomers  beHeved  the  upper 
layer  of  the  moon's  surface  was  saturated  with  meteoric  matter  dis- 
tinguished chemically  and  in  mineral  content  from  deeper  layers. 

"Highly  accurate  and  reliable"  observation  had  been  made  by  a 
Gorky  University  team  headed  by  Vsevolod  S.  Troitsky,  the  Soviet 
Union's  leading  authority  on  radio  emanations  of  the  moon.  (Sha- 
bad.  Louisville  Courier-Journal,  1/31/65) 

•  Two  U.S.  physicists,  Prof.  Robert  V.  Pound  of  Harvard  and  Assistant 

Professor  Glen  A.  Rebka,  Jr.,  of  Yale,  were  awarded  the 
Eddington  Medal  of  the  Royal  Astronomical  Society  of  London  for 
gravitational  red  shift  experiments  reported  in  1960  that  confirmed 
Einstein's  principle  of  equivalence,  one  of  the  basic  assumptions  of  the 
general  relativity  theory.      {NYT,  2/1/65,  12) 

•  Smithsonian  Institution  disclosed  architectural  plans  for  a  national  air 

and  space  museum  to  be  built  in  Washington,  D.  C.,  opposite  the 
National  Gallery  of  Art.  Designed  by  Gyo  Obata,  a  St.  Louis  archi- 
tect, the  building  would  be  modern  in  concept  with  an  internal  design 
that  would  provide  a  sweeping  vista  of  exhibit  areas.  Smithsonian 
officials  hoped  to  receive  Congressional  authorization  to  build  the  mu- 
seum at  a  cost  of  $42  million.  (NYT,  1/31/65) 
During  January:  Reviewing  Apollo  program  progress.  Dr.  Joseph  Shea, 
Manager  of  the  Apollo  Spacecraft  Program  Office  at  NASA  Manned 
Spacecraft  Center,  said  that  NASA  had  characterized  the  program  as  a 
series  of  phases.  He  explained  that  1963  and  1964  were  years  of 
detailed  designs  and  initial  developmental  testing;  1964  and  1965 
were  years  of  extensive  ground  tests  and  qualifications  for  flight;  from 
1966  on,  ground  tests  would  be  supplemental  to  extensive  flight  tests, 
initially  on  the  Saturn  IB  and  later  on  the  Saturn  V.  From  his  visits 
to  almost  all  of  the  major  Apollo  hardware  contractors,  Dr.  Shea  said 
he  could  report  that  all  of  the  subsystems  associated  with  the  command 
and  service  modules  "are  well  along  in  their  ground  test  programs. 

"Almost  all  elements  are  on  schedule  and  the  test  results  indicate 
that  the  designs  will  meet  our  program  objectives.  By  early  this  year, 
all  subsystem  hardware  will  be  undergoing  the  rigorous  qualification 
tests  which  we  require  before  certifying  such  hardware  ready  for 
flight.  ...  By  the  end  of  1965.  there  will  be  three  Apollo  spacecraft 
in  continuous  ground  testing.  1964  was,  in  retrospect,  a  year  where 
milestone  by  milestone,  we  have  achieved  Apollo  objectives."  (naa 
S&ID  Skywriter,  1/15/65,  1,  4;  Witkin,  NYT,  1/24/65,  60) 

•  Dr.  William  H.  Pickering,  Director  of  the  Jet  Propulsion  Laboratory, 

said  in  an  article  in  Astronautics  and  Aeronautics  for  January: 

".  .  .  With  Ranger  7,  the  prime  factor  was  the  expectation  that  the 
Apollo  mission  would  choose  a  landing  area  on  one  of  the  smooth 
'maria.'  So  it  was  of  great  value  to  this  program  to  find  out  as  much 
as  possible  about  the  mare  topography.  In  particular,  it  was  neces- 
sary to  know  if  these  areas  were  really  lava  flows  and,  if  so,  how  much 
was  exposed  lava  and  how  densely  the  small  craters  were  scattered 
over  the  surface. 

"Ranger  gave  some  of  the  answers.  In  some  areas,  at  least,  small 
craters   were   indeed   strewn   very   thickly.     Probably    such   areas   lie 


44  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

along  the  rays  which  radiate  from  some  of  the  more  recent  large 
craters.  Between  these  ray  regions  the  surface  of  the  mare  appears  to 
be  quite  smooth.  No  large  rocks  or  fissures  are  apparent,  although 
the  general  roughness  may  be  comparable  to  some  terrestrial  lava 
fields  where  the  lava  is  of  the  'pahoehoe.'  or  fluid  variety.  However, 
the  absence  of  any  significant  number  of  features  showing  edges  with  a 
small  radius  of  curvature,  and  the  presence  of  small  craters  which  have 
been  filled  with  debris,  point  to  erosion  as  a  significant  modifier  of  the 
primeval  lunar  surface.  This  erosion  could  arise  from  meteoric  bom- 
bardment and  the  effects  of  solar  radiations.  Estimates  of  the  depth 
of  surface  which  has  been  eroded  away  range  from  5  to  50 
ft.  .  .  ."  (A&A,  1/65,  18-20) 
During  January:  gao  charged  that  mismanagement  of  the  Nimbus  meteor- 
ological satellite  project  resulted  in  unnecessary  costs  of  $1.2 
million.  The  report  claimed  that  Nimbus'  project  manager  at  NASA 
Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  "did  not  effectively  carry  out  his  respon- 
sibility" for  flight  planning  when  it  became  evident  that  the  spacecraft 
had  become  overweight  and  that  he  allowed  the  contractor  to  continue 
working  toward  the  original  design  goal  "even  though  it  was  clear  [the 
effort]  would  be  futile"  because  of  booster  limitations. 

Dr.  Homer  E.  Newell,  NASA  Associate  Administrator  for  Space 
Science  and  Applications,  rebutted  the  GAO  allegations:  "The  costs 
which  were  incurred  on  the  Nimbus  project  during  the  5Vl>  months 
between  May  1961  and  November  20,  1961,  were  for  the  development 
of  the  fully  redundant  Nimbus  system  to  satisfy  the  requirements 
of  the  Plan  for  a  National  Operational  Meteorological  Satellite  Sys- 
tem. .  .  .  Our  effort  to  achieve  the  redundant  system  in  the  first 
Nimbus  flight  was  continued  as  long  as  possible.  ...  we  did  not  want 
to  take  the  step  of  dropping  the  redundant  system,  even  for  the  first 
flight,  until  we  were  sure  we  had  to."  (gao  Nimbus  Rpt.,  1/65;  M&R, 
2/8/65,  9) 
•  Writing  in  the  January  1965  issue  of  Astronautics  and  Aeronautics,  Dr. 
Harold  B.  Finger,  Manager  of  aec-nasa  Space  Nuclear  Propulsion 
Office  (sNPo),  summed  up  the  various  components  of  the  advanced 
nuclear  propulsion  program  and  emphasized  the  importance  of  the 
solid-core  nuclear  rocket  within  the  field:  "Solid-core  nuclear  rockets 
are  the  best  understood  and  most  nearly  developed  of  the  many  ad- 
vanced nuclear-propulsion  concepts  being  investigated  in  this 
country.  They  offer  the  most  assured  and  earliest  possible  means  for 
very  substantial  improvements  and  advances  in  space-flight  propulsion 
capability.  Furthermore,  because  solid-core  nuclear  rockets  rely  heav- 
ily on  technology  and  techniques  of  chemical  rocket  engines  and  al- 
though much  extension  of  these  techniques  is  required,  no  fundamen- 
tally new  engineering  approaches  are  required  to  develop  this  new- 
breed  of  substantially  improved  rocketry  for  actual  flight  use.  Solid- 
core  nuclear  rockets  can  be  relied  on  for  our  future  space  missions. 

"Progress  has  been  made  in  electric  propulsion,  particularly  in  the 
thruster  area,  and  important  research  data  and  technology  are  also 
beginning  to  be  provided  in  the  difficult  area  of  nuclear-reactor  electric 
generating  systems  required  for  prime  electric  propulsion. 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  45 

"Beyond  these  systems,  other  advanced  nuclear  propulsion  concepts 
are  not  yet  well-enough  understood  to  justify  undertaking  significant 
development  efforts."  {A&A.  1/65,  30-35) 
During  January:  Nine  areas  of  scientific  experiments  for  the  first  manned 
Apollo  lunar  landing  mission  had  been  summarized  and  experimenters 
were  defining  them  for  NASA.  Space  sciences  project  group  expected 
to  publish  the  complete  report  by  Mar.  1,  to  be  followed  by  requests 
for  proposals  from  industry  on  designing  and  producing  instrument 
packages.  A  major  effort  was  under  way  by  a  NASA  task  force  making 
a  time-motion  study  of  how  best  to  use  the  limited  lunar  stay-time  of 
2  hr.  minimum  for  the  first  flight.      {Av.  Wk.,  2/1/65,  13) 

•  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  announced  it  would  negotiate  with  Ra- 

diation, Inc.,  of  Melbourne,  Florida,  for  a  contract  to  develop  a  new 
weather  measuring  system  to  be  tested  aboard  the  Nimbus  B  meteoro- 
logical satellite.  The  new  equipment.  Interrogation  Recording  and  Lo- 
cation System  (IRLS),  would  tie  together  weather  observations  made 
on  the  ground  and  in  space  as  well  as  oceanographic  measurements. 
(GSFC  Release  G-1-65) 

•  In  an  article  in  the  Indianapolis  Star  discussing  Soviet  medical  practices 

observed  during  his  visit  to  Russia  at  the  invitation  of  the  Soviet 
Academy  of  Science.  Dr.  John  M.  Keshishian,  associate  in  surgery  on 
the  George  Washington  University  School  of  Medicine  faculty,  said: 
"It  is  not  generally  known  that  just  before  Voskhod  was  ordered  into 
reentry,  the  pulse  rate  of  one  cosmonaut  dropped  to  40. 

"When  your  pulse  rate  drops  below  40  heartbeats  a  minute,  you're 
in  trouble. 

"The  Russians  haven't  said  anything  about  this  .  .  .  but  it  could  be 
another  one  of  the  problems  their  space  medicine  is  encountering  for 
which  there  seems  to  be  no  ready  solutions. 

"For  example,  some  Russian  cosmonauts  have  suffered  severe,  hallu- 
cinations, both  in  flight  and  afterwards.  Others  have  suffered  equally 
severe  and,  thus  far,  inexplicable  vertigo  during  which  they  can't  be 
certain  whether  the  floor's  coming  up  to  meet  them  or  vice  versa,  or 
whether  they're  spinning,  or  the  room  is.  And  Russian  physicians 
have  found  that  ,  .  .  space  flight  environment — possibly  weightless- 
ness— draws  calcium  from  the  blood  and  expels  it  in  the 
urine."  (World  Book  Encyclopedia  Science  Service,  Inc.,  Keshishian, 
Indianapolis  Star ) 

•  In    an    article    in    Foreign    Affairs    entitled    "Slowdown    in    the    Penta- 

gon," Hanson  W.  Baldwin  said:  "The  sprawling  bureaucracy  of 
big  government;  the  control  of  major  military  or  paramilitary  projects 
by  agencies  over  which  the  Defense  Department  has  no  direct  authori- 
ty, including  the  Atomic  Energy  Commission,  the  National  Aeronautics 
and  Space  Administration,  the  Central  Intelligence  Agency,  the  Bureau 
of  the  Budget:  congressional  legislation  and  executive  regulation — so- 
cial, political  and  economic;  the  tremendous  size  and  complexity  of  the 
Armed  Forces;  overcentralization  and  overregulation  in  the  Pentagon; 
too  much  service  rivalry  and  not  anough  service  competition — all  these 
and  other  factors  have  become  builtin  roadblocks  in  defense  develop- 
ment and  contracting. 


46  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

"The  creation  of  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administra- 
tion has  provided  another  type  of  problem.  NASA  stemmed  from  the 
same  kind  of  political  philosophy  that  nurtured  the  aec.  Atom  bombs 
were  too  powerful  to  allow  the  generals  to  play  with  them;  ergo,  a 
civihan  agency  must  control  nuclear  power — and  it  must  be  channeled 
away  from  nasty  military  purposes.  The  same  scientific-political  pres- 
sure groups  that  advocated  this  concept  helped  (with  President  Eisen- 
hower's approval)  to  establish  NASA,  again  on  the  theory  that  space 
efforts  must  be  controlled  by  civilians  and  that  space  must  not  be  used 
for  military  purposes.  .  .  . 

"But  in  the  case  of  NASA,  the  problem  has  been  compounded.  For 
while  the  aec  is  essentially  a  research  and  production  agency,  NASA  is 
an  operating  agency  as  well.  From  a  small  highly  efficient  aeronau- 
tical research  agency,  it  has  now  expanded  into  a  gargantuan  multibil- 
lion-dollar  empire,  with  tentacles  all  over  the  country,  managing  the 
biggest  program  on  which  the  United  States  has  ever  embarked — to 
place  a  man  on  the  moon. 

"In  its  early  years,  NASA  was  sluggishly  if  at  all  responsive  to  mili- 
tary needs,  and  the  Pentagon  itself  was  inhibited  from  any  effective 
space  developments  (though,  curiously,  the  only  effective  space 
boosters  available  were  miUtary  ballistic  missiles).  Gradually  the 
liaison,  due  to  Dr.  [Edward  C]  Welsh  and  others,  has  been  greatly 
improved.  Numerous  military  officers,  active  and  retired,  now  hold 
some  of  the  most  important  positions  in  NASA,  and  in  addition  the 
Armed  Forces  have  furnished  most  of  the  astronauts  and  by  far  the 
most  important  part  of  the  facilities  and  services  used  by  the 
agency.  The  two-headed  control  still  offers  difficulties,  but  today  the 
main  stumbling  blocks  to  the  rapid  development  of  military  space 
projects  are  Secretary  McNamara  and  his  Director  of  Defense  Re- 
search and  Engineering,  Dr.  Harold  Brown,  who  in  his  new  political 
role  in  the  Pentagon  has  become  a  remarkably  unadventurous  scientist. 

"Often  the  President's  Scientific  Adviser,  whose  contacts  with  Penta- 
gon and  other  Government  scientists  cut  squarely  across  organizational 
lines,  has  also  acted  as  roadblock  to  new  developments.  He  exercises 
tremendous  power  without  either  specific  responsibility  or  specific  au- 
thority; therefore,  his  intervention  often  not  only  delays  but 
confuses.  The  Adviser's  great  power  stems  largely  from  his  White 
House  status;  unfortunately  around  him  has  grown  up  a  small  but 
important  office  manned  by  men  more  impressive  as  bureaucrats  than 
as  scientists,  who  represent,  in  effect,  another  echelon  of 
delay.  .  .  ."  {Foreign  Affairs,  1/65;  CR,  2/4/65,  2007) 
During  January:  Committee  assignments  for  both  parties  were  made  in 
both  Houses  of  Congress.  New  members  on  the  Senate  Committee  on 
Aeronautical  and  Space  Sciences:  Walter  F.  Mondale  (D-Minn.),  Jo- 
seph Tydings  ( D-Md. ) ,  Len  B.  Jordan  (R-Ida.),  and  George  D.  Aiken 
(R-Vt.). 

New  members  of  the  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics: 
Roy  A.  Taylor  (D-N.C),  George  E.  Brown,  Jr.  (D-Calif.),  Walter  H. 
Moeller  (D-Ohio),  William  R.  Anderson  (D-Tenn.),  Brock  Adams 
(D-Wash.),  Lester  L.  Wolff  (D-N.Y.),  Weston  E.  Vivian  (D-Mich.), 
Gale  Schisler  (D-Ill.),  and  Barber  B.  Conable,  Jr.  (R-N.Y.). 
(Comm.  Off.) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  47 

During  January:  Marvin  L.  White,  afcrl's  Space  Physics  Laboratory, 
predicted  the  sun  was  encircled  by  "rings"  of  electric  current  totaling 
nearly  200  billion  amps.  Although  total  current  was  high,  White 
postulated  that  the  current  density  was  low  because  the  current  was 
spread  over  a  large  area;  he  predicted  current  density  to  be  about 
three  trillionths  of  an  ampere  per  square  centimeter,  the  same  order 
of  magnitude  as  in  the  earth's  atmosphere.  White's  calculations  were 
based  on  particle  flux  data  from  mariner  ii.  (oar  Research  Review, 
1/65,  1-2) 

With  launch  of  two  balloons  to  87,000-ft.  altitudes  from  Chico,  Calif., 
AFCRL  began  one-year  series  of  high-altitude  balloon  flights  to  measure 
moisture  in  the  stratosphere.  Series  would  consist  of  vertical  sound- 
ings— 25  in  all,  at  the  rate  of  two  per  month — in  which  all  data  would 
be  obtained  in  recoverable  instrumented  payload  parachuted  to  earth 
when  balloon  descended  to  30,000  ft.,  and  horizontal  soundings — five 
11 -day  flights  at  float  altitudes  averaging  75,000  ft. — in  which  data 
gathered  over  thousands  of  miles  would  be  telemetered  every  two 
hours  to  ground  stations,      (oar  Research  Review,  5/65,  15-16) 

In  an  article  on  detecting  extraterrestrial  life,  William  R.  Corliss  in  In- 
ternational Science  and  Technology  described  some  of  the  plans  for 
collecting  data  on  possible  life-forms  elsewhere  and  some  of  the  factors 
making  the  search  for  extraterrestrial  life  so  challenging.  He  noted 
the  complications  for  Martian  life-detection  if  retrorockets  were  neces- 
sary to  brake  the  landing  of  a  scientific  package:  "First,  of  course, 
they  add  weight  to  the  landing  package,  right  where  it  hurts  the  most. 
Also,  their  control  adds  complexity  and  increases  the  chance  of  failure. 
Finally  and  perhaps  most  importantly,  they  would  make  the  problem 
of  life-detection  more  difficult  and  any  results  more  ambiguous;  the 
rocket  exhaust  would  tend  both  to  fuse  the  surface  of  the  landing  area 
(maybe  even  killing  any  existing  organisms),  and  to  add  combustion 
contaminants  of  its  own  in  the  most  crucial  area — around  the  lander." 
He  listed  the  variety  of  experimental  instruments  proposed  for  detecting 
extraterrestrial  life  (or  clues  of  life)  and  explained  why  the  dependa- 
bility of  these  instruments — based  on  different  physical  and  chemical 
principles — varied  widely.      [Int.  Sci.  &  Tech.,  1/65,  28-34) 


February    1965 

February  1 :  The  second  meeting  of  the  French-Anglo-United  States  Super- 
sonic Transport  (fausst)  group  was  held  in  Washington  to  discuss 
airworthiness  objectives  in  connection  with  commercial  supersonic 
transports  (  SST  ) .  Agenda  items  included  a  discussion  of  atmospheric 
problems,  structures,  and  sonic  boom  as  related  to  sST  flight,  (faa 
Release  T-65-4) 

•  Gen.  Curtis  E.  LeMay.  retiring  Air  Force  Chief  of  Staff,  received  a  fourth 

Distinguished  Service  Medal  from  President  Johnson  at  the  White 
House.  Later,  during  formal  retirement  ceremonies  at  Andrews  AFB, 
a  letter  from  the  President  was  read:  "All  the  world  can  be  grateful 
to  you  for  your  courage,  tenacity  and  exacting  standards  of  profes- 
sionalism." Gen.  LeMay  was  succeeded  by  Gen.  John  Paul  McConnell. 
(Loftus,  NYT,  2/2/65,  13;  NYT,  2/2/65,  13) 

•  Sealed  brushless  DC  motor,  originally  developed  to  power  instrumentation 

on  unmanned  spacecraft,  was  selected  for  use  in  the  Apollo  two-man 
Lunar  Excursion  Module  (Lem)  and  the  Gemini  two-man  spacecraft. 
The  new  motor  utilized  photo-optical  detectors  and  transistorized 
switching  elements  which  duplicated  the  functions  of  conventional 
brushes  and  commutator  without  physical  contact  of  the  rotating 
parts.  Environmental  tests  had  shown  the  brushless  motor  had  a 
predicted  operational  life  of  one  year.  A  barrier  to  DC  motors  had 
been  the  short  life  of  conventional  brushes  in  the  space  vacuum  be- 
cause of  the  lack  of  lubricating  moisture  necessary  to  prevent  ex- 
cessive friction.  Motor  was  developed  by  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight 
Center  under  contract  with  Sperry  Farragut.    (CSFC  Release  G-2-65) 

•  NASA  Flight  Research  Center  issued  requests  for  proposals  for  two  pre- 

liminary feasibility  studies  of  a  manned  lifting  reentry  vehicle  to  16 
industrial  firms.  Primary  objective  of  the  proposed  studies  would  be 
to  determine  problem  areas  and  their  influence  on  design  and  to  pro- 
vide accurate  estimates  of  the  weight,  cost,  and  developmental  sched- 
ule involved  with  such  a  research  craft,      (frc  Release  5-65) 

•  NASA  awarded  S8.3  million  contract  to  Pacific  Crane  and  Rigging  Co.  for 

installation  of  ground  support  equipment  at  Kennedy  Space  Center's 
Apollo-Saturn  V  Launch  Complex  39  on  Merritt  Island.  The  contract 
called  for  purchase,  fabrication,  assembly,  installation,  cleaning,  and 
testing  of  electrical,  mechanical,  pneumatic,  and  hydraulic  systems, 
valves  and  control  modules,  pipe  assemblies,  and  support  hardware. 
(Ksc  Release  17-65) 

•  Transfer  of  usn's  Pacific  Missile  Range  and  instrumentation  facilities  at 

Point  Arguello,  Calif.,  to  usaf  operational  control  became  effective. 
The  Navy  also  turned  over  its  Point  Pillar  tracking  stations  in  Cali- 
fornia  and   mid-Pacific  stations   at   Canton   Island,   Eniwetok,   and  at 

48 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  49 

South  Point  and  Kokee  Park,  Hawaii.  Missile  impact  location  sta- 
tions (MILS)  at  Wake  and  Midway  were  still  under  Navy  control. 
For  operation  of  its  Pacific  Missile  Range,  Navy  retained  tracking 
stations  at  Barking  Sands  missile  tracking  facility,  Kauai,  Hawaii, 
and  was  a  tenant  at  Johnston  Island.  Other  pmr  stations  included 
those  at  St.  Nicolas  and  San  Clemente  Islands  on  the  Sea  Test  Range. 
(Zylstra,  M&R,  3/8  65,  33-34) 
February  1:  Astronaut  Walter  M.  Schirra,  Jr.  (USN),  said  he  probably 
would  be  assigned  as  command  pilot  to  the  sixth  Gemini  flight,  which 
would  be  the  first  U.S.  attempt  to  meet  and  join  two  vehicles  in  space. 
(AP,  Bait.  Sun,  2  2/65) 

•  USAF  successfully  launched  an  Athena  test  missile  from  Green  River,  Utah, 

to  White  Sands  Missile  Range.  N.Mex.      Up,  Wash.  Post,  2/3/65) 

•  Construction  unions'  strike,  that  had  shut  down  all  NASA  construction  at 

Merritt  Island  and  Cape  Kennedy  since  Jan.  28,  ended  when  the 
President's  Missile  Sites  Labor  Commission  set  a  date  for  hearing  the 
grievances  of  the  unions  involved.  It  had  been  the  fifth  walkout  within 
a  year.      ( UPI,  Chic.  Trib.,  2/2/65;  Wash.  Post,  2/2/65) 

•  FAA  predicted  continued  aviation  growth  over  the  next  five  years:  U.S. 

airline  revenue  passenger  miles  would  increase  30  billion  over  the  54 
billion  flown  in  FY  1964;  general  aviation,  measured  in  estimated  hours 
of  flying,  would  increase  by  four  million  hours  over  the  estimated  15.5 
million  flown  in  FY  1964;  general  aviation  fleet  would  number  105,000 
aircraft  by  1970,  compared  to  85,088  aircraft  as  of  Jan.  1,  1964. 
( FAA  Release  T-65-3  ) 
February  2:  Capt.  Joseph  H.  Engle  (USAF)  flew  x-15  No.  3  to  98,200  ft. 
altitude  and  a  maximum  speed  of  3,886  mph  (mach  5.7)  in  a  test  to 
determine  how  ablative  material  reacted  to  intense  heat.  (NASA  x-15 
Proj.  Off.;   UPI,  Wash.  Post,  2/3/65;  X-15  Flight  Log) 

•  NASA  announced  it  would  negotiate  a  two-phase  contract  with  Aerojet 

General  Corp.  for  design  and  development  of  a  liquid-hydrogen,  re- 
generatively  cooled  exhaust  nozzle  for  the  Phoebus  nuclear  rocket  re- 
actor test  program.  First  phase  of  the  contract  would  include  a  four- 
month  preliminary  design  study  of  nozzle  concepts  and  an  evaluation 
of  fabrication  and  testing  methods.  This  phase  would  be  negotiated 
on  a  cost-plus-fixed-fee  basis  at  an  estimated  value  of  $400,000.  Using 
results  of  Phase  I,  the  contractor  would  design,  develop,  test,  and  de- 
liver three  nozzles  to  the  Nuclear  Rocket  Development  Station  at 
Jackass  Flats,  Nev.  Phase  ii  would  be  awarded  as  an  incentive  con- 
tract with  an  estimated  value  of  SIO  million. 

Phoebus,  a  5,000-megawatt  reactor,  would  be  tested  as  part  of  the 
program  to  develop  nuclear  propulsion  devices  for  space  missions. 
(NASA  Release  65-28) 

•  Discussing  the  missions  and  plans  of  nasa's  new  Electronics  Research 

Center,  Dr.  Winston  E.  Kock,  erc  Director,  told  the  Harvard  Engi- 
neers Club  in  Cambridge:  "I  believe  that  the  recent  strengthening 
of  research  in  nasa  can  act  to  overcome  any  such  braking  of  scientific 
enthusiasm  which  the  recent  changes  in  our  defense  program  .  .  .  may 
have  instigated.  I  have  seen  at  first  hand  true  research  enthusiasm  at 
two  NASA  Research  Centers,  Lew  is  in  Cleveland,  and  Ames  in  California, 
and,  at  Cambridge's  new  NASA  Research  Center,  the  response  we  have 
had   from   inventive,   research-minded   individuals,   expressing   an   in- 


50  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

terest  in  association  with  the  Center  has  been  phenomenal.  I  have 
always  believed  in  the  saying  'necessity  is  the  mother  of  invention,' 
and  I  feel  certain  that  it  was  the  necessities  of  World  War  II  that 
brought  into  bloom  radar,  the  jet  aircraft,  nuclear  power,  the  V-2 
rocket  (which  led  to  our  present  missile  and  space  rockets),  and  many 
other  developments  which  have  proved  to  be  of  vital  importance  to 
our  way  of  life.  So,  I  feel  that  a  counterbalance  to  today's  reduced 
necessities  of  the  broad,  new  opening  field  of  space  research  .  .  .  will 
help  to  keep  our  nation's  research  talent  active  and  enthusiastic,  and 
maintain  it  in  the  strong  virility  it  has  exhibited  since  the  start  of 
World  War  II."      (Text) 

•  February  2:  Charles  W.  Harper,  Director  of  NASA  Hq.  Aeronautics  Div., 

discussed  aeronautical  research  at  a  luncheon  of  the  Aviation/Space 
Writers  Association.  He  said:  "...  aviation  has  a  tremendous  po- 
tential in  the  short-haul  'aerial  bus.'  Both  VTOL  (vertical  take-off  and 
landing)  and  stol  (short  take-off  and  landing)  are  being  considered 
for  this  job.  .  .  .  On  the  basis  of  our  current  knowledge  I  would  con- 
clude the  VTOL  commercial  transport  offers  tremendous  potential  but 
requires  additional  research  .  .  .  before  it  is  ready  for  detailed  feasi- 
bility study  as  a  commercial  transport.  On  the  other  hand  the  stol 
machine  is  ready  for  a  careful  examination  since  the  major  problems 
seem  to  be  in  hand. 

"A  20  to  50  passenger  stol  machine  should,  or  could,  have  a  top 
speed  of  300  to  400  knots,  a  steep  approach  with  a  touch  down  at  45 
knots  and  an  operational  field  length  of  some  1200  to  1500  feet.  All- 
weather  operation  is  required  and,  with  the  aid  of  space  technology 
advances,  this  appears  quite  possible.  We  think  we  can  display  elec- 
tronically to  the  pilot  the  important  features  of  the  airport  so  that  he 
can  approach  it  and  land  using  the  same  information  that  he  does  in 
clear  weather. 

"We  see  two  large  markets  for  vehicles  of  this  type.  In  a  smaller 
simple  version,  perhaps  bearing  a  little  sacrifice  in  performance,  an  air 
transport  well  suited  for  use  in  underdeveloped  areas.  Rugged,  easy 
to  fly  and  simple  to  maintain,  it  could  enable  these  countries  to  jump 
from  jungle  or  desert  trails  to  modern  transport  system  without  build- 
ing enormously  expensive  railways  and  highways.  This  would  be  a 
good  market  for  U.S.  industry.  In  a  larger  sophisticated  version  it 
could  be  the  vehicle  to  make  the  present  short  haul  feeder  Hnes  self 
sufficient,  not  depending  on  connecting  traffic  from  the  trunk  lines. 
This  too  would  be  a  desirable  situation  for  American  industry.  NASA 
plans  to  pursue  both  of  these  potentials  actively  until  the  air  industry 
has  enough  confidence  in  success  to  proceed  on  its  own.   .   .   ."      (Text) 

•  Alfred  J.  Eggers,  Jr.,  NASA  Deputy  Associate  Administrator  for  Advanced 

Research  and  Technology,  addressed  the  Science  Teachers'  Associa- 
tion of  Santa  Clara  County,  Calif.,  at  NASA  Ames  Research  Center. 
He  said:  "The  question  then  is,  what  has  man  done  in  space  to  date? 
According  to  the  eminent  archaeologist,  V.  Gordon  Childe,  whatever 
man  has  done  in  the  relatively  short  evolutionary  history  documented 
by  his  fossil  remains,  he  has  done  without  significantly  improving 
his  inherited  equipment  by  bodily  changes  detectable  in  his  skeleton. 
Moreover,  this  equipment  is  inadequately  adapted  for  survival  in  any 
particular  environment,  and  indeed  it  is  inferior  to  that  of  most  ani- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  51 

mals  for  coping  with  any  special  set  of  conditions.  Yet  in  spite 
of  his  physical  inferiority,  man  has  been  able  to  adjust  himself 
to  a  greater  range  of  environment  than  any  other  creature,  to 
multiply  much  faster  than  any  near  relative  amongst  the  higher  mam- 
mals, and  indeed  to  beat  them  all  at  their  special  tricks.  Thus  he 
learned  to  control  fire,  and  he  developed  the  skills  to  make  clothes  and 
houses,  with  the  result  that  he  lives  and  thrives  from  pole  to  pole  on 
earth,  and  already  he  is  concerned  with  a  population  explosion.  He 
has  developed  trains  and  cars  that  can  outstrip  the  fleetest  cheetah, 
and  he  has  developed  the  airplane  so  that  he  can  mount  higher  than 
the  eagle.  Moreover,  he  developed  telescopes  to  see  further  than  the 
hawk,  and  firearms  to  lay  low  the  elephant  or  any  other  animal,  includ- 
ing himself.  But  whatever  their  use,  the  important  point  is  that  fire, 
clothes,  houses,  trains,  airplanes,  telescopes,  and  guns  are  not  part  of 
man's  body.  He  can  set  them  aside  at  will.  They  are  not  inherited 
in  the  biological  sense,  but  rather  the  skill  needed  for  their  conception, 
production,  and  use  is  part  of  our  intellectual  heritage,  the  result  of  a 
tradition  built  up  over  many  generations  and  transmitted  not  in  the 
blood  but  through  speech  and  writing. 

"The  true  stepping  stones  to  the  moon  are  ourselves  and  our  fore- 
fathers. The  stepping  stones  beyond  are  our  children,  and  much  of 
what  they  will  be  and  where  they  will  lead  the  human  race,  is  up  to 
you  and  your  kind.  U  you  succeed  in  your  work,  you  will  have  made 
an  invaluable  contribution  to  the  betterment  of  man's  ability  to  make 
himself,  to  master  himself,  and  finally  to  understand  himself  in  his  en- 
vironment. Indeed,  if  you  are  especially  successful,  you  may,  in  the 
words  of  V.  R.  Potter,  'develop  a  new  breed  of  scholars,  men  who 
combine  a  knowledge  of  new  science  and  old  wisdom,  men  who  have 
the  courage  of  the  men  of  the  Renaissance  who  thought  truth  was 
absolute  and  attainable,'  and  who  may  yet  be  right.  I  submit  we  can 
do  no  less  than  find  out."      (Text) 

February  2:  Philco  Corp.,  opposing  the  bid  by  the  Communications  Satellite 
Corporation  to  supply  dod  with  communications  satellite  service,  asked 
the  FCC  to  prevent  ComSatCorp  from  signing  a  "sole  source"  contract 
with  Hughes  Aircraft  Co.  Philco,  which  was  already  preparing  a 
satellite  system  for  dod  under  a  contract  awarded  in  July  1963,  said 
ComSatCorp's  proposed  contract  "is  in  violation  of  the  letter  and  spirit 
of  the  FCC  rules  and  regulations  which  require  competition  in  ComSat- 
Corp procurement."  Since  ComSatCorp  apparently  had  been  negotiat- 
ing the  matter  for  some  time,  "its  present  statement  that  stringent  time 
requirements  impel  waiver  of  the  Fcc's  rules  and  regulations  is  in- 
supportable," Philco  said. 

Under  ComSatCorp's  plan,  dod  would  be  supplied  24  satellites  built 
by  Hughes  Aircraft  Co.  and  would  pay  for  service  only  if  the  satellites 
worked.  ComSatCorp  would  absorb  the  costs  if  they  did  not.  dod 
had  made  no  decision  for  or  against  the  offer.  (Wash.  Eve.  Star, 
2/2/65;  upi,  NYT,  2/3/65,  54) 

•  Sen.  Warren  G.  Magnuson  (D-Wash.)  introduced  in  the  Senate  a  bill 
to  provide  for  a  national  oceanographic  program  and  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  National  Oceanographic  Council.  Senator  Magnuson 
said  the  National  Oceanographic  Council  would  have  "certain  key  re- 
sponsibilities and  functions  ...  in  the  oceanographic  field    [which] 


52  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

would  be  similar  to  those  of  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Coun- 
cil in  the  space  program.   .   .   ." 

He  noted  that  "a  number  of  departments  and  agencies  have  separate 
missions  in  the  aeronautics  and  space  program,"  and  that  the  National 
Aeronautics  and  Space  Council  "takes  precedence  over"  the  operating 
agencies  to  coordinate  the  national  aeronautics  and  space  program. 
Similarly,  6  departments  and  22  agencies  "are  engaged  or  have  a  direct 
interest  in  the  seas.  .  .  ."  (CR,  2/2/65,  1754-57) 
February  2:  R.  E.  Clarson.  Inc.,  of  St.  Petersburg,  Fla.,  was  awarded  a 
$2,179,000  contract  for  alterations  to  Launch  Complex  34,  Cape  Ken- 
nedy, to  accommodate  the  Saturn  IB  rocket.  Army  Corps  of  Engineers 
made  the  award,      (ap,  Miami  Her.,  2/3/65) 

•  Editorializing  in  the  Washington  Evening  Star  about  "lean  years"  begin- 

ning for  the  aerospace  industry,  William  Hines  said:  ".  .  .  Since  the 
'50s,  aerospace  companies  have  become  accustomed  to  a  diet  of  caviar, 
filet  and  champagne.  The  government  has  poured  something  like 
100  billion  into  rockets,  missiles  and  spacecraft  since  the  Soviet  Union's 
Sputnik  went  up  in  October,  1957.  The  torrent  of  funds  is  now  being 
reduced,  if  not  precisely  to  a  trickle,  certainly  to  a  more  moderate 
flow.  .  .  . 

"The  aerospace  crisis  is  serious  enough  that  the  management-con- 
sultant firm  of  Arthur  D.  Little,  Inc.,  has  just  published  a  study, 
'Strategies  for  Survival  in  the  Aerospace  Industry.'  It  makes  the  fol- 
lowing revealing  point: 

"  'The  period  1954—1963  was  one  of  remarkably  steady  growth  in 
the  funding  of  military  and  space  systems.  In  fact,  it  was  so  steady 
that  many  participants  perhaps  forgot  that  there  were  concrete,  finite 
objectives  to  be  achieved  with  these  funds.'.  .  ."  (Hines,  Wash.  Eve. 
Star,  2/2/65) 

•  Prime    Minister    Harold    Wilson    announced    plans    to    buy    American 

military  aircraft  to  replace  British  aircraft,  an  action  he  said  would 
save  more  than  $840  million  over  a  10-yr.  period.  The  two  U.K. 
projects  being  dropped  were  the  P-1154  vertical  take-off  supersonic 
strike  aircraft  and  the  HS-681  short  take-off  military  transport.  Both 
were  made  by  the  Hawker  Siddeley  group.  American  Phantom  li's, 
made  by  McDonnell  Aircraft,  would  be  ordered  to  replace  the  P-1154. 
Phantoms  were  already  on  order  to  replace  the  Royal  Navy's  Sea 
Vixens.  Lockheed's  c-130's  would  replace  the  HS-681.  The  Ameri- 
can planes  would  be  equipped  with  British  engines.  On  the  question 
of  the  TSR-2,  which  the  U.K.  was  considering  replacing  with  General 
Dynamics'  F-111,  Mr.  Wilson  said  there  was  not  enough  information 
yet  to  make  a  final  decision.  (Farnsworth,  A'FT',  2/3/65,  9;  Clymer. 
Bait.  Sun,  2/3/65) 

•  Soviet  news  agency  Tass  announced  that  firing  of  a  new  type  of  multi- 

stage rocket  booster  on  Jan.  31  had  been  so  successful  that  further 
tests  in  the  Pacific  series  had  been  canceled.  The  rocket  had  travelled 
more  than  8,000  mi.  in  the  Pacific  southwest  of  Hawaii,  (upi.  Wash. 
Daily  News,  2/2/65;  UPi,  Wash.  Post,  2/3/65) 

•  A   brightly   illuminated   object   in   the   sky   near   Langley   AFB,   Va.,   was 

widely  reported  as  a  Ufo  but  identified  by  USAF  as  a  weather  balloon 
with  the  sun  reflecting  off  its  surface.  (Newport  News  Daily  Press, 
2/3/65) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  53 

February  3:  oso  ii  (Oso  B2 ) ,  NASA's  Orbiting  Solar  Observatory,  was  suc- 
cessfully launched  into  orbit  from  Cape  Kennedy  by  a  three-stage  Delta 
rocket.  Preliminary  orbital  elements:  apogee,  393  mi.;  perigee,  343 
mi.;  period,  97  min.;  inclination,  33°.  The  545-lb.  spacecraft  included 
parts  salvaged  from  the  Oso  B,  damaged  last  April  prior  to  launch, 
and  components  of  a  spacecraft  built  for  prototype  testing. 

The  second  of  eight  spacecraft  planned  by  NASA  for  direct  observa- 
tion of  the  sun,  oso  ii  carried  eight  scientific  experiments  and  had  two 
main  sections:  the  wheel  (lower)  section  provided  stability  by  gyro- 
scopic spinning  and  housed  the  telemetry,  command,  batteries,  control 
electronics  and  gas  spin-control  arms,  and  five  experiment  packages; 
the  sail  (upper)  section  was  oriented  toward  the  sun  and  contained 
solar  cells  and  solar-pointing  experiments.  For  the  first  time,  the  in- 
struments, controlled  by  ground  command,  would  scan  the  entire  solar 
surface.     Each  scan  required  four  minutes. 


February  3:    NASA's  Orbiting  Solar  Observatory,  oso  n,  was  launched  from  Cape  Ken- 
nedy, Fla. 

OSO  II  experiments  were  intended  to  map  the  frequency  and  energy 
of  solar  emissions  and  represented  a  joint  Government-university-in- 
dustry effort.  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  managed  the  prbject. 
(NASA  Press  Kit  Release  65-14;  NASA  Release  65-32;  Goddard  News, 
2/8/65,  1-2) 
•  Nike-Apache  sounding  rocket  was  launched  from  Wallops  Island,  Va.,  to 
altitude  of  87.7  mi.  (141.1  km.)  with  experiments  to  measure  the  neu- 
tron intensity  above  the  earth's  atmosphere,  the  flux  of  solar  x-rays,  and 
Lyman-alpha  radiation;  and  to  determine  ionospheric  electron  densi- 
ties.    All  instruments  functioned  as  predicted.      (NASA  Rpt.  srl) 


54  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

February  3:  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  said  during  a  panel  discus- 
sion at  the  Military  Electronics  Convention  in  Los  Angeles:  "I  think  I 
can  report  that  our  ten-year  aeronautical  and  space  effort  [beginning  in 
1961]  has  been  well  organized,  it  has  stabilized  at  the  51/4  billion  level, 
and  has  retained  a  well-worked-out  balance  among  its  various  compo- 
nents. At  the  end  of  this  ten-year  period,  we  will  have  received  back 
from  our  operating  spacecraft  the  basic  measurements  of  the  space  en- 
vironment which  will  give  us  a  much  better  scientific  understanding  of 
this  environment  and  our  engineers  will  have  proved  out  the  develop- 
mental concepts  and  engineering  designs  for  effective  operations  of  all 
kinds  in  space.  Further,  we  will  have  a  launch  capability  of  six  Saturn 
ib's  and  six  Saturn  V's  per  year,  meaning  that  we  could  put  almost  two 
million  pounds  into  orbit  per  year,  if  required.  We  will  have  logged 
more  than  five  thousand  hours  of  astronaut  spaceflight  time  and 
learned  a  great  deal  about  the  relationship  between  man,  equipment, 
the  task  assigned,  and  performance  in  the  space  environment.  .  .  ." 
(Text) 

•  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  reported  it  had  saved  $12  miUion  toward 

a  135  milHon  cost  reduction  goal  for  FY  1965.  Major  portion  of  this 
saving  was  made  possible  by  a  suggestion  from  Dr.  Robert  R.  Gilruth, 
MSC  Director,  that  instead  of  spending  the  budgeted  $7,873,000  for  a 
static  test  stand  for  the  Apollo  spacecraft  at  Cape  Kennedy,  the  reserve 
Titan  Launch  Complex  16  be  modified  for  static  test  use.  Cost  of 
modifying  the  Titan  launch  complex  would  be  $3,982,900,  with  a  net 
saving  of  $3,890,100.      (msc  Roundup,  2/3/65,  8) 

•  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  was  readying  its  first  Saturn  V  S-ic 

stage,  designated  s-ic-T,  for  static  firing  late  this  spring,  NASA  re- 
ported. The  S-IC-T,  a  static  test  stage,  would  be  hot-fired  on  a  cap- 
tive test  stand  in  MSFc's  West  Test  Area  and  would  be  ground  tested 
repeatedly  over  a  period  of  many  months  to  prove  out  the  propulsion 
system,      (nasa  Release  65-27) 

•  FCC   vetoed   a   proposed   Communications   Satellite   Corp.   contract  with 

Hughes  Aircraft  Co.  for  the  design  of  satellites  to  be  used  by 
DOD.  In  a  letter  to  ComSatCorp,  the  FCC  took  note  of  a  protest 
by  Philco  Corp.  (see  Feb.  2),  that  it  was  as  qualified  as  Hughes  to 
bid  on  the  proposed  contract  and  said  ComSatCorp  must  award  the 
contract  only  after  competitive  bidding.  ComSatCorp  had  asked  the 
FCC  to  approve  the  proposed  contract,  waiving  requirements  for  com- 
petitive bidding,      (fcc  Public  Notice-C  ) 

•  usaf  "ripple-launched"  two   Minutemen   icbm's  from   Vandenberg  afb. 

Both  were  launched  from  silos,  the  second  within  minutes  of  the  first. 
{M&R,  2/15/65,  12) 
February  4:  Nike-Cajun  sounding  rocket  with  grenade  payload  to  obtain 
temperature,  wind,  density,  and  pressure  data  was  launched  from 
Wallops  Island,  Va.  to  altitude  73.5  mi.  (118.2  km.).  Twelve  grenades 
were  to  have  exploded  during  rocket  ascent,  but  two  did  not  explode. 
All  other  instruments  performed  as  anticipated.  A  similar  experiment 
was  launched  from  Point  Barrow  successfully.      (NASA  Rpt.  SRL) 

•  USAF's  XC-142A  V/Stol,  designed  and  built  by  Ling-Temco-Vought.  made 

its  first  public  flight  at  Grand  Prairie,  Tex.  piloted  by  John  Konrad. 
Designed  to  take  off  and  land  vertically,  the  experimental  aircraft  had 
a  wing  that  could  be  moved  in  flight  from  the  normal  horizontal  posi- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  55 

tion  to  a  vertical  position,  enabling  it  to  hover,  fly  backwards,  side- 
ways, and  rotate  360°  in  either  direction  over  the  same  spot.  It  could 
fly  forward  as  slowly  as  25  mph  without  stalling  and  could  be  flown 
at  maximum  speed  of  425  mph;  cruising  speed  was  250  mph.  Five  of 
the  airplanes  would  be  delivered  to  Edwards  AFB  for  further  tests. 
{Wash.  Post,  2  5  65:  Clark,  Houston  Post,  2 /'5/65;  A&A,  4/65,  8) 
February  4:  Scientists  at  Boeing  Co.,  Seattle,  had  devised  a  "trampoline" 
bed  designed  to  exercise  the  blood  vessels  in  a  weightless  environment, 
it  was  reported.  Compared  in  effect  to  a  cocktail  shaker,  the  device,  by 
its  to-and-fro  motion,  would  send  the  blood  surging  from  the  head  to 
the  feet  and  back  again.  Some  scientists  had  feared  that  days  of  inac- 
tivity in  a  weightless  environment  without  exercising  the  blood  vessels 
could  result  in  death  to  an  astronaut.  (AP,  Newport  News  Daily  Press, 
2  '4  65;  AP.  Huntsville  Times,  2  4  65;  Orl.  Sen.,  2/4/'65) 

•  USAF  presented  a  Lockheed  Agena-B  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  Wash- 

ington, D.C.,  for  permanent  display  in  the  National  Air  Museum.  The 
Agena  had  performed  as  an  orbital  injection  vehicle,  space  satellite 
(first  to  achieve  circular  and  polar  orbits),  and  as  an  intermediate 
stage  booster  for  deep  space  probes.  (  Smithsonian  Release ) 
February  5:  mariner  iv  was  performing  normally  after  nearly  10  weeks  in 
space,  NASA  announced.  At  9  a.m.  est  the  Mars  probe  was  14,421,246 
mi.  from  earth  and  had  traveled  more  than  117  million  mi.  in  its  sun- 
circling  orbit.  It  was  moving  at  a  velocity  of  14,478  mph  relative  to 
earth  and  65,670  mph  relative  to  the  sun.  Instruments  aboard  MARINER 
IV  Mars  probe  detected  a  solar  flare  and  the  spacecraft  telemetered  data 
to  a  tracking  station  at  Johannesburg,  South  Africa,  for  relay  to  the 
Jet  Propulsion  Laboratory.  (NASA  Release  65-30;  L.A.  Times,  Wash. 
Post,  2/6  65) 

•  First  major  piece  of  flight-type  hardware  for  the  Apollo  program.  Service 

Module  001,  successfully  underwent  a  10-sec.  shakedown  static  test 
firing  at  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center's  White  Sands  Operations. 
Service  Module  001  was  unlike  previous  boilerplate  models  in  that 
it  was  constructed  primarily  of  aluminum  alloy  and  had  an  outside  skin 
of  honeycomb  bonded  between  two  aluminum  sheets.  Made  by  Aerojet- 
General,  the  service  propulsion  system  engine  had  22,000  lbs.  of  thrust. 
It  would  slow  down  the  Apollo  for  entry  into  lunar  orbit  and  speed 
up  the  spacecraft  for  escape  from  lunar  orbit  and  the  return  to  earth. 
(MSC  Roundup,  2/17/65,  8;  naa  S&ID  Skywriter,  2/12/65,  1,  3) 

•  NASA   Administrator   James   E.   Webb,   at   Nebraska   Wesleyan   Univ.   to 

receive  an  honorary  doctorate,  said  in  a  speech:  "...  while  our 
national  policy  is  to  maximize  the  peaceful  uses  of  outer  space  .  .  .  and 
to  avoid  the  extension  of  weapons,  we  have  no  choice  but  to  acquire  a 
broadly-based  total  capability  in  space;  a  capability  that  can  enable 
us  to  insure  the  protection  of  our  national  security  interests  while  we 
actively  seek  cooperative  peaceful  development.  .  .  . 

"The  Roman  mastery  of  land  and  sea  communications,  the  English 
mastery  of  the  seas,  the  American  mastery  of  the  air  and  of  nuclear 
energy  were  each  accompanied  by  greatly  enhanced  prestige  and 
followed  by  vast  increases  in  power  and  position,  new  knowledge,  the 
establishment  of  strategic  international  economic  advantages,  the  wide 
use  of  new  resources,  great  advances  in  military  capability,  and  a 
quickening    of    national    pride    and    vigor.     Portentous    realignments 


56  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

among  nations  were  inevitable.  These  are  the  advantages  the  Russians 
now  seek  from  their  enormous  investments  in  space.  These  are  the 
advantages  we  cannot  permit  them  to  acquire  and  use  against  the 
non-Communist  world. 

"In  these  lessons  of  history  lies  the  real  challenge  of  space.  The 
portents  for  our  own  time  are  clear  enough  in  the  early  lead  of  the 
Soviet  Union  with  the  first  Sputnik,  Vostok,  and  Voskhod.  The  spurt 
in  Soviet  prestige  brought  a  new  assurance  and  weight  in  the  interna- 
tional political  arena,  a  new  pride  and  confidence  in  Soviet  national 
purpose.  We  have  reacted  quickly  and  with  ever-increasing  success, 
but  the  challenge  of  the  mastery  of  space  remains  to  be  accomplished 
for  us  as  a  nation  and  for  you  as  a  member  of  the  new  generation. 
We  are  meeting  this  challenge,  and  in  doing  so  enhancing  the  broadest 
values  for  our  society  and  our  world. 

"Our  power  to  survive  as  a  great  and  vigorous  Society  is  in  the 
process  of  being  proven  again  through  our  space  efforts.  Your  own 
involvement  in  the  actions  and  consequences  will  be  far  greater  than 
you  or  I  can  fully  appreciate  today.  .  .  ."  (Text;  NYT,  2/5/65) 
February  5:  NASA  announced  it  had  approved  a  Rice  Univ.  proposal  for  a 
satellite  to  measure  radiation  and  radiation  loss  in  the  Van  Allen  belts, 
aurorae  and  airglow,  bombardment  of  the  upper  atmosphere  by  ener- 
getic particles  from  space,  and  galactic  and  solar  cosmic  rays.  The 
125-lb.  scientific  satellite,  to  be  known  as  Owl,  would  be  designed, 
developed,  and  built  by  a  Rice  group  headed  by  Dr.  Brian  J.  O'Brien, 
and  would  be  injected  into  a  near-circular  orbit  at  about  400  mi. 
altitude  by  Scout  launch  vehicle.  After  achieving  orbit,  the  satellite 
would  be  oriented  by  a  large  permanent  bar  magnet  so  that  one  axis 
would  be  continuously  aligned  with  the  earth's  magnetic  lines  of  force. 
The  Rice  project  would  be  part  of  the  NASA  University  Explorers  Pro- 
gram. Spacecraft  and  experiments  would  be  tested  at  NASA  facilities 
under  the  direction  of  NASA's  Wallops  Station,  which  also  was  assigned 
project  management  of  Owl.      (nasa  Release  65-29) 

•  First  S-II-S  ground  test  stage  in  the  Saturn  s-ll  program  was  completed 

by  North  American  Aviation  at  Seal  Beach.  The  stage  would  be  used 
for  structural  tests  simulating  critical  thrust  and  pressure  loads  antici- 
pated during  Saturn  V/ Apollo  flight  missions.  This  stage  would  not  be 
fired — it  would  have  no  engine,      (naa  S&ID  Skywriter,  2/5^65,  1) 

•  A  new  alloy  known  as  NASA  Modified  TaZ-8  had  been  developed  by  NASA 

Lewis  Research  Center  scientists  John  C.  Freche  and  William  J.  Waters 
for  use  in  modified  X-15  nose  sensors.  The  new  material,  which  con- 
tained tantalum  and  zirconium,  was  necessary  because  the  increased 
speed  of  the  modified  aircraft  (x-15  No.  2) — up  to  5.000  mph — 
would  cause  greater  dynamic  heating.      (Lewis  News,  2/5/65,  1) 

•  Menu  released  by  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  in  a  request  for  bids 

from  industrial  firms  interested  in  furnishing  the  Apollo  astronauts  with 
food  for  the  journey  to  the  moon  included  bacon  and  eggs,  frosted 
flakes,  toast,  fruit  juice,  and  a  strawberry  cereal  bar.  Food  allowance 
of  8  lbs.  would  be  dehydrated  to  reduce  its  weight.  Astronauts  would 
add  water  to  the  food  from  their  drinking  water  supply.  (Schefter, 
Houston  Chron.,  2/5/65) 

•  National  Science  Foundation  announced  that  a  new  radio  technique  might 

make  it  possible  to  study  Antarctica's  ice  depth.     The  technique  in- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  57 

volved  sending  radio  waves  down  through  the  ice  and  measuring  the 
time  it  took  them  to  bounce  back  from  the  underlying  ground.  This 
would  provide  a  measure  of  ice  depth.  The  equipment  was  checked 
out  at  the  South  Pole  where  earlier  seismic  soundings  had  shown  the 
ice  to  be  9J00  ft.  deep,  (upi,  NYT,  2/7/65,  77) 
February  5:  Deactivation  of  129  obsolete  intercontinental  ballistic  missile 
launch  sites  was  underway.  The  Thor,  Atlas,  and  Titan  I  missiles  had 
been  superseded  by  more  modern  weapons,  including  Titan  ii.  Minute- 
man,  and  Polaris.  Nearly  $2  billion  of  property  in  12  states  was 
involved.  Government  agencies  had  been  advised  that  equipment  Avas 
available  as  military  surplus.      (Hill,  NYT,  2/7/65,  64) 

•  A  tentative  plan  of  the  Center  for  European  Nuclear  Research  (cern)  to 

build  a  300-billion-electron-volt  particle  accelerator  in  Bavaria  was 
being  opposed  by  residents  of  Munich,  it  was  reported,  cern  had  stated 
that  no  final  decision  had  been  reached.  (NYT,  2/7/65,  24) 
February  6:  Tabulations  prepared  by  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center 
showed  that  more  than  1,000  man-made  objects — satelHtes,  spacecraft, 
capsules,  and  assorted  bits  and  pieces  of  them — had  been  placed  in 
orbit  since  Oct.  4,  1957.  Of  these  objects  243  were  satellites  launched 
by  the  United  States  or  its  allies  and  94  were  Soviet-launched  satellites. 
103  U.S. -sponsored  satellites  and  16  Soviet  satellites  were  still  in  orbit. 
Of  those  no  longer  in  orbit,  140  were  U.S.  and  78  Soviet.  Many 
satellites  had  separated  into  two  or  more  space  objects  or  had  broken 
apart  accidentally  or  by  design  to  produce  space  junk.  GSFC  records 
identified  469  hunks  of  junk  of  U.S.  origin  and  182  of  Soviet  as  having 
orbited  the  earth  at  one  time  or  another.  Of  these,  372  U.S.  and  16 
Soviet  objects  were  still  in  orbit,      (ap,  NYT,  2/7/65,  80) 

•  Among  1965  recipients  of  the  Arthur  S.  Flemming  Award  to  outstanding 

young  men  in  Federal  Government  were:  Leonard  Jaffe,  Director  of 
NASA  Communication  and  Navigation  Programs,  for  his  work  in  com- 
munication satellite  projects;  Dr.  Robert  Jastrow,  for  his  work  in 
nuclear  theory  at  the  Goddard  Institute  for  Space  Studies  in  New  York; 
Dr.  Joseph  F.  Shea,  Manager  of  the  Apollo  Spacecraft  Program  Office 
at  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center,  for  his  work  in  U.S.  manned  lunar 
landing  program;  and  Wesley  L.  Hjornevik,  Assistant  Director  for 
Administration  at  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center,  for  his  work  in 
construction  of  space  environment  simulator.  [Wash.  Post,  2/7/65; 
NASA  Notice) 

•  Dr.    Frank    J.    Low,    research    associate    in    the    Lunar    and    Planetary 

Laboratory  at  the  Univ.  of  Arizona,  discovered  three  halved  stars 
with  halos  around  them  which  may  be  clues  to  stellar  evolution.  He 
said  he  believed  these  were  stars  throwing  out  material  that  would 
become  building  blocks  of  future  stars.  He  identified  the  stars  as 
Betelgeuse,  Aldebaran,  and  Mu  Cephei.      (ap,  Phil.  Eve.  Bui,  2/6/65) 

•  Over   300   Government-   and   space   industries-employed   engineers   were 

studying  for  master's  and  doctor's  degrees  utilizing  closed  circuit 
television  with  two-way  communication  in  a  program  at  the  Univ.  of 
Florida's  College  of  Engineering.  The  system  had  been  activated  in 
September  1964.  TV  classrooms  were  at  Orlando,  Daytona  Beach,  Cape 
Kennedv.  Melbourne.  Patrick  afb,  and  NASA  Merritt  Island.  {NYT, 
2/7/65,' 80) 

•  Marshal  Nikolai   L  Krylov,   Soviet  commander   of  the   strategic   rocket 

forces,  said  in  Krasnaya  Zvezda:     "Representatives  of  the  aggressive 


58  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

imperialist  circles  often  brag  about  their  rocket-nuclear  weapons.  In 
answer  to  this  we  can  state  with  assurance  that  in  respect  to  the  quality 
and  quantity  of  rocket-nuclear  weapons,  we  not  only  do  not  lag  behind 
those  who  threaten  us  with  war,  but  far  surpass  them."  {Krasnaya 
Zvezda,  2/6/65,  2,  atss-t  Trans.) 
February  7:  faa  Administrator  Najeeb  E.  Halaby,  questioned  about  the 
supersonic  transport  in  New  Orleans,  cited  the  following  advantages: 
the  220-plus  passenger  Sst  in  one  year  would  carry  as  many  passengers 
as  does  the  Queen  Elizabeth  with  a  crew  of  1.500;  the  Sst  would  effect 
obvious  economies  by  decreasing  air  transportation  time  to  a  third  of 
present  levels;  the  program  would  provide  approximately  15,000  skilled 
jobs  a  year  that  would  otherwise  not  be  filled;  the  Sst  project  would 
advance  the  technology  of  titanium  as  much  as  World  War  II  aircraft 
production  advanced  that  of  aluminum.      {Wash.  Post,  2/8/65) 

•  A  full-scale  aluminum  model  of  a   1.400-lb.  telescoping  space  structure 

had  been  fabricated  to  verify  design  theory  and  manufacturing 
techniques,  AFSC  announced.  Built  by  Martin-Denver,  the  15-by-8-ft. 
expandable  structure  could  be  launched  into  space  in  a  compact  package 
and  then,  like  a  telescope,  opened  to  full  size  after  reaching  orbit. 
Several  of  the  expandable  structures  stacked  on  a  booster's  upper  stage 
could  be  sent  into  space  and  expanded  to  form  a  rotating  space  station. 
(afsc  Release  4.64) 
February  8:  NASA  conducted  high-altitude  grenade  experiments  almost 
simultaneously  from  launch  sites  in  Alaska,  Canada,  and  at  Wallops 
Island,  using  a  two-stage  Nike-Cajun  in  each  case.  Grenades  were 
ejected  and  detonated  at  intervals  from  about  25-  to  56-mi.  altitude. 
This  was  the  third  and  final  set  in  the  current  series  to  obtain  upper- 
atmosphere  wind,  temperature,  density,  and  pressure  data  at  the  three 
widely-separated  geographic  locations.  The  series  marked  the  first 
time  that  such  measurements  had  been  made  with  sounding  rockets 
within  the  Arctic  Circle.      (NASA  Release  65-8) 

•  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  announced  selection  of  Maj.  L.  Gordon 

Cooper  (usaf)  and  Lt.  Cdr.  Charles  Conrad,  Jr.  (usn),  to  make  the 
seven-day  Gemini  V  space  flight.  Gemini  v  would  be  the  third  manned 
Gemini  space  flight  and  would  be  made  in  1965.  Backup  crewmen 
were  two  civilians,  Neil  A.  Armstrong  and  Elliot  M.  See,  Jr.  (msc 
Roundup,  2/17/65,  1;  ap.  Wash.  Post,  2/8/65;  ap,  Bait.  Sun,  2/8/65; 
Witkin,  NYT,  2/9/65) 

•  Among  the   11   scientists   and   engineers   presented   the   National   Medal 

of  Science  by  President  Johnson  at  a  White  House  ceremony  were 
Dr.  Charles  S.  Draper,  professor  of  aeronautics  and  astronautics  at 
MIT,  and  Dr.  Harold  C.  Urey,  professor  of  astronomy  at  Univ.  of  Calif, 
and  consultant  on  NASA  Space  Science  Steering  Committee.  (Wash. 
Post,  2/9/65,  9;  CR,  2/10/65,  A590) 

•  18  additional  countries  were  applying  for  ownership  in  the  $200-million 

international  consortium  to  operate  a  global  communications  satellite 
system,  it  was  reported.  Eighteen  nations  and  Vatican  City  had 
originally  participated  in  forming  the  consortium  in  July  1964.  U.S.'s 
ComSatCorp  acquired  61%  ownership  and  would  serve  as  manager  for 
the  consortium. 

The  new  nations  applying  for  ownership  participation  were  Monaco, 
South   Africa,   New   Zealand,    Syria,   Kuwait,    Libya,   Yemen,    Brazil, 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  59 

Morocco,  United  Arab  Republic,  Sudan,  Iraq,  Lebanon,  Tunisia, 
Argentina,  Jordan.  Indonesia,  and  Ceylon.  {Av.  Wk.,  2/8/65,  25) 
February  8:  The  world's  first  nuclear-powered  weather  station,  designated 
Navy  Oceanographic  and  Meteorological  Automatic  Device  (Nomad), 
began  its  second  year  of  successful  operation  300  mi.  out  of  New 
Orleans  in  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  Developed  by  the  Navy,  the  unattended 
station  was  powered  by  the  AEC  generator,  Snap-7D.  {NYT,  2/14/65, 
90) 
•  A  Polaris  A-3  launched  from  the  nuclear  submarine  Sam  Rayburn  re- 
presented the  16th  consecutive  success  for  that  missile.  The  Rayburn 
was  submerged  off  the  coast  of  Cape  Kennedy.  (M&R,  2/15/65,  12) 
During  the  week  of  February  8:  In  an  interview,  C.  R.  Smith,  chairman  of 
American  Airlines,  backed  the  Boeing  Co.'s  entry,  one  of  two  basic 
designs  under  study,  in  the  Government's  design  competition  for  a 
supersonic  transport  aircraft:  "I  think  the  SST  will  have  to  have 
variable-sweep  wings." 

In  variable  sweep,  the  angle  at  which  the  wings  meet  the  fuselage 
could  be  changed  for  efficiency  at  different  speeds.  At  slow  speed,  the 
wings  would  be  outstretched  for  greater  lift;  at  high  speed,  they  would 
be  swept  back  sharply  to  reduce  airflow  drag.  This  principle  was  used 
on  the  F-111.  (NYT,  2/14/65,  90) 
February  8-10:  American  Astronautical  Society  presented  a  Symposium  on 
Unmanned  Exploration  of  the  Solar  System  in  Denver,  Colo.  Speak- 
ing about  the  Biosatellite  Program,  Dale  W.  Jenkins,  nasa  Office  of 
Space  Science  and  Applications  said: 

"...  The  Biosatellite  Program  is  a  second-generation  series  of 
carefully  planned  and  selected  experiments,  including  some  highly 
sophisticated  experiments  which  have  required  several  years  of  baseline 
study  and  development.  These  orbiting  recoverable  Biosatellites 
provide  an  opportunity  to  test  critically  major  biological  hypotheses  in 
the  areas  of  genetics,  evolution,  and  physiology.  The  Biosatellite 
studies  will  help  delineate  hazards  to  astronauts  and  assist  in  deter- 
mining and  defining  effects  on  degradation  of  human  performance. 
Prolonged  manned  flights  may  involve,  for  example,  physiological 
changes  such  as  decalcification  of  bones  (particularly  the  vertebrae), 
loss  of  muscle  tone  and  physical  capability,  and  certain  cardiovascular 
changes.  Also,  the  effect  of  continued  sensory  deprivation  on  behavior 
and  performance  is  unknown. 

"Twenty  experiments  have  been  selected  for  flight  to  study  the 
effects  of  weightlessness  and  decreased  gravity  during  3-  to  30-day 
orbital  periods.  The  experiments  include  a  wide  variety  of  plants 
and  animals  from  single-cell  organisms  to  higher  plants  and  animals. 
The  effects  of  weightlessness  will  be  studied  on  the  primate,  especially 
the  central  nervous,  the  cardiovascular,  and  the  skeletal  systems  during 
orbits  of  30  days'  duration. 

"Experiments  have  been  selected  to  study  the  effects  of  weightless- 
ness combined  with  a  known  source  of  radiation  to  determine  if  there 
are  any  antagonistic  or  synergistic  genetic  or  somatic  effects  on  various 
organisms. 

"Experiments  are  included  to  study  the  effects  of  the  unique  environ- 
ment of  the  Earth-orbiting  satellite  and  removal  from  the  Earth's  rota- 


60  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

tion  in  relation  to  biological  rhythms  of  plants  and  animals.  .  .  ." 
(Text) 

Dr.  Homer  E.  Newell,  NASA  Associate  Administrator  for  Space 
Science  and  Applications,  outlining  progress  made  toward  the  objective 
of  solar  system  exploration,  said:  "...  It  would  appear  .  .  .  that 
enough  experience  and  know-how  has  been  accumulated  to  make  the 
move  to  a  five-ton  Voyager  spacecraft  on  the  Saturn  IB  Centaur  launch 
vehicle  a  reasonable  next  step  in  the  unmanned  exploration  of  the  solar 
system.  There  is  no  question  but  that  the  size  and  weight  of  Voyager, 
plus  the  increased  demands  that  will  be  placed  upon  it,  will  make  the 
development  of  the  Voyager  a  complex  and  difficult  undertaking. 
But  certainly,  the  Orbiting  Geophysical  Observatory  and  Mariner 
have  shown  us  that  we  can  deal  successfully  with  complexity.  As  a 
matter  of  fact,  the  increased  weight  and  size  may  afford  considerable 
relief  from  the  need  to  tailor  every  last  function  to  a  gnat's  eyebrow 
in  order  to  achieve  the  intended  mission,  as  has  been  the  case 
hitherto.   .  .  ." 

Dr.  Newell  said  that  reliability  was  probably  the  most  difficult 
problem  for  deep-space  long-duration  missions  and  that  "...  the 
development  of  adequate  spacecraft  systems  will  not  be  the  problem. 
The  most  serious  threat  to  long  life  operation  will  lie  in  the  potential 
random  failure  of  one  or  more  [spacecraft]  components." 

He  added  that  this  would  probably  be  an  ever-decreasing  problem  as 
we  gained  experience  with  launch  vehicles  and  that  ".  .  .  launch 
vehicle  reliability  is  far  less  a  difficult  program  than  that  of  long  space- 
craft lifetime  for  very  deep-space  missions." 

In  conclusion.  Dr.  Newell  said:  "...  Nevertheless,  the  time 
has  arrived  when  many  thoughtful  people  urge  a  vigorous  program  of 
solar  system  exploration.  The  President  has  in  his  Fiscal  Year  1966 
budget  request  included  funds  to  support  initial  conceptual  and  design 
studies  of  a  Voyager  spacecraft.  Funds  are  also  included  for  the 
development  of  a  launch  vehicle  consisting  of  the  Saturn  IB  plus 
the  Centaur.  Final  decision  as  to  whether  to  move  ahead  with  the 
development  of  the  Voyager  spacecraft  would  come  a  little  over  a  year 
from  now."      (Text) 

Missiles  and  Rockets  reported  that  scientists  at  the  Symposium  had 
differing  opinions  on  Mars  goals.  Gilbert  V.  Levin  of  Hazleton  Labora- 
tories opposed  the  1971  scheduled  landing  of  the  Voyager:  ".  .  . 
although  we  insist  that  Mars  should  not  be  contaminated  by  ter- 
restrial life  before  we  search  for  Martian  life,  we  fail  to  recognize  that 
this  is  tantamount  to  saying  that  the  U.S.  must  get  there  first,  because 
the  U.S.  appears  to  be  the  only  nation  willing  and  able  to  sterilize  its 
spacecraft. 

"I'm  all  for  Voyager,  but  an  initial  step  in  the  Voyager  program 
should  be  some  early  landers  at  the  earliest  opportunities.  We  should 
go  ahead  and  devote  efforts  to  develop  a  program  to  land  on  Mars  in 
1969." 

Temple  Neumann.  Automated  Biological  Laboratory  program  engi- 
neer with  Philco's  Aeronutronic  Div.,  agreed  with  Levin:  "If  the 
planetary  biological  exploration  task  is  to  be  performed  in  a  sound 
scientific  manner,  the  U.S.  must  do  it — first." 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  61 

Lawrence  B.  Hall,  NASA  Special  Assistant  for  Planetary  Quarantine, 
re-emphasized  "the  disastrous  eflfects  that  an  unsterilized  spacecraft 
could  have  on  Mars.  ...  If  a  single  micro-organism  should  land  on 
Mars  and  have  a  replication  time  of  30  days,  it  could  grow  to  the 
bacterial  population  of  Earth  in  eight  years.  This  could  not  only 
compete  with  Martian  life  but  could  result  in  drastic  changes  in  the 
geochemical  and  atmospheric  characteristics  of  the  planet." 

J  PL's  Gerald  A.  Soffen  said  that  "since  the  decision  between  Mariner 
landers  and  Voyager  missions  has  not  been  made  yet.  scientific  experi- 
menters have  to  think  in  terms  both  of  small  payloads  and  large  ones. 
Numerous  small  missions  would  provide  a  good  opportunity  to  perform 
experiments  in  different  locations  and  during  different  planetary  sea- 
sons." 

Bruce  C.  Murray,  of  Cal  Tech,  said:  ".  .  .  finding  the  right  loca- 
tion, getting  there,  and  interpreting  the  biological  experiment  results 
in  a  way  that  would  indicate  definitively  whether  life  was  or  was  not 
present  would  call  for  at  least  100  times  more  photography  than  was 
currently  assumed. 

"...  atmospheric  effects,  color,  seasonal  changes,  and  the  large 
number  of  locations  of  interest  will  make  Martian  pictures  10-50  times 
more  difficult  to  interpret  than  lunar  pictures." 

Robert  L.  Sohn.  trw  Space  Technology  Laboratories,  stressed  value 
of  earth-return  missions  and  recommended  serious  consideration  of 
round-trip  missions  and  multi-plan  round  trips  using  DSIF  as  guide.  He 
suggested  that  an  800-lb.  spacecraft  could  make  a  fly-by  of  Mars,  using 
the  Venus  swing-by  technique  and  return  to  earth  to  enable  recovery 
of  a  50-lb.  capsule.  Use  of  swing-by  techniques  for  round  trips  reduces 
earth  launch  velocities  to  those  of  the  favorable  years  and  also  reduces 
earth  reentry  velocities.  Additional  advantages  were  closer  passage 
with  Mars  at  encounter  and  the  opportunity  to  gather  data  on  two 
planets. 

EHe  A.  Shneour,  of  Stanford  University,  said  he  ".  .  .  could  not 
say  whether  it  was  possible  to  draw  up  a  set  of  experiments  that  would 
definitively  search  for  life."  He  maintained,  however,  that  "discovery 
of  any  form  of  extraterrestrial  life  will  be  tantamount  to  a  basic 
determination  of  the  nature  of  all  life  on  that  planet."  (M&R,  2/22/ 
65,  39.  41) 
February  9:  Joint  Congressional  Atomic  Energy  Committee,  in  hearing  on 
AEC's  FY  1966  authorization,  asked  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb 
why  NASA  was  dropping  funds  for  the  Snap-8  spacecraft  nuclear 
auxiliary  power  project.  In  the  joint  nasa-aec  project,  AEC  was  work- 
ing on  the  reactor  and  NASA  was  working  on  the  power  conversion 
machinery.  Snap-o  was  one  of  three  projects  that  had  been  deleted 
from  the  NASA  FY  1966  budget  request.  Mr.  Webb  said:  "...  in 
the  over-all  budgeting  ...  the  President  has  a  hard  problem  of 
adjusting  resources  to  the  needs  of  the  Government.  In  this  case,  it 
was  decided  that  these  systems,  these  three  systems,  could  not  be 
financed  within  the  resources  available  for  allocation  to  NASA  and 
therefore  they  were  eliminated  in  the  final  decision  relating  to  the 
President's  budget,  but  not  on  our  recommendation.   .   .   . 

"Because  we  are  on  the  verge  of  significant  technical  milestones 
with  our  power  conversion  equipment,  we  believe  we  should  phase  out 


62  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

the  program  in  an  orderly  way  and  provide  the  maximum  amount  of 
experience  and  data  for  future  use. 

"Therefore,  we  plan  to  continue  current  testing  of  components  com- 
bined in  the  test  loop  to  achieve  at  least  1,000  hours  of  operating  time 
on  each  of  the  major  components,  by  reprogramming  our  remaining 
fiscal  year  1965  funds  into  these  specific  task  areas. 

".  .  .  we  expect  to  present  to  you  and  the  committees,  if  you  will 
permit  us  to  do  so.  an  orderly  plan  for  using  the  resources  we  now 
have.  This  gives  the  Congressional  Committees  an  opportunity  to 
look  at  and  plan  and  decide  whether  it  does  really  fit  what  they 
believe  is  in  the  national  interest  rather  than  to  take  a  sudden 
action.  .  .  ." 

Sen.  Clinton  P.  Anderson  (  D-N.Mex. ) ,  Chairman  of  the  Senate  Aero- 
nautical and  Space  Sciences  Committee,  expressed  his  belief  "that  it 
is  too  bad  that  the  Bureau  of  the  Budget  trimmed  you  down  on  this 
work.  I  wish  you  had  gone  ahead  with  it  through  the  test  period,  we 
would  have  learned  some  very  significant  things.  I  disassociate  it 
from  the  other  two  [canceled  projects]  but  Snap-8  should  have  gone  on 
priority."  (Transcript) 
February  9:  Six  of  eight  oso  ii  experiments  had  been  turned  on  and  gave 
"excellent"  data,  NASA  reported.  The  two  experiments  not  yet  operat- 
ing were  the  ultraviolet  scanning  spectrometer  provided  by  Harvard 
Univ.  and  the  ultraviolet  spectrophotometer  provided  by  NASA  Goddard 
Space  Flight  Center.  Both  had  been  turned  on  but  were  turned  off  to 
prevent  damage  to  themselves  or  to  the  satellite  when  irregularities 
in  the  data  received  were  noted.  All  other  functions  of  the  satellite — 
such  as  solar  power  supply,  telemetry  system,  tape  recorder,  tempera- 
ture control,  and  command  system — were  normal,  (nasa  Release 
65-37) 

•  At  a  press  conference  during  the  Symposium  on  Unmanned  Exploration 

of  the  Solar  System,  presented  in  Denver,  Colo.,  by  the  American 
Astronautical  Society,  Univ.  of  California  chemist  Harold  C.  Urey  said 
that  he  hoped  the  moon  was  "interesting  enough  to  make  the  $20 
billion  exploration  program  'worthwhile.'  "  He  added,  "H  it  turns 
out  that  the  moon  escaped  from  the  earth,  it  will  be  just  another 
incident  and  I  will  be  disappointed.  H.  however,  it  was  captured  by  the 
earth  it  will  be  an  outstanding  link  in  history." 

Urey  backed  the  U.S.  program  designed  to  land  men  on  the  moon 
by  1970  and  said  he  did  not  consider  the  cost  excessive.  {Denver  Post, 
2/10/65) 

•  During  a  luncheon  speech  at  the  Symposium  on  Unmanned  Exploration 

of  the  Solar  System,  presented  in  Denver.  Colo.,  by  the  American 
Astronautical  Society,  Maj.  Gen.  Don  R.  Ostrander.  Commander  of 
USAF  Office  of  Aerospace  Research,  formerly  NASA  Director  of  Launch 
Vehicle  Programs,  said  it  was  now  generally  agreed  that  the  near-earth 
space  area  "looks  more  promising  from  the  standpoint  of  potential 
military  applications"  than  lunar  bases.  Mars  flights,  and  other  projects 
suggested  earlier.  USAF  was  seeking  refinement  of  its  knowledge  in 
astronomy,  geophysics,  geodesy,  and  other  areas.  More  pressing,  he 
said,  was  to  study  the  space  environment  as  related  to  weapon  systems 
and  orbiting  satellites.      (Partner,  Denver  Post,  2/29/65) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  63 

February  9:  In  a  report  presented  at  the  55th  national  meeting  of  the 
American  Institute  of  Chemical  Engineers  in  Houston,  NASA  Lewis  Re- 
search Center  engineer  E.  W.  Ott  said  that  moisture  in  an  astronaut's 
breath  could  escape  into  his  space  capsule,  accumulate  and  float  at 
zero  gravity,  and  short  out  electrical  systems  it  might  come  into  con- 
tact with.  He  said  something  like  this  was  believed  to  have  happened 
when  Astronaut  Gordon  Cooper  had  had  to  bring  his  space  capsule 
in  under  manual  control  in  May  1963.  "There  is  good  evidence  that 
water  found  its  way  into  automatic  control  equipment  and  caused 
malfunctioning."      (Justice,  Houston  Post,  2/10/65) 

•  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  engineer  John  H.  Kimzey  told  a  meeting 

of  American  Institute  of  Chemical  Engineers  that  fires  during  simulated 
spaceflight  had  the  puzzling  habit  of  burning  fiercely  initially,  dying 
out  so  the  flame  disappeared,  but  flaring  to  life  when  force  of  gravity 
took  over.  Kimzey  speculated  that  in  weightless  conditions,  carbon 
monoxide,  carbon  dioxide,  and  water  vapor  created  by  the  fire  might 
surround  the  flame  and  cut  off  both  oxygen  and  fuel.  Motion  pictures 
of  the  "dead"  fires  had  shown  no  indication  of  either  light  or  infrared 
heat  energy  coming  from  fire  locations.  (Burkett,  Houston  Chron., 
2/10/65) 

•  DOD  announced  that  U.S.  would  sell  United  Kingdom:  (1)  F-4  (Phantom 

II )  fighter /close-support  aircraft  and  (2)  C-130E  combat  assault 
transport  aircraft.  It  had  also  been  agreed  that  the  two  countries 
would  expand  existing  program  of  cooperation  in  defense  research 
and  development.  Serious  consideration  would  be  given  to  joint  de- 
velopment of  advanced  life  engine  for  vertical-  and  short-takeoff  air- 
craft,     (dod  Release  80-65) 

•  Douglas  Aircraft  Co.  Missile  and  Space  Systems  Div.  reported  that  tests 

conducted  for  usaf  had  indicated  that  a  spin  in  a  centrifuge  might 
recondition  astronauts  living  for  weeks  or  months  in  a  state  of  weight- 
lessness. Previous  research  had  indicated  that  long  stays  in  the  weight- 
less state  could  have  a  debilitating  effect  on  the  body  and  cause  the 
heart  and  circulatory  system  to  lose  their  tone,  (nyt  News  Service, 
St.  Louis  Post-Dispatch,  2/9/65 ) 

•  A  usaf  Strategic  Air  Command  crew  successfully  launched  a  Minuteman 

ICBM  from  Vandenberg  afb.  {M&R,  2/15/65,  12) 
February  10:  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  announced  four  women  were 
among  the  appHcants  being  considered  for  the  new  scientist-astronaut 
program.  They  would  receive  the  same  consideration  as  the  male 
applicants.  In  the  past,  because  of  the  requirement  that  applicants 
have  either  a  test  pilot  rating  or  at  least  1,000  hrs.  in  jet  aircraft,  women 
were  not  seriously  considered.  MSC  had  forwarded  the  names  of  just 
over  400  applicants  to  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences,  which  would 
make  recommendations  on  selection  of  10-15  scientist-astronauts. 
(Maloney,  Houston  Post,  2/11/65) 

•  At  an  AEC  FY  1966  authorization  hearing.  Rep.  Melvin  Price    (D-Ill.), 

acting  chairman  of  the  Joint  Congressional  Committee  on  Atomic 
Energy,  attacked  "wasteful,  irresponsible  vacillation"  in  developing 
nuclear  power  systems  for  use  in  space.  He  cited  the  Snap-50  project 
which  "in  1962  had  a  development  objective  through  flight  test.  About 
a  year  ago,  the  flight  test  objective  was  dropped  for  a  complete  flight 
system  ground  test.     This  year,  we  have  had  another  change  in  ob- 


64  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

jective,  dropping  the  complete  system  ground  test  and  cutting  back 
to  component  test  objectives.  It  thus  appears  we  are  moving  rapidly 
backward  in  this  program.   .   .   ." 

Rep.  Price  said  millions  of  dollars  were  being  spent  to  develop  these 
power  sources  for  dod  and  NASA  but  that  the  projects  were  often  stopped 
short  of  flight  testing  because  of  lack  of  funds.  He  mentioned  "several 
specific  construction  items  which  were  not  approved  by  the  Budget 
.  .  .  [because]  there  was  no  indication  of  a  user  for  the  finished 
product.  .  .  . 

"The  concern  of  the  Committee  is  that  this  seems  to  be  a  pattern 
that  happens  on  so  many  of  these  projects.  Usually  when  it  starts, 
you  put  several  more  millions  in  for  a  few  years  and  then  finally  cut 
it  off  completely.  .  .  .  We  are  just  worried  about  this  pattern.  If 
we  thought  it  was  going  to  end  with  the  same  result,  it  might  be  wise 
to  cut  it  off  earlier  rather  than  later.  ...  I  have  a  pretty  deep  feeling 
we  are  back  on  this  requirements  merry-go-round."  (Transcript) 
February  10:  Detection  of  the  existence  of  life  on  Mars  could  be  accom- 
plished by  a  manned  Mars-orbit  mission  without  the  necessity  of  a  Mars 
landing,  according  to  two  NASA  Ames  Research  Center  officials  in  a 
Copley  News  Service  interview.  Alvin  Seiff.  Chief  of  Ames'  Vehicle 
Environment  Div.,  and  David  E.  Reese,  Jr.,  Assistant  Chief  of  that  di- 
vision, said  life  on  Mars  could  be  detected  from  as  far  away  as  "several 
hundred  thousand  feet"  from  the  planet's  surface.  "We  think  we  could 
get  good  accuracy  during  even  hypersonic  flight  around  Mars.  .  .  .  We 
don't  need  to  land  men  on  Mars  to  find  out  what  goes  on  there.  We 
can  find  out  about  its  atmosphere  and  whether  life  exists  there  through 
the  use  of  a  variety  of  instruments  we  now  have  at  hand,"  Seiff  said. 
Seiff  and  Reese  were  in  Denver  attending  AAS  Symposium  on  Un- 
manned Exploration  of  the  Solar  System.  (Macomber,  CNS,  San  Diego 
Union,  2/10/65) 

•  Hughes   Space   Systems    Div.    at   El   Segundo,    Calif.,    signed    a   contract 

with  NASA  to  propose  designs  of  a  beacon  that  could  be  placed 
on  the  moon  as  a  guide  for  safe  landing  for  moonbound  Apollo 
astronauts.  The  beacon  would  be  landed  on  the  moon  with  a  Surveyor 
spacecraft,  (upi,  Phil.  Eve.  Bui,  2/10/65) 
February  11:  MARINER  IV  received  12  commands  from  JPL  to  check  out 
spacecraft  equipment  that  would  be  used  if  the  spacecraft  was  still 
operating  normally  when  it  reached  Mars  next  July  14.  These  com- 
mands dropped  a  lens  cover  off  the  television  camera,  turned  on  a 
scanning  platform  that  carried  the  camera  and  two  Mars  sensors, 
turned  on  portions  of  television  system  and  checked  out  the  capability 
of  MARINER  IV  to  perform  the  encounter  sequence.  It  was  not  planned 
to  take  television  pictures  during  this  sequence.  The  lens  cover  was 
dropped  at  this  time  rather  than  at  planet  encounter  to  shake  loose 
any  possible  dust  particles  that  might  interfere  with  the  Canopus 
sensor,  a  light  sensing  device  that  locked  on  the  star  Canopus  to  pre- 
vent the  spacecraft  from  rolling,      (nasa  Release  65-43) 

•  USAF    Titan    Iii-A    rocket    was    launched    from    Cape    Kennedy,    hurled 

its  third  stage  (transtage)  and  two  satellites  into  orbit  in  a  ma- 
neuverability test  involving  three  different  orbits.  Primary  goal  of 
the  mission  was  triple  ignition  of  the  transtage's  engine.  First  firing, 
about  five  minutes  after  launch,  injected  the  7,000-lb.  rocket-payload 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  65 

assembly  into  near-earth  orbit  of  12o-mi.  apogee  and  108-mi.  perigee. 
After  traveling  once  around  the  earth,  during  which  the  rocket  per- 
formed a  deliberate  somersault,  the  transtage  ignited  again,  burned  37 
sec,  and  shifted  the  rocket  into  an  elliptical  orbit  of  1,766-mi.  apogee 
and  116-mi.  perigee.  During  one  and  one  half  orbits  around  the  earth, 
the  rocket  performed  a  second  deliberate  somersault;  a  third  firing  put 
it  in  circular  orbit  with  parameters  of  apogee,  1.737  mi.;  perigee,  1,721 
mi.:  period.  145.6  min.;  and  inclination,  32.15°. 

Titan  iii-a's  transtage  then  ejected  a  69-lb.  experimental  com- 
munications satellite  ( LES  I),  and  ejected  a  1.000-lb.  metal  chunk  to 
demonstrate  its  ability  to  launch  more  than  one  payload. 

LES  I  was  to  have  fired  a  solid-propellant  motor  to  move  to  an 
elliptical  orbit  with  an  apogee  of  11.500  mi.  and  perigee  of  1,725  mi., 
but  the  motor  failed  to  fire.  LES  I  continued  to  orbit  near  the  tran- 
stage and  the  metal  chunk.  LEs  I  (Lincoln  Experimental  Satellite)  had 
been  built  by  Mix's  Lincoln  Laboratory  to  test  advanced  components, 
materials,  and  techniques  which  might  apply  to  future  communica- 
tions satellites.  Radio  signals  were  to  be  exchanged  between  LES  I  and 
ground  stations.  (UPL  NYT,  2/12/65;  ap,  Houston  Post,  2/12/65;  AP, 
Bait.  Sun,  2  12  65:  U.S.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act.,  1965,  133) 
February  11:  Flight  testing  of  the  parachute  landing  system  for  two-man 
Gemini  spacecraft  was  completed.  The  test  simulated  an  emergency 
in  which  a  stabilizing  drogue  chute  failed  to  deploy  from  the  capsule. 
Dropped  from  a  plane  at  17.000  ft.,  the  unmanned,  two-ton  capsule 
landed  safely  after  a  pilot  chute  and  the  main  84-ft.-dia.  chute  deployed 
on  schedule.  This  was  the  tenth  straight  successful  test,  (ap,  Houston 
Post,  2/12/65) 

•  NASA  announced  that  it  would  negotiate  with  Space  Technology  Labora- 

tories and  Thiokol  Chemical  Corp.  for  six-month,  fixed-price  contracts 
of  approximately  $1.5  million  for  definition  of  a  program  to  develop 
and  produce  a  100-lb. -thrust  rocket  engine.  The  multipurpose  engine, 
designated  C-1,  would  be  designed  for  spacecraft  attitude  control  and 
maneuvering  systems  and  also  for  launch  vehicle  ullage  and  attitude 
control  systems.  It  would  be  powered  by  the  hypergolic,  storable 
liquid  propellants  monomethylhydrazine  (mmh)  and  nitrogen  tetroxide. 
(NASA  Release  65-41) 

•  FAA   released   the   first   two    volumes    of    a    comprehensive    five-part    re- 

port on  the  sonic  boom  public-reaction  study  conducted  in  Oklahoma 
City  in  1964.  Their  main  conclusion:  weather  had  a  greater  effect 
in  determining  the  strength  of  booms  than  suspected,  but  the  effect 
was  within  a  corrective  capability. 

The  first  volume,  "Sonic  Boom  Exposures  During  FAA  Community- 
Response  Studies  Over  a  Six-Month  Period  in  the  Oklahoma  City  Area," 
prepared  by  nasa  Langley  Research  Center,  said  measurements  taken 
directly  under  the  flight  path  of  the  supersonic  fighters  showed  that 
about  80%  of  the  booms  were  lower  in  intensity  than  scientists  ex- 
pected.    About  20%  equalled  or  exceeded  the  anticipated  levels. 

"Meteorological  Aspects  of  the  Sonic  Boom,"  prepared  by  the  Boeing 
Co.,  revealed  that:  weather  had  a  greater  effect  on  booms  generated 
by  planes  flying  less  than  mach  1.3  than  those  produced  by  aircraft 
exceeding  mach  1.3;   overpressures  were  increased  by  headwinds  but 


66  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

decreased  by  tailwinds  and  crosswinds,  with  variations  as  much  as 
20/^,  particularly  in  the  mach  1.3  range;  under  some  atmospheric 
conditions,  including  such  factors  as  wind,  temperature,  and  even  the 
time  of  day,  sonic  booms  may  vary  from  a  complete  cut-off  with  no 
boom  heard  to  heavy  overpressures  concentrated  over  a  small  area 
or  spread  almost  unlimited  over  a  wide  lateral  area;  turbulence  had 
the  effect  of  distorting  booms  and  increasing  or  decreasing  intensity 
and  distribution.  (  faa  Release  65-15;  UPI,  Minn.  Trib.,  2/12/65) 
February  11:  In  a  luncheon  address  to  the  National  Security  Industrial 
Association  in  Washington,  D.C.,  Lt.  Gen.  W.  A.  Davis  (usaf),  Vice 
Cdr.  of  Air  Force  Systems  Command,  discussed  afsc  accomplishments 
in  1964:  ".  .  .  Important  strides  were  also  made  in  the  area  of  space. 
We  carried  out  intensive  studies  on  the  Manned  Orbiting  Laboratory 
(mol).  Last  month  the  Secretary  of  Defense  announced  that  pro- 
posals are  being  requested  from  industry  for  design  studies  to  assist  in 
developing  the  cost  and  technical  information  needed  to  proceed  with 
full  scale  development  of  the  mol.  Titan  ill,  the  Standard  Launch  Ve- 
hicle 5A,  completed  two  highly  successful  test  launches.  Systems  Com- 
mand also  provided  support  to  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space 
Administration.  This  included  the  use  of  the  Atlas-Agena  combination 
to  launch  Ranger  7  on  its  successful  photographic  mission  to  the  moon 
and  Mariner  4  on  its  way  to  Mars.  We  also  conducted  the  first  launch 
of  the  man-rated  Titan  II.      It  was  very  successful. 

"There  are  a  number  of  tasks  ahead  of  us  in  space.  One  of  our 
most  promising  present  programs  is  the  Titan  ill  space  launching  sys- 
tem. The  Titan  iii  will  be  used  to  launch  the  24  satellites  for  the  in- 
terim Defense  Satellite  Communications  System.  It  will  also  be  used 
to  launch  the  Manned  Orbiting  Laboratory  (mol),  which  is  designed  to 
determine  man's  capability  to  perform  military  functions  in  space. 
The  MOL  will  have  an  important  bearing  on  our  future  space  capa- 
bilities."     (afsc  Release) 

•  In  an  isolation  test  in  caves  330  ft.  below  ground  near  the  French  Riviera, 

two  volunteers  were  reported  to  be  "steadily  losing  time."  Antoine 
Senni  was  about  three  weeks  behind  the  actual  date,  observing  New 
Year's  Day  on  Jan.  20;  Josiane  Laures  thought  the  date  was  Jan.  4, 
when  it  was  actually  Jan.  20.  Scientists  were  conducting  an  experi- 
ment on  man's  ability  to  function  in  an  environment  where  there  was 
no  day  or  night.      (Reuters,  NYT,  2/11/65,  54) 

•  Lockheed  Missiles  and  Space  Co.  had  been  awarded  $8,052,000  cost-plus- 

incentive  contract  for  Agena  D  launch  services  at  Eastern  and  Western 
Test  Ranges  during  calendar  year  1965,  dod  announced,  (dod  Release 
87-65) 

•  Maj.  Gen.  George  P.  Sampson  (usa),  recently  retired  as  Deputy  Director 

of  the  Defense  Communications  Agency,  was  appointed  Director  of 
Operations  for  ComSatCorp.      (ComSatCorp) 

•  Moscovsky  Komsomolets  reported  that  the  wife  of  Valery  Bykovsky,  Rus- 

sian cosmonaut,  was  expecting  a  second  baby.  (Reuters,  Chic.  Trib., 
2/12/65) 
February  12:  Escape  system  for  the  two-man  Gemini  spacecraft  was  suc- 
cessfully tested  by  NASA  at  the  U.S.  Naval  Ordnance  Test  Station,  China 
Lake,  Calif.  Simulating  a  pad  abort  condition,  the  test  vehicle  was 
mounted  atop  a  150-ft.  tower  equal  in  height  to  the  Titan  ii  launch 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  67 

vehicle;  the  side-by-side  ejection  seats  were  thrust  out  and  away  from 
the  test  vehicle  to  an  altitude  of  about  350  ft.  The  mannequins 
landed  by  parachutes  approximately  850  ft.  downrange.  The  Gemini 
escape  system  was  designed  and  built  for  NASA  by  Weber  Aircraft  Co. 
(MSC  Roundup,  2/17/65,  2) 
February  12:  After  almost  7  years,  vanguard  i  appeared  to  be  silenced.  Its 
radio  signals  had  weakened  to  a  point  where  NASA  tracking  engineers 
thought  the  satellite  might  never  be  heard  from  again,  according  to 
NASA  announcement.  The  six-inch,  3.25-lb.  sphere  was  the  second  U.S. 
satellite,  launched  by  USN  as  part  of  the  International  Geophysical  Year 
program.  For  more  than  six  years,  it  had  transmitted  radio  signals 
from  space  with  power  from  only  six  solar  cells.  Officially  known  in- 
ternationally as  1958  Beta  ii,  vanguard  i  was  circling  the  globe  every 
134  min.  and  had  an  apogee  of  2,442  mi.  and  a  perigee  of  402  mi. 
( NASA  Release  65—15 ) 

•  USAF  scientists  at  Hanscom  Field,  Mass.,  said  they  had  hit  explorer  XXII 

with  a  ground-based  laser  gun  and  had  photographed  the  spot  of 
reflected  light  and  recorded  it  photoelectrically  in  relation  to  sur- 
rounding stars.  (AP,  L.A.  Herald-Examiner,  2/13/65) 
February  13:  USAF  Athena  missile  was  fired  from  the  Army's  launch  com- 
plex at  Green  River,  Utah,  to  impact  at  White  Sands  Missile  Range;  a 
second  firing  was  postponed  because  of  technical  difficulties,  (ap, 
St.  Louis  Post-Dispatch,  2/14/65,  13A) 

•  California  Institute  of  Technology  received  a  Sl,645,000  grant  from  the 

National  Science  Foundation  to  build  the  first  of  eight  130-ft.-dia. 
dish  antennas  to  be  trained  on  distant,  recently  discovered  sources 
of  radio  energy,  quasi-stellar  radio  sources,  called  "quasars" — the 
most  distant  objects  yet  discovered.  ( AP,  Wash.  Post,  2/14/65;  Sci. 
Serv.,  NYT,  2/24/65,  5) 
February  14:  Dr.  Fred  Whipple,  director  of  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical 
Observatory,  Cambridge,  had  suggested  landing  on  a  comet.  Dr. 
Whipple  also  speculated  that  if  a  space  vehicle  were  sent  near  a  comet 
scientists  could  use  a  low-velocity  probe  that  could  be  put  into  an  orbit 
in  the  comet's  vicinity  for  a  week  or  more  to  study  the  velocities  of 
gas  and  dust  particles  boiled  off  the  comet  by  solar  radiation.  The 
probe  would  also  be  able  to  take  core  samples  of  the  comet  to  give 
direct  measurement  of  one  of  the  oldest  physical  processes  in  the 
solar  system.  Dr.  Whipple  said.      {NYT,  2/14/65,  50) 

•  JPL  scientists  had  sent  notices  to  professional  and  amateur  astronomers 

asking  them  to  keep  the  strip  of  Mars  over  which  MARINER  IV  would 
fly  next  July  14  under  surveillance  from  now  on,  with  special  em- 
phasis on  photography  in  March. 

"We  don't  know  what  we  may  learn  through  this  procedure,"  a  JPL 
spokesman  said,  "but  we  want  all  the  information  we  can  get.  Sup- 
pose, for  example,  mariner  photographs  what  looks  like  a  dust  storm. 
We'll  have  a  better  chance  of  determining  that  fact  if  we  have  pictures 
of  the  same  phenomenon  taken  through  earth  telescopes,  even  though 
it's  a  different  storm  months  earlier."  (ap,  Seattle  Post-Intelligencer, 
2/15/65) 

•  The  Royal  Astronomical  Society  of  London  had  awarded  gold  medal  to 

Gerald  Maurice  Clemence,  senior  research  associate  and  lecturer  in 
the  department  of  astronomy  at  Yale  Univ.,  for  his  "application   of 


68  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

celestial  mechanics  to  the  motions  in  the  solar  system"  and  for  his 
"fundamental  contributions  to  the  study  of  time  and  the  system  of  astro- 
nomical constants."  {NYT,  2  15  65,  17) 
February  15:  NASA  announced  it  had  asked  astronomers  and  scientists  in 
38  countries  to  help  analyze  and  interpret  the  closeup  photographs  of 
the  moon  taken  by  ranger  vii  in  July  1964.  The  scientists  would  first 
receive  a  set  of  199  high-quality  pictures  taken  by  RANGER  vil's  "A" 
camera;  photographs  taken  by  other  cameras  would  be  sent  later. 

NASA  had  also  sent  RANGER  vil  photographs  to  the  European  Space 
Research  Organization,  the  European  Launcher  Development  Organi- 
zation, the  International  Committee  on  Space  Research,  and  the  Lnited 
Nations.      ( upi,  Phil.  Eve.  Bull.,  2  15/65) 

•  Christopher  C.  Kraft,  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  director  of  flight 

operations,  said  the  three-orbit  Gemini  GT-3  flight  with  astronauts 
Virgil  I.  Grissom  (USAF)  and  John  W.  Young  ( USN )  would  be 
much  safer  than  Project  Mercury  orbital  space  flights.  The  astronauts 
would  not  depend  solely  on  the  braking  rockets  to  bring  them  back 
to  earth.  They  would  make  maneuvers  during  the  first  and  third 
orbits  to  bring  the  spacecraft  back  through  the  atmosphere  even  if 
retrofiring  braking  rockets  failed.  Toward  the  end  of  the  third  orbit, 
near  Hawaii,  Grissom  would  fire  the  rockets  for  about  two  minutes, 
sending  the  Gemini  spacecraft  into  a  54-mi.  orbit  which  would  be  a 
reentry  path.  Over  Los  Angeles,  the  main  braking  rockets  would  be 
fired  to  drive  the  spacecraft  down  to  a  landing  about  70  mi.  east  of 
Grand  Turk  Island  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean.  Kraft  said  if  the  braking 
rockets  did  not  fire,  the  GT-3  craft  would  land  about  1.000  mi.  due 
west  of  Ascension  Island.      {Galveston  News-Tribune,  2 '16/65) 

•  NASA  announced  it  had  determined  the  areas  of  Mars  to  be  photographed 

by  MARINER  iv's'  TV  camera  during  the  July  14  fly-by.  Recording  of 
the  first  picture  would  occur  when  the  spacecraft  was  approximately 
8,400  miles  above  the  Martian  surface,  mariner's  camera  would 
be  pointing  at  the  northern  Martian  desert,  Amazonis.  The  camera 
would  then  sweep  southeast  below  the  Martian  equator  covering  the 
Mare  Sirenum,  the  southern  desert  Phaethontis,  Aonius  Sinus,  and  into 
the  terminator  or  shadow  line.  The  spacecraft  would  be  about  6.300 
mi.  above  Mars  for  the  final  picture.      (NASA  Release  65-42) 

•  First  successful  flight  test  of  a  miniature  mass  spectrometer  specifically 

for  biomedical  and  environmental  use  was  made  at  NASA's  Flight  Re- 
search Center.  The  system  weighed  46  lbs.,  measured  10  x  10  x  20  in. 
with  vacuum  system,  and  could  monitor  and  chemically  analyze  sam- 
ples of  gases  that  might  be  encountered  in  either  the  cockpit  environ- 
ment of  the  spacecraft  or  in  the  pilot's  respiratory  system.  It  could 
detect  buildup  of  harmful  gas  or  absence  of  necessary  life  support  gas. 
The  mass  spectrometer  was  built  by  the  Consolidated  Systems  Corpo- 
ration, Monrovia.  California.      (  FRC  Release  6-65  ) 

•  NASA  established  an  Office  of  Industry  Affairs  at  the  Pentagon  by  arrange- 

ment with  the  Assistant  Secretary  of  Defense  (Installations  and  Logis- 
tics), to  coordinate  dod-nasa  mutual  interest  procurement  and  con- 
tract management  matters,  including  quality  assurance.  Clyde 
Bothmer,  who  formerly  directed  management  operations  in  NASA's 
Office  of  Manned  Space  Flight,  became  Director.  (NASA  Release  65- 
55;  NASA  Ann.  65-35) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS.  1965  69 

February  15:  Clarence  A.  Svvertson  had  been  named  Director  of  NASA's 
new  Mission  Analysis  Division  of  the  Hq.  Office  of  Advanced  Research 
and  Technology.  NASA  announced.  He  would  be  responsible  for  study 
of  future  missions  for  research  and  technology  programs.  The  Mission 
Analysis  Division,  to  be  located  at  NASA  Ames  Research  Center,  would 
be  staffed  bv  outstanding  scientists  drawn  from  all  NASA  Centers  and 
would  be  organized  along  aeronautical  and  space  mission  lines.  (NASA 
Release  65-46;  NASA  Ann.  65-34) 

•  President  Johnson  sent  to  Congress  his  annual  reports  on  the  National 

Science  Foundation,  the  ComSatCorp.  and  U.S.  participation  in  the 
International  Atomic  Energy  Agency.  In  message  accompanying  the 
NSF  report.  President  Johnson  said:  "Close  and  understanding  accord 
between  science  and  public  affairs  is  an  imperative  for  free  societies 
today."  Science  would  be  looked  to  for  use  in  technology  and  in- 
dustry, health  programs,  exploration,  and,  "most  especially  for  the 
guidance  that  will  permit  us  to  proceed  with  greater  security  and 
greater  confidence  toward  our  goals  of  peace  and  justice  in  a  free 
world."' 

In  a  message  accompanying  the  report  on  the  ComSatCorp,  the 
President  said  the  goal  of  the  U.S.  was  "to  provide  orbital  messengers, 
not  onlv  of  word,  speech  and  pictures,  but  of  thought  and  hope"  for 
the  world. 

"The  past  year  has  seen  important  advances  in  the  program  to  de- 
velop a  global  communications  satellite  system.  The  first  launch  of 
a  commercial  satellite  is  to  take  place  in  the  early  months  of  this  year. 

"Through  the  initiative  of  the  United  States  an  international  joint 
venture  has  been  established.  Under  the  law  I  have  designated  the 
Communications  Satellite  Corp.  as  the  U.S.  participant.  The  corpo- 
ration is  to  be  the  manager  on  behalf  of  all  participants. 

"The  corporation  has  now  been  financed,  has  constituted  its  first 
board  of  directors  to  replace  the  original  incorporators  and  has  moved 
forward  with  its  program.  All  agencies  of  the  Government  with  re- 
sponsibilities under  the  act  have  made  important  and  faithful  con- 
tributions with  the  svmpathetic  assistance  of  the  congressional  com- 
mittees concerned. 

"The  new  and  extraordinary  satellite  telecommunications  medium 
bringing  peoples  around  the  globe  into  closer  relationship  is  nearer 
to  fulfillment,  heralding  a  new  day  in  world  communications." 

In  its  second  annual  report  ComSatCorp  noted  that  it  had  ended 
1964  with  about  S190  million  in  short-term  holdings  and  more  than 
L37.000  shareholders.  It  reported  it  had  agreements  with  18  countries 
to  join  in  a  single  global  system  with  ComSatCorp  as  manager  and  said 
that  a  satellite  was  being  readied  for  launching  in  March. 

The  report  on  the  Nation's  participation  in  the  International  Atomic 
Energy  Agency  was  accompanied  by  a  covering  letter  which  said  1963 
"will  possibly  be  marked  in  I.A.E.A.  history  as  the  year  in  which  a 
firm  foundation  was  laid  for  its  system  of  safeguards  against  the  di- 
version of  materials  to  military  use."  (Text,  CR,  2/15/65,  2605;  NYT, 
2a6/65.  1;  AP,  NYT,  2/17/65,  64) 

•  NASA  and  U.S.  Army  Materiel  Command  adopted  an  agreement  for  joint 

participation   in   low-speed   and   Vtol   aeronautical   research.     The   re- 


70  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

search  program  was  centered  at  NASA  Ames  Research  Center.  (NMI 
1052.7) 
February  15:  NASA  had  selected  the  Bendix  Field  Engineering  Corp., 
Owings  Mills,  Md.,  to  negotiate  a  cost-plus-award-fee  contract  for  con- 
tinued operation,  maintenance,  and  support  services  of  the  NASA 
Manned  Space  Flight  Network  of  tracking  stations.  Contract  was 
valued  at  about  $36  million  over  two  years,      (nasa  Release  65-48) 

•  In  National  Science  Foundation's  annual  report  to  the  President  and  the 

Congress,  nsf  Director  Leland  Haworth  said  the  Foundation  was  "at- 
tempting to  formulate  an  approach  ...  to  interfield  priority  assess- 
ment which  would  take  into  account  the  probable  contributions  of 
NSF-supported  basic  research  to  the  solution  of  a  variety  of  national 
problems.  Thus,  for  example,  it  is  possible  that  a  whole  cluster  of 
basic  research  activities  might  justifiably  be  supported  in  several  fields 
of  the  behavioral  and  environmental  sciences,  all  of  which  would  in 
one  way  or  another  shed  light  on  what  is  now  called  the  'transporta- 
tion-urbanization' problem.   .   .   ." 

Discovery  of  what  may  be  the  first  real  baby  star — one  apparently 
much  smaller  than  the  moon — was  described  in  the  NSF  report.  NSF 
credited  the  find  to  Dr.  Willem  J.  Luyten,  a  University  of  Minnesota 
astronomer  doing  research  aided  by  an  NSF  grant.  Having  roughly 
one-thousandth  the  diameter  of  the  sun,  the  new-found  dwarf  ap- 
parently contained  300  tons  of  material  per  cubic  inch  of  volume, 
more  than  100  million  times  the  density  of  water.  There  was  no 
question  about  the  discovery  of  the  star,  the  report  said.  The  only 
possible  question  was  whether  the  distance  to  it  had  been  figured 
accurately,  because  that  would  have  a  bearing  on  computing  its  actual 
size.      (Carey,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  2/16/65;  Science,  2/25/65) 

•  Lt.    Gen.    Frank    A.    Bogart    (usaf,    Ret.)    was    appointed    Director    of 

Manned  Space  Flight  Management  Operations.  Since  joining  NASA 
on  December  1,  1964,  General  Bogart  had  served  as  Special  Assistant 
to  the  Associate  Administrator  for  Manned  Space  Flight,  (nasa  An- 
nouncement 65-30) 

•  Dr.  Eugene  Konecci  of  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Council  staff 

reported  to  the  Medical  Society  of  the  State  of  New  York  at  its  annual 
convention  that  the  semicircular  canals  of  the  inner  ear  had  been  dem- 
onstrated to  play  a  key  role  in  motion  sickness  that  astronauts  might 
experience  in  a  rotating,  orbiting  spacecraft.  Capt.  Ashton  Graybiel 
at  the  USN  School  of  Aviation  Medicine,  Pensacola,  expressed  optimism 
that  astronauts  could  be  taught  to  overcome  the  effects  of  motion  sick- 
ness. One  way,  he  said,  was  to  precondition  selected  persons  by  teach- 
ing them  how  to  avoid  movements  that  would  invariably  upset  them. 
Another  promising  development,  Dr.  Graybiel  said,  was  drug  research. 
(Simons,  Wash.  Post,  2/16/65) 

•  Dr.  Karl  G.  Harr,  Jr.,  President  of  Aerospace  Industries  of  America,  Inc., 

addressed  the  Economic  Club  of  Detroit: 

".  .  .  the  aerospace  industry  of  today  does  indeed  represent  a  truly 
unique  phenomenon  in  industrial  history  in  almost  all  of  its  as- 
pects. ...  it  is  that  industry  which  places  at  the  disposal  of  the  na- 
tion— both  its  public  and  its  private  sectors — the  capacity  to  manage 
the  research,  development  and  production  of  the  most  technologically 
advanced  product  that  is  possible — for  whatever  purpose  desired. 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  71 

".  .  .  it  is  essential  that  we  all  understand  the  principal  factors — 
historical,  present  and  future — that  have  produced  and  will  continue 
to  produce  this  uniqueness. 

"First,  the  genesis  and  evolution  of  what  is  today's  aerospace  in- 
dustry is  a  direct  product  of  the  nation's  post-World  War  II  history 
and  is  inextricably  linked  thereto.  .  .  .  World  War  II  unleashed  for 
the  world,  but  particularly  for  the  United  States,  two  revolutions 
which  have  been  gaining  momentum  ever  since.  The  first  of  these 
was  a  form  of  economic  revolution  which  saw  the  economy  of  the 
United  States  surge  into  new  dimensions.  The  second  was  a  scientific/ 
technological  revolution  which  saw  all  that  had  gone  before  in  man's 
scientific  history  fade  into  a  pale  background.  .  .  . 

"World  War  II  itself  provided  an  extreme  example  of  the  explosive 
expansibility  of  the  industrial  base  of  the  United  States.  This  ex- 
panded industrial  base  remained  after  the  war  to  serve  as  a  founda- 
tion for  a  general  economic  upsurge. 

".  .  .  the  aerospace  industry  has  become  and  remains,  in  a  very 
real  sense,  an  instrument  of  national  policy,  not  only  in  terms  of  the 
hardware  directly  provided  the  government,  but  also  as  it  underpins 
the  economic/technological  advances  in  the  private  sector  of  our 
economy.  ..." 

Discussing  the  future  of  the  industry,  Harr  noted  that  "the  size  and 
viability  of  this  industry  is  not  tied  to  defense  and  space  programs, 
important  as  these  have  been  and  will  continue  to  be  in  shaping  its 
destiny.  It  is  tied,  rather,  to  the  total  technological  progress  of  the 
nation,  meaning  the  application  of  advanced  technology  to  whatever 
purposes  may  be  desired.  Programs  now  well  underway  in  such 
diverse  fields  as  air  freight,  urban  transportation,  desalination, 
oceanographv,  2000-mph  aircraft  and  hundreds  of  others  serve  to 
illustrate  this  fact.  .  .  ."  (Text) 
February  15:  In  an  editorial  headed  "Space  Racing  After  Seven  Years,"  the 
Miami  Herald  said:  "Fast  starters  don't  always  win.  The  match 
race  in  space  between  the  United  States  and  the  Soviet  Union  is  shaping 
up  satisfactorily,  from  our  viewpoint.  The  start  was  easy  to  identify, 
but  the  finish  line  is  nowhere  in  sight."  {Miami  Her.,  2/15/65) 
•  Among  Weather  Bureau  employees  honored  at  the  17th  Annual  Dept.  of 
Commerce  Awards  Program  were:  Dr.  Sigmund  Fritz,  for  outstand- 
ing contributions  to  meteorological  research  in  the  fields  of  solar 
radiation,  ozone,  and  meteorological  satellites,  for  highly  distinguished 
authorship,  and  for  exceptional  leadership  as  Director  of  the  Weather 
Bureau's  Meteorological  Satellite  Laboratory;  Louis  P.  Harrison,  for 
highly  distinguished  authorship  and  outstanding  contributions  to  the 
fields  of  barometry  and  psychrometry;  David  S.  Johnson  and  Dr.  S. 
Fred  Singer,  a  joint  award  in  recognition  of  unusual  ingenuity,  leader- 
ship, and  guidance  in  the  development  and  implementation  of  a  Na- 
tional Operational  Meteorological  Satellite  System:  Jay  S.  Winston, 
for  valuable  contributions  to  meteorology  in  the  areas  of  general 
circulation  studies,  the  interpretation  of  weather  satellite  data,  and  the 
heat  budget  of  the  earth-atmosphere  svstem.  (Commerce  Dept.  Release 
WB  65-1) 
February  16:  Saturn  I  (sA-9)  two-stage  launch  vehicle,  launched  by  NASA 
from  Cape  Kennedy,  orbited  a  33,000-lb.  multiple  payload,  of  which 


72  ASTROiNAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

3,200  lbs.  was  the  pegasus  i  meteoroid  detection  satellite.  Orbital 
data:  apogee.  715  km.  (162  mi. )  ;  perigee,  496  km.  (308  mi. )  ;  period, 
97  min.;  and  inclination.  31.7°.  This  was  the  eighth  successful  test 
in  eight  flights  for  Saturn  I;  PEGASUS  i  was  the  first  active  payload 
launched  in  the  Saturn  tests. 

At  launch,  an  Apollo  command  and  service  module  boilerplate 
(BP-16)  and  launch  escape  system  ( Les )  tower  were  atop  Saturn  I, 
with  PEGASUS  I  folded  inside  the  service  module.  After  first-stage 
separation  and  second-stage  ignition,  Les  was  jettisoned.  When  second 
stage  ( s-iv )  attained  orbit,  the  10.000-lb.  Apollo  boilerplate  command 
and  service  modules  were  jettisoned  into  a  separate  orbit.  Then  a 
motor-driven  device  extended  winglike  panels  on  the  Pegasus  satellite 
to  a  span  of  96  ft.  Each  wing  consisted  of  seven  frames  hinged 
together  and  made  up  of  208  panels.  PEGASUS  i  remained  attached  to 
Saturn  I's  second  stage  as  planned.  A  television  camera,  mounted  on 
the  interior  of  the  service  module  adapter,  provided  pictures  of  the 
satellite  deploying  in  space. 

PEGASUS  I  exposed  more  than  2.300  sq.  ft.  of  instrumented  surface, 
with  thicknesses  varying  up  to  16/1000  in.  As  meteoroid  particles 
collided  with  the  surface  of  the  panels,  they  would  be  registered  elec- 
tronically and  reported  to  earth.  Exposure  of  the  large  panel  area 
over  a  long  period  would  give  designers  of  manned  and  unmanned 
spacecraft  a  good  sample  of  meteoroid  data. 

PEGASUS  I  would  be  visible  from  the  earth  without  the  aid  of  telescope 
on  clear  nights.  (NASA  Release  65-38;  Marshall  Star,  2/24/65,  1.  5; 
AP,  Houston  Chron.,  2/16/65;  Clark,  NYT,  2/17/65;  AP,  Benedict, 
Wash.  Post,  2/17/65;  Hoffman.  N.Y.  Her.  Trib.,  2/17/65:  Sehlstedt. 
Bait.  Sun,  2/17/65;  U.S.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act.,  1965,  133-134) 
February  16:  On  the  floor  of  the  House  of  Representatives,  Congressman 
George  P.  Miller  (D-Calif.)  commented  upon  the  successful  Saturn  I 
launch:  "...  this  morning  the  United  States  took  another  giant 
stride  in  the  exploration  of  space.  At  9:37  a.m.  a  Saturn  rocket  .  .  . 
with  its  1,500,000  pounds  of  thrust,  lifted  off  the  launch  pad  at  Cape 
Kennedy,  Fla.,  on  a  mission  to  place  in  orbit  around  the  earth  the 
Pegasus  satellite. 

"This  was  the  eighth  launch  of  the  Saturn  rocket  out  of  eight 
attempts,  a  truly  outstanding  scientific  and  engineering  accomplishment 
of  the  men  of  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration  and 
of  the  many  contractors  who  worked  so  long  and  hard  to  make  this 
event  a  success. 

"I  may  say  that  the  gratifying  success  of  the  Saturn  booster  has  been 
matched  in  other  programs  as  well. 

"I  need  only  point  to  the  Tiros  weather  satellite. 

"Nine  have  been  launched  out  of  nine  attempts. 

"I  think  we  have  every  right  to  be  proud  of  our  space  team  on  this 
day  of  outstanding  achievement,"  (NASA  LAR  iv/30-32;  CR,  2/16/65, 
2630) 
•  North  American  Aviation's  xb-70a  made  its  fifth  flight  from  Palmdale, 
Calif.  Maximum  speed  was  mach  1.6;  maximum  altitude  1.^.000  ft.: 
duration  of  flight,  1  hr.  10  min.  During  the  flight  the  wingtips  were 
folded  to  25°  and  then  to  the  full-down  position  of  65°.  It  was  the 
first  time  this  total  deflection  had  been  attempted.     Flutter  and  stability 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS.  1965  73 

characteristics,  the  inlet  control  system,  and  the  air  inlet  bypass  door 
system  were  investigated  during  the  flight.  Although  the  emergency 
landing  parachute  system  did  not  function  during  landing  at  Edwards 
AFB,  the  aircraft  completed  a  normal  landing  with  normal  braking. 
The  drag  chute  had  deployed,  but  the  three-chute  pack  did  not  deploy. 
(Av.  Wk.,  2/22/65,  22;  \5Vi,NYT,  2/17/65,  74) 
February  16:  nasa's  Flight  Research  Center  engineers  had  made  direct  com- 
parison of  the  noise  levels  generated  by  the  XB-70  and  a  707-120B  com- 
mercial jet  transport  under  the  same  atmospheric  conditions.  NASA  made 
the  measurements  as  part  of  its  general  study  of  runway  noise  conditions 
for  use  in  the  design  of  a  supersonic  transport.      ( FRC  Release  8-65) 

•  NASA  awarded  a  $8,879,832  fixed-price  contract  to  the  Univac  Division  of 

Sperry  Rand  Corp.,  for  digital  data  processors  to  be  used  in  Project 
Apollo.  The  contract  also  called  for  computer  programing  assistance 
in  modifying  present  computer  programs  or  developing  new  ones  for 
Project  Apollo  requirements,      (nasa  Release  65-50) 

•  Dr.  Hugh  L.  Dryden,  NASA  Deputy  Administrator,  received  an  honorary 

Doctor  of  Science  degree  from  the  Swiss  Federal  Institute  of  Tech- 
nology in  Zurich.  The  presentation  was  made  by  the  Swiss  ambassa- 
dor. Dr.  Alfred  Zehnder,  at  the  Embassy  residence  in  Washington, 
D.C.      ( NASA  Release  65-47 ) 

•  Dr.  Charles  S.  Sheldon  of  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Council 

staff  told  iSiiT  students:  'The  Russians  are  pretty  cautious  about 
disclosing  much  about  their  launch  vehicles,  but  we  know  pretty  well 
what  vehicles  they're  using."  Dr.  Sheldon  noted  that  ZOND  ii,  the 
Soviet  Mars  probe,  would  pass  near  the  planet  perhaps  one  month  after 
MARINER  IV.  The  U.S.  Mars  probe  was  due  to  come  within  5,400  mi. 
of  the  planet  on  July  14.      (Boston  Globe,  2/17/65) 

•  FAA  Administrator  Najeeb  Halaby,  British  Aviation  Minister  Roy  Jenkins. 

and  French  Aviation  Minister  Marc  Jacquet  met  in  London  and  agreed 
to  work  for  joint  establishment  of  operating  conditions  for  supersonic 
jet  transports.  The  British  and  French  ministers  arranged  for  the 
next  stage  in  the  development  of  their  joint  Concorde  supersonic  trans- 
port, which  the  British  Labor  government  reportedly  had  wanted  to 
cancel.  The  ministers  also  discussed  a  new  Anglo-French  project  for  a 
subsonic  transport,  an  "air  bus"  that  could  take  200  to  300  passengers 
on  short  interurban  hops.      {Wash.  Post,  2/17/65) 

•  Progress  in  developing  the  laser  for  communications  use  was  evidenced 

by  U.S.  Army  report  that  it  had  transmitted  all  seven  of  New  York's 
standard  television  channels  simultaneously  on  a  laser.  Although  the 
seven  TV  channels  had  been  transmitted  over  a  distance  only  the  width 
of  a  room,  the  Army  said  they  could  have  been  received  at  a  range  of 
several  miles.  Research  described  had  been  carried  out  at  the  Army 
Electronics  Command's  laboratories  in  Fort  Monmouth,  N.J.  The 
Army  was  interested  in  laser  communications  because  the  narrow 
beams  could  be  transmitted  between  specific  points,  making  enemy 
interception  difficult.  (Sullivan,  NYT,  2/17/65,  19) 
February  17:  nasa's  ranger  viii  spacecraft,  equipped  with  six  television 
cameras  to  photograph  part  of  the  moon's  surface,  was  successfully 
launched  from  Cape  Kennedy  by  an  Atlas-Agena  B.  Seven  minutes 
after  lift-off,  the  spacecraft  and  the  Agena  stage  went  into  a  parking 
orbit  some   115  mi.   above  Africa;    the  Agena  engines  were  cut  off. 


74  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

For  the  next  14  min.,  the  combination  coasted  at  17,500  mph.  Second 
burn  of  the  Agena  lasted  90  sec,  increased  the  velocity  to  24,476  mph, 
and  freed  the  80o.8-lb.  ranger  viii  from  the  major  pull  of  the  earth's 
gravity.  Several  minutes  after  injection,  ranger  viii  was  separated 
from  Agena,  which  entered  an  elliptical  orbit.  About  an  hour  after 
launch,  RANGER  VIII  received  and  obeyed  the  command  to  deploy  the 
solar  panels  that  would  convert  solar  energy  to  electrical  power  for  its 
equipment.  About  ShU  hrs.  after  launch,  ranger  viii  completed  its 
orientation  maneuvering,  achieved  attitude  stabilization,  and  pointed  a 
high-powered  antenna  toward  earth. 

The  projected  impact  area  was  the  Sea  of  Tranquility,  a  dark  area 
relatively  free  of  crater  rays,  near  the  shadow  line  on  the  three-quarter 
moon.  Lower-angle  lighting  was  expected  to  give  more  contrast  and 
better  definition  of  detail  than  was  in  the  photographs  made  by  ranger 

VII. 

A  small  rocket  aboard  the  craft  would  be  fired  later  to  correct  a 
moon-miss  error  on  either  side  of  the  target;  tracking  calculations 
showed  that  the  path  of  the  vehicle  would  miss  the  edge  of  the  moon 
by  only  1.136  mi.,  well  within  the  correction  capability,  (nasa  Re- 
lease 65-25;  AP,  Benedict,  Wash.  Post,  2/18  '65;  UPI,  Chic.  Trih.,  2/ 
18/65;  AP,  Houston  Post,  2/18/65;  Appel,  NYT,  2/18/65,  1) 
February  17:  x-15  No.  2  was  flown  by  Maj.  Robert  Rushworth  (usaf)  to 
95,100  ft.  altitude  at  a  maximum  speed  of  3,511  mph  (mach  5.27)  to 
obtain  data  for  several  research  programs.  (NASA  x-15  Proj.  Off.; 
X-15  Flight  Log) 

•  NASA  and  DOD  announced  a  memorandum  of  agreement  to  establish  a  Delta 

launch  capability  at  the  Western  Test  Range  (w^tr).  Costs  would  be 
shared,  based  on  the  estimated  use  of  the  vehicle  by  each  agency. 
Existing  usaf  Thor-Able-Star  launch  sites  would  be  adapted  for  D^lta 
use  wherever  practicable.  Launch  pads  and  blockhouses  would  be  used 
on  a  shared  basis,  with  each  agency  responsible  for  its  own  missions. 
NASA  would  exercise  launch  vehicle  control  over  all  WTR  Delta  launches. 
NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  and  USAF  Space  Systems  Division 
would  be  responsible  for  carrying  out  the  agreement. 

NASA  would  be  responsible  for  developing  an  improved  Delta  launch 
vehicle  to  meet  both  agencies'  mission  requirements  for  use  at  both 
WTR  and  ETR.  DOD  was  planning  to  phase  out  the  Thor-Able-Star  and 
use  the  improved  Delta  for  payloads  carried  by  this  vehicle  class. 
(NASA  Release  65-51) 

•  Hearings   on   NASA  budget   authorization   for   FY    1966  began   before  the 

House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics.  Of  the  $5,260  billion 
requested  for  FY  1966,  $4,576  billion  was  for  research  and  develop- 
ment; $74.7  million  was  for  construction  of  facilities;  and  $609.4 
million  was  for  administrative  operations. 

Administrator  James  E.  Webb  testified:  "This  budget  .  .  .  supports 
an  on-going  successful  research  and  development  effort  and  the  use 
of  this  knowledge  to  develop  and  test  operating  systems  designed  to  give 
us  what  we  need  to  know  for  national  security,  for  applications  in 
meteorology,  communications,  and  other  working  satellite  systems,  and 
from  which  to  make  any  decisions  which  may  be  called  for  in  the  future. 

"An  important  fact  that  underlies  the  President's  1966  budget 
decisions  is  that  the  program  is  now  operating  at  a  level  of  5V4  billion 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  75 

dollars  instead  of  at  the  optimum  level  of  S-^  billion  originally  recom- 
mended by  President  Kennedy  or  the  'fighting  chance'  level  recom- 
mended last  year  by  President  Johnson.  This  means  that  we  cannot 
accomplish  the  15  Saturn  V-Apollo  flights  now  included  in  the  program 
within  the  period  of  this  decade.  If  all  15  flights  are  required  to 
succeed  in  the  lunar  landing,  then  this  will  not  be  done  before  1970. 
However,  our  overall  major  milestones  are  being  met  and  we  still  have 
a  reasonable  opportunity  for  success  on  a  flight  earlier  than  the  15th 
and  thus  within  this  decade.  In  effect  we  will  be  launching  toward 
the  moon  on  earlier  flights  than  we  thought  a  year  ago  would  be 
possible,  but  we  simply  cannot  predict  which  flight  will  be  the  first 
either  to  orbit  the  moon  or  to  land  there. 

"What  we  can  say  is  this:  the  systems  of  equipment  for  the  utiliza- 
tion of  men  for  flights  of  all  kinds  out  as  far  as  the  moon  are  now 
rapidly  proceeding  toward  tests  that  will  work  out  any  imperfections: 
and  our  fast-developing  knowledge  of  both  the  space  environment  and 
the  capabilities  of  this  equipment  gives  us  more  confidence  than  we  had 
a  year  ago  that  we  are  on  the  right  track  and  proceeding  on  a  reason- 
able basis  for  the  development  of  machines  of  this  size  and  power.  .  .   . 

"In  preparation  of  this  budget,  the  President  has  faced  two  important 
facts.  The  first  of  these  is  that  the  central  core  of  NASA  activities  as 
planned  in  1961  is  proceeding  with  excellent  results.  .   .  . 

"The  second  major  fact  faced  by  the  President  was  the  necessity  for 
a  continued  emphasis  on  supporting  research  and  development.  .   .  . 

"Bearing  these  two  facts  in  mind,  this  budget  and  this  request  for 
authorization  call  for  an  operating  level  which  is  approximately  the 
same  as  that  approved  by  Congress  for  fiscal  years  1964  and  1965. 
This  means  that  the  work  planned  in  1961  for  accomplishment  in  this 
decade  must  be  spread  out  over  a  longer  period,  and  the  cost  for  the 
total  will  be  increased.  .   .   . 

"The  essential  funds  to  give  us  some  opportunity  to  make  the  lunar 
landing  wdthin  this  decade  are  included,  as  are  funds  for  studies  toward 
further  use  of  the  Saturn  launch  vehicles  and  the  Appollo-LEM  manned 
space  flight  systems  in  the  period  following  the  lunar  landing.  By 
1969,  we  will  have  the  capability  ro  launch  6  Saturn-ie's  and  6  Saturn 
V's  per  year.  In  the  unmanned  area,  we  have  begun  planning  for  a 
Voyager-Mars  mission  in  1971  with  the  possibility  of  a  test  flight  in 
1969:  funds  are  included  in  the  budget  for  expansion  of  this  design 
effort  during  fiscal  year  1966.  Development  and  hardware  procure- 
ment could  then  be  initiated  in  fiscal  year  1967  if  appropriate.  .  .  ." 
(Testimony:  1966  NASA  Auth.  Hearings,  5-14) 
February  17:  Dr.  Hugh  L.  Dryden.  NASA  Deputy  Administrator,  testified 
before  the  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics  on  NASA's 
activities  in  the  field  of  international  cooperation:  "Nineteen  sixty- 
four  was  a  year  in  which  other  nations  emerged  clearly  as  friendly 
competitors  and  valuable  collaborators  in  space  science  and  engineer- 
ing and  demonstrated  by  emulation  their  endorsement  of  our  view  that 
energetic  efforts  in  these  fields  are  essential  contributors  to  the  better- 
ment of  human  society.  I  am  thinking  of  such  things  as  the  energetic 
space  programs  of  France,  the  demonstrated  competence  of  Canada 
and  Italy,  the  entry  of  the  British  aircraft  industry  into  spacecraft 
engineering,  the  formal  establishment  of  the  European  Space  Research 


76  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

Organization  (ESRO)  and  the  European  Launcher  Development  Or- 
ganization ( ELDO  ) ,  and  finally  of  the  successful  first  test  flight  of  a 
large  new  booster  by  ELDO.  .   .  . 

"A  year  ago  I  reported  our  plans  for  including  foreign  experiments 
on  NASA  satellites  under  arrangements  by  which  foreign  experiments, 
selected  in  open  competition  with  domestic  proposals,  are  sponsored 
and  financed  by  the  experimenter's  national  space  authority.  One  such 
experiment  flew  in  1964 — a  British  ion  mass  spectrometer  on  explorer 
XX,  the  U.S.  fixed-frequency  topside  sounder.  Six  additional  experi- 
ments were  selected  for  flight,  bringing  the  total  to  thirteen,  with  ten 
more  under  active  consideration.  We  now  have  opened  virtually  all 
categories  of  NASA  spacecraft,  including  Gemini  and  Apollo,  to  foreign 
participation  on  this  cooperative  basis.  Indeed,  we  are  now  inviting 
foreign  biomedic  experts  to  a  working  conference  in  Houston,  next 
April,  to  learn  directly  of  the  opportunities  and  constraints  which  apply 
to  this  program.   .  .  . 

"A  noteworthy  development  was  the  fact  that  ESRO  became  the  first 
foreign  space  agency  to  seek  a  ground  station  on  American  territory. 
After  conducting  a  site  survey  and  finding  a  suitable  location  near 
Fairbanks.  Alaska.  ESRO  has  formally  requested  the  Department  of 
State  to  begin  negotiations  for  an  agreement.  The  ESRO  station  is 
projected  as  an  element  in  a  network  of  tracking  and  data  acquisition 
facilities.  .  .  .  France  is  establishing  a  North/South  fence  from 
France  through  the  Canary  Islands,  Algeria,  Upper  Volta,  Congo 
Brazzaville,  and  South  Africa,  with  an  injection-monitoring  station  in 
Lebanon.  This  chain  will  also  serve  ESRO,  which  expects  to  have 
additional  stations  at  Spitsbergen,  Brussels,  and  in  Australia  and  the 
South  Atlantic.  Both  the  ESRO  and  French  networks  will  be  entirely 
compatible  with  nasa's,  to  maximize  possibilities  for  mutual  assistance. 
This  is  to  our  advantage,  and  we  encourage  it.  .  .   . 

"Let  me  bring  you  up  to  date  on  the  status  of  our  cooperation  with 
the  Soviet  Union.  You  will  recall  that  we  have  a  series  of  agreements 
with  the  Soviet  Academy  of  Sciences  providing  for  three  coordinated 
projects — in  meteorology,  in  surveying  the  geomagnetic  field,  and  use 
of  ECHO  II  for  communications  tests.  The  project  involving  the  ob- 
servation and  use  of  ECHO  II  is  completed.  The  Soviet  side  observed 
the  critical  inflation  phase  of  the  satellite  optically  and  forwarded 
the  data  to  us;  although  not  including  radar  data,  which  would  have 
been  most  desirable.  Communications  via  echo  II  between  the  U.K. 
and  the  U.S.S.R.  were  carried  out  in  only  one  direction  instead  of  two, 
at  less  interesting  frequencies  than  we  would  have  liked,  and  with  some 
technical  limitations  at  the  ground  terminals  used.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  Soviets  provided  very  complete  recordings  and  other  data  of  their 
reception  of  the  transmissions."  (Testimony;  NASA  Auth.  Hearings, 
15-37 ) 
February  17:  Dr.  Robert  C.  Seamans,  Jr.,  NASA  Associate  Administrator, 
told  the  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics:  "I  feel  that 
our  record  over  the  past  calendar  vear  is  evidence  of  the  success  we  have 
had  in  building  a  team  that  is  dedicated  to  efi"ective  management.  The 
space  flight  record  for  1964  is  impressive  by  several  standards:  num- 
ber of  flights,  percent  of  success,  and  variety  of  missions.  The  graph 
(spaceflight  mission  record)    shows  that,  in  terms  of  percentage,  our 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  77 

1964  success  record  is  nearly  the  same  as  the  high  achieved  in  1963; 
83  percent  compared  with  85  percent  in  1963.  However,  we  more  than 
doubled  the  number  of  successful  missions  from  1963  to  1964,  from  11 
to  25.  .  .  . 

"Other  significant  measures  of  the  pace  and  rate  of  change  in  our 
space  program  have  been  our  performance  in  terms  of  spacecraft  opera- 
tions and  data  return.  These  performance  indicators  are  at  the  heart 
of  a  successful  space  program. 

"For  example,  in  1964  an  average  of  54  experiments  were  function- 
ing in  space  throughout  the  year;  this  is  an  improvement  of  over  35 
percent  from  1963.  when  we  averaged  40  working  experiments. 

"The  volume  of  information  brought  back  from  space,  measured 
in  millions  of  data  points  per  day,  shows  a  tenfold  increase  over 
previous  years:  in  1964  we  were  collecting  about  57  million  bits  of 
information  each  day  from  our  flight  missions.  .  .  ." 

Dr.  Seamans  listed  NASA  management  accomplishments  during  the 
past  year  "to  find  new  techniques  and  new  methods  to  carry  out  our 
jobs."  Among  them:  establishment  of  Mission  Analysis  Div.  from  the 
Hq.  Office  of  Advanced  Research  and  Technology  at  Ames  Research 
Center;  conducting  the  joint  DOD-NASA  Launch  Vehicle  Cost  Study; 
growth  of  incentive  contract  program  ("over  $1  billion  are  under 
active  incentive  contracts")  ;  and  application  of  phased  project  plan- 
ning. 

"The  budget  presented  here  has  already  undergone  critical  review 
by  NASA's  management,  the  Bureau  of  the  Budget,  and  the  President. 
It  does  not  provide  any  contingency  funds  for  the  approved  missions; 
it  is  predicated  on  a  cost  reduction  program  that  will  require  us  to 
operate  more  efficiently;  it  represents  a  carefully  pared  program 
priority  list.     In  summary: 

"First,  NASA  is  dedicated  to  the  accomplishment  of  the  present  ap- 
proved missions  and  projects  in  terms  of  cost,  schedule,  and  technical 
performance. 

"Second,  new  effort  is  needed  to  maintain  a  position  of  leadership 
in  aeronautics  and  space.  This  includes  the  definition  of  a  new  pro- 
gram for  exploration  of  the  planets  commencing  with  Mars  in  1971; 
the  research  and  design  necessary  for  effective  extension  of  present 
Apollo  and  Saturn  capabilities  for  manned  flight;  integration  of  the 
Centaur  stage  with  the  Saturn  launch  vehicle  for  planetary  and  other 
unmanned  payloads;  initiation  of  an  advanced  solar  observatory 
satellite;  and  utilization  of  a  prototype  XB-70  aircraft  for  aeronautical 
research. 

"Third,  an  aggressive  research  and  advanced  development  effort  must 
be  maintained  in  many  fields,  including  chemical  and  nuclear 
propulsion,  to  assure  the  nation  meaningful  options  and  alternatives  in 
the  selection  of  future  aeronautical  and  space  goals  and  the  ability  to 
react  decisively  to  external  pressures  and  opportunities.  .  .  ." 
(Testimony;  NASA  Auth.  Hearin(i,s,  37-51) 
February  17:  Experimental  solar  still  stations  were  being  tested  by  Dr. 
Everett  D.  Howe,  director  of  the  Univ.  of  California  at  Berkeley's  Sea 
Water  Conversion  Laboratory,  it  was  reported.  The  small  stills  were 
located  on  islands  in  the  South  Pacific,  where  climate  was  favorable  for 
testing  solar  distillation.  The  stills,  made  of  light  plastic  and  concrete 
or  of  metal  and  glass,  produced  two  to  five  gallons  of  pure  water  a  day. 


78  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

Knowledge  gained  from  the  operation  might  eventually  help  the 
thousands  of  persons  in  nonindustrial  countries  where  water  was  in 
short  supply  and  fuel  and  energy  for  such  things  as  distillation  of 
water  was  scarce.  {NYT,  2/17/65,  28) 
February  17:  A  new  extraterrestrial  mineral,  previously  unknown  in  nature 
and  christened  sinoite  ( silicon  oxynitride,  SioN^O ) ,  had  been  discov- 
ered, NASA  Ames  Research  Center  announced.  Discovered  in  a  mete- 
orite which  had  fallen  near  the  village  of  Jajh  deh  Kot  Lalu  in  Pakistan 
in  1926,  the  mineral  was  grey  in  color  and  occurred  in  rough  rectangu- 
lar crystals.  Scientists  who  made  the  discovery  were  Dr.  Klaus  Keil  of 
NASA  Ames  Research  Center;  C.  A.  Anderson,  Hasler  Research  Center, 
Goleta,  Calif.;  and  Dr.  B.  H.  Mason,  American  Museum  of  Natural 
History,  New  York.  The  meteorite  had  been  made  available  for  study 
by  New  York's  Museum  of  Natural  History,      (arc  Release  65-5) 

•  Joan  Merriam  Smith,  who  flew  solo  around  the  world  last  year,  was  killed 

when  a  private  plane  she  was  piloting  crashed  in  the  mountains  45  mi. 
from  Los  Angeles.      ( UPi,  NYT,  2  18  65,  42) 

•  The  largest  balloon  ever  constructed  completed  a  successful  26-hr.  flight 

over  western  U.S.  Launched  at  Chico,  Calif.,  by  afcrl,  the  450-ft.- 
long  polyethylene  balloon  lifted  a  450-lb.  instrumented  payload  to  a 
record  142.000-ft.  altitude.  At  float  altitude,  the  balloon  became  oblate, 
or  pumpkin-shaped,  with  dimensions  of  330-ft.  diameter  and  270-ft. 
height.  Payload  consisted  of  instruments  to  measure  atmospheric 
temperature,  density,  and  pressures;  telemetry  equipment;  and  a  com- 
mand receiver  for  control  of  the  flight.  It  was  parachuted  to  earth 
and  recovered  near  Logandale,  Nev.      (oAR  Release  2-65-6) 

•  Soviet    Marshal    Vasily    Sokolovsky    said    during    a    Moscow    press    con- 

ference held  in  connection  with  the  47th  anniversary  of  the  Red 
Army  that  the  U.S.S.R.  was  armed  with  intercontinental  and  global 
rockets  whose  nuclear  warheads  were  equal  to  100  million  tons 
of  TNT.  He  claimed  strategic  rocket  troops  now  formed  the  back- 
bone of  the  Soviet  armed  forces  so  that  the  effectiveness  of  the  Soviet 
air  force  had  been  sharply  increased  by  supersonic  planes  equipped 
with  nuclear-tipped,  long-range  rockets.  He  said  the  Soviet  navy  was 
now  built  around  atomic  submarines  of  virtually  unlimited  range  that 
were  equipped  with  powerful  missiles.  New  Soviet  antiaircraft  defenses 
were  capable  of  reaching  targets  flying  at  any  speed  at  any  altitude. 
He  claimed  that  the  Soviet  Union  had  undertaken  several  measures 
toward  the  relaxation  of  international  tension,  among  them  a  reduc- 
tion of  S555  million  in  military  spending  for  the  current  year. 
(Sovietskaya  Moldaviya,  2/18/65.  1,  atss-t  Trans.;  ap.  Wash.  Eve. 
Star,  2/17/65;   Wash.  Post,  2/18/65) 

•  The  JodreH  Bank  Observatory,  British  tracking  station,  was  visited  by 

a  group  of  six  Soviet  scientists  led  by  M.  V.  Keldysh,  president  of  the 
Soviet  Academy  of  Sciences,  (ap,  Boston  Globe,  2/17/65) 
February  18:  ranger  viii  lunar  probe  successfully  executed  a  midcourse 
maneuver  that  corrected  the  path  established  at  launch  and  aimed  it 
for  impact  on  the  moon  in  the  Sea  of  Tranquillity,  an  area  centered 
2.6°  north  of  the  lunar  equator  and  24.8°  west  of  the  moon's  north- 
south  line.  Signal  for  the  maneuver  was  radioed  from  earth  to 
activate  commands  previously  stored  in  the  spacecraft's  computer.  At 
that  time,  the  808-lb.  photo  probe  was  99.281  mi.  from  earth,  traveling 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS.  1%5  79 

toward  the  moon  at  4.100  mph.  First  command  ordered  the  space- 
craft to  roll  11.6°:  the  second  ordered  the  pitch  maneuver  of  151.7°; 
the  third  commanded  the  motor  to  burn  for  59  sec.  Then,  after  the 
spacecraft  was  ordered  to  break  its  attitude  stabilization  locks  on  the 
sun  and  earth,  a  "go"  command  was  transmitted  and  ranger  Viii 
executed  the  maneuver  in  about  27  min.  The  correction  completed, 
the  spacecraft  reacquired  its  stabilization  locks  and  continued  on  its 
course.  One  measure  of  the  accuracy  of  the  maneuver  was  the  current 
expected  impact  time  on  the  moon:  Feb.  20  at  4:57:30  a.m.  plus  or 
minus  60  sec.     The  original  planned  time  was  4:57:30  a.m. 

The  photo  probe's  initial  course  would  have  missed  the  trailing  edge 
of  the  moon  bv  1.136  mi.  (NASA  Transcript:  L.A.  Times,  Miles,  Wash. 
Post,  2  19  '65:  Appel.  NYT,  2  19/65;  upi.  Phil.  Eve.  Bull,  2/18/65; 
AP,  Chic.  Trib..  2  19  65;  Av.  JVk..  2  22  '65,  34) 
February  18:  Dr.  George  E.  Mueller.  NASA  Associate  Administrator  for 
Manned  Space  Flight,  reviewing  overall  manned  space  flight  objectives 
and  reporting  on  the  Gemini  and  Apollo  programs  in  testimony  before 
the  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics,  said: 

"Chronologically,  the  first  objective  of  manned  space  flight  is  to 
establish  man's  capabilities  in  space.  Next  is  the  establishment  of  a 
national  competence  for  manned  space  flight,  including  the  industrial 
base,  trained  personnel,  ground  facilities,  flight  hardware,  and  opera- 
tional experience.  Next,  we  use  this  capability  for  further  space  ex- 
plorations and  for  other  purposes.  Finally,  accomplishment  of  all 
these  objectives  brings  about  United  States  leadership  in  space. 

".  .  .  In  1964.  we  concentrated  our  efforts  on  Gemini  ground  tests 
and  accomplished  the  first  flight  test.  Filling  the  pipeline  with  hard- 
ware and  carrying  out  development  testing  of  subsystems  were  the 
major  Apollo  activities.  Now  in  1965,  we  have  entered  a  year  that 
will  be  devoted  to  Gemini  flight  test  operations  and  the  conduct  of 
Apollo  svstem  development  tests. 

"Looking  at  the  remainder  of  the  decade,  1966  will  be  the  year  when 
we  learn  new  space  flight  techniques  in  the  Gemini  Program,  and 
conduct  unmanned  earth-orbital  flight  tests  of  the  Apollo/Saturn  IB 
space  vehicle.  In  1967,  Gemini  will  be  available  as  an  operational 
system  and  we  will  carry  out  manned  earth-orbital  flights  of  the  Apollo 
Saturn  V  space  vehicle.  Manned  flights  of  the  Apollo /Saturn  V  space 
vehicle  are  scheduled  for  1968,  leading  to  the  beginning  of  manned 
lunar  missions  before  the  end  of  the  decade. 

"...  I  want  to  emphasize  again  that  Apollo  is  an  orderly  pro- 
gram. The  buildup  of  the  Apollo  effort  has  proceeded  over  more 
than  three  and  a  half  years  to  its  full  strength.  It  is  not  a  crash  pro- 
gram. 

"The  duration  of  Apollo,  as  we  reported  to  the  Congress  last  year, 
is  one  of  the  longer  United  States  research  and  development  programs, 
resulting  in  a  schedule  that  permits  rapid,  orderly  progress.  The 
Apollo  priority  is  high  but  not  overriding.  Parallel  and  backup  de- 
velopment efforts  are  limited.  Flio:ht  testing  is  being  carried  out  on  a 
logical  basis,  and  only  after  all  possible  tests  are  conducted  on  the 
ground. 


80  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

"Efficient  use  of  available  resources  is  a  major  consideration  in  the 
conduct  of  the  Apollo  program,  whereas  a  crash  program  follows  the 
most  expeditious  course  regardless  of  cost. 

"Finally,  crash  programs  typically  have  goals  beyond  the  existing 
state  of  technology  and  pursue  these  goals  under  the  pressure  of  having 
to  achieve  a  technological  breakthrough.  Apollo,  on  the  other  hand, 
harnesses  current  technology  in  the  development  of  launch  vehicles, 
spacecraft  and  facilities  to  permit  effective  space  exploration.  The 
greatest  challenges  in  Apollo,  in  fact,  are  in  the  integration  of  those 
systems  and  the  men  who  must  fly  them  as  well  as  the  provision  of 
ground  operational  support,  and  the  overall  management  of  this  enter- 
prise." 

Dr.  Mueller  said  that  data  received  and  analysis  continued  in  1964 
regarding  radiation  and  the  lunar  surface  indicated  that  these  matters 
were  of  less  importance  than  had  been  previously  deduced:  ".  .  . 
First,  the  chance  of  a  significant  solar  event  occurring  during  a  mission 
is  very  low.  Second,  if  the  worst  solar  flare  previously  observed  had 
occurred  during  an  Apollo  mission,  the  maximum  dose  that  could  have 
been  received  at  the  bloodforming  organs  by  astronauts  in  the  command 
module  would  have  been  about  10  per  cent  of  the  allowable  safe  dose, 
rather  than  15  per  cent  as  estimated  last  year. 

"Regarding  the  lunar  surface,  the  data  from  ranger  vii  have  been 
very  helpful.  The  large  area  photography  has  indicated  the  probability 
that  there  are  many  areas  of  the  moon's  surface  where  the  design  of  the 
lunar  excursion  module  is  adequate  with  respect  to  surface  slope  and 
roughness.  .  .  ."  (Testimony;  I\'ASA  Auth.  Hearins^s,  53-134) 
February  18:  NASA  Langley  Research  Center  announced  it  would  negotiate 
with  Ling-Temco-Vought,  Inc.,  an  $8  million  incentive  contract  to 
provide  complete  system  management  for  the  Scout  launch  vehicle. 
The  contract  would  continue  support  services  and  materials  LTV  had 
provided  under  several  contracts.  It  would  include  systems  engineer- 
ing, logistic  support,  operational  support,  test  program  support,  pay- 
load  coordination,  preflight  planning,  data  reduction  and  analysis, 
standardization  and  configuration  control,  reliability  and  quality  as- 
surance, vehicle  modification,  checkout,  and  delivery,  (nasa  Release 
65-54) 

•  NASA  awarded  a  $10,940,000  contract  to  Douglas  Aircraft  Co.,  Inc.,  for 

mission  integration  and  launch  services  of  Delta  launch  vehicles  at 
Cape  Kennedy.  The  cost-plus-fixed-fee  contract  covered  the  calendar 
year  1965.      (nasa  Release  65-52) 

•  Saturn  V  launch  vehicle  retro-motors  developed  100,000  lbs.  of  thrust 

in  test  of  the  solid-propellant  motors  at  USAF  Arnold  Engineering  De- 
velopment Center  for  NASA.      (  aedc) 

•  ComSatCorp  met  with  representatives  of  aerospace  companies  it  had  in- 

vited to  discuss  specifications  for  24  communications  satellites  for  a  pro- 
posed DOD  satellite  system.  Previously  ComSatCorp  had  indicated  it 
would  contract  with  the  Hughes  Aircraft  Co.  to  build  the  satellites. 
But  when  the  Philco  Corp.  protested  to  the  FCC,  the  FCC  required  Com- 
SatCorp to  give  Philco  and  other  competitors  a  chance  to  show  their 
capabilities.      (ComSatCorp;  Weekley,  Wash.  Post,  2/17/65) 

•  U.S.S.R.    formally   protested  to   Norway   plans  of  the   European   Space 

Research    Organization    to    establish    a    satellite    tracking    station    in 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  81 

Spitsbergen.  The  U.S.S.R.  said  such  a  ground  station  for  tracking 
space  satellites  could  be  used  for  "military  purposes"  in  violation  of  the 
1920  Spitsbergen  treaty.  Norway  later  rejected  the  Soviet  charge. 
{NYT,  2/20  65,  2) 

February  18:  ComSatCorp  filed  with  FCC  a  notice  of  a  proposed  $300,000 
contract  with  AT&T  for  research  data  and  consultant  services  on  ground 
stations  for  the  global  communications  satellite  network.  FCC  was 
notified  that  ComSatCorp  had  analyzed  and  evaluated  other  proposals 
and  had  held  subsequent  discussions  with  those  making  proposals. 
(ComSatCorp) 

•  The  U.S.  was  pressing  the  U.S.S.R.  for  clarification  of  its  view  that  it 
did  not  violate  the  nuclear  test  ban  treaty  with  an  underground  ex- 
plosion that  released  radioactivity.  The  large  underground  test  took 
place  Jan.  15  in  the  Semipalatinsk  region  of  Soviet  Central  Asia.  Four 
days  later  the  U.S.  announced  that  it  had  detected  radioactive  debris 
from  the  explosion  over  the  Sea  of  Japan.      [NYT,  2/19/65,  17) 

February  19:  In  testimony  before  the  House  Committee  on  Science  and 
Astronautics,  Dr.  Homer  E.  Newell,  NASA  Associate  Administrator  for 
Space  Science  and  Applications,  summarized  significant  mission  re- 
sults: "U.S.  scientific  satellites  achieved  the  following  firsts:  discovery 
of  the  radiation  belt,  determination  of  the  earth's  irregular  geoid, 
ionospheric  topside  sounding  (with  Canada),  solar  spectroscopy,  x- 
ray  and  ultraviolet  satellite  astronomy,  polar  orbits,  and  highly  ec- 
centric orbits  to  map  the  earth's  magnetosphere.  Our  deep  space 
probes  achieved  the  first  successful  direct  monitoring  of  the  inter- 
planetary environment,  the  first  lunar  surface  detail,  and  the  first 
successful  flight  to  Venus.  We  may  soon  achieve  the  first  successful 
flight  to  Mars,  if  mariner  iv  completes  its  mission.  In  launch  vehicle 
development,  this  program  has  yielded  the  first  rocket  stage  using  the 
high  energy  propellant  combination  of  hydrogen  and  oxygen.  It  has 
also  yielded  the  first  and  only  all  solid  propellant  space  booster.  U.S. 
meteorological  satellites  have  yielded  the  following  firsts:  daylight 
cloud  photography,  night  cloud  observations  including  surface  and 
cloud  top  temperatures,  world  cloud  coverage,  global  heat  balance  and 
stratospheric  temperature  measurements,  and  direct  cloud  picture  trans- 
mission to  local  users.  Our  communication  satellites  have  been  first 
in  the  following  achievements:  erection  of  large  structures  in  space  and 
their  use  as  passive  reflectors  of  radio  signals;  active  repeating  of 
radio  signals  at  various  altitudes  and  orbits  of  interest  to  system 
designers;  transoceanic  and  intercontinental  relay  of  teletype,  facsimile, 
voice,  data,  and  television;  and  achievement  of  the  first  true  geostation- 
ary orbit. 

"The  specific  record  of  1964  space  missions  of  the  Space  Science 
and  Applications  Program  ...  is  particularly  informative  because 
most  major  program  areas  achieved  at  least  one  highly  significant  suc- 
cess in  1964.  Of  the  10  scientific  satellite  missions  attempted,  7 
achieved  full  success  and  2  partial  success." 

Dr.  NeweU  observed  that  syncom  hi  communications  satellite  had 
been  placed  in  a  "virtually  perfect  circular  equatorial  orbit,"  then 
maneuvered  "to  within  about  1  mile  of  its  station  over  the  western 
Pacific   where  it  successfully  performed  all   its  planned   experiments. 


82  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

.  .  .  The  Syncom  maneuver  was  comparable  to  the  feat  of  Ranger 
VII  in  flying  to  within  6  miles  of  its  target  on  the  Moon. 

"Having  completed  our  experiments  with  Syncoms  II  and  ill.  we  are 
turning  them  over  to  the  Department  of  Defense.  ...  If  required, 
full-time  communications  could  be  provided  between  the  United  States 
and  southeast  Asia  by  Syncom  iii.  .  .  ."  (Testimony;  NASA  Auth. 
Hearings,  136-62) 
February  19:  NASA  selected  Philco  Corp.'s  Aeronutronic  Div.  for  negotia- 
tions leading  to  a  nine-month,  SI  million  contract  for  research,  de- 
velopment, and  preliminary  design  of  a  lunar  penetrometer  system  ap- 
plicable to  the  Apollo  program.  The  penetrometer,  an  instrumented 
package  capable  of  assessing  the  hardness,  penetrability,  and  bearing 
strength  of  a  surface  upon  which  it  is  ejected,  could  furnish  lunar 
surface  information  to  an  orbiting  Apollo  spacecraft  for  scientific  as- 
sessment of  remote  sites  inaccessible  to  manned  spacecraft  or  unmanned 
earth-launch  probes.  NASA  Langley  Research  Center  would  negotiate 
and  manager  the  contract.      (NASA  Release  65-59;  LaRC  Release) 

•  NASA  approved  inclusion  of  three  x-ray  and  gamma  ray  telescopes  on  the 

first  Oao  (Orbiting  Astronomical  Observatory)  and  rescheduled  the 
Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory's  celescope  experiment  for  the 
third  Oao.  The  three  x-ray  and  gamma  ray  telescopes,  already  fabri- 
cated, contained  experiments  for  surveying  the  sky  proposed  by:  MIT, 
to  detect  high-energy  gamma  rays  that  did  not  originate  from  earth; 
Lockheed  Missiles  and  Space  Div.,  to  seek  new  sources  of  low-energy 
(soft)  x-rays  and  to  study  those  recently  developed;  and  NASA  Goddard 
Space  Flight  Center,  to  detect  low-energy  gamma  rays.  The  celescope 
experiment  was  designed  to  map  the  stars  and  nebulae  through  ob- 
servations in  the  ultraviolet  region  of  the  spectrum  but  had  encountered 
development  problems. 

Unaffected  by  the  change  and  proceeding  on  schedule  for  a  1965 
launch  was  the  Univ.  of  Wisconsin's  photometer-telescope  system  to 
measure  the  energy  distribution  and  emission  intensities  of  stars. 
(NASA  Release  65-49) 

•  NASA's  MARINER  IV,  en  route  to  Mars,  passed  the  20-million-mile  mark  in 

its  distance  from  earth.  The  spacecraft  was  functioning  normally  and 
was  transmitting  data  on  scientific  measurements  taken  in  interplane- 
tary space.      (NASA  Release  65-58) 

•  Twenty   Llrv   Program  personnel  at  nasa  Flight  Research  Center  were 

honored  at  an  informal  ceremony.  Six  emplovees  received  plaques 
for  special  and  outstanding  contributions  to  the  Lunar  Landing  Re- 
search Vehicle  project.      (  frc  X-Press,  2/19/65,  1) 

•  Col.  John  H.  Glenn,  Jr.  (USMC  Ret.),  speaking  at  a  National  Space  Club 

luncheon,  said:  "Looking  back  over  the  3  years  since  the  flight  of 
Friendship  7,  I  am  impressed  most  of  all  by  the  tremendous  progress 
the  United  States  has  made  in  space  science  and  technology. 

"I  am  proud  of  the  determination  the  American  people  have  shown 
to  become  the  world's  leading  spacefaring  nation.   .   .   . 

"Three  years  ago.  Mercury  spacecraft  were  limited  in  weight  to 
about  3,000  pounds.  Today,  the  Saturn  I  booster  is  operational  and 
can  put  22,500  pounds  into  Earth  orbit,  or  seven  times  the  weight  of 
Mercury.  Saturn  I-R,  which  will  begin  flying  next  year,  will  be  able 
to  orbit  a  payload  equal  to  11  Mercury  spacecraft,     Saturn  V,  which 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  83 

will  fly  in  1967.  will  be  able  to  orbit  a  payload  equal  to  more  than 
80  Mercuries.  That's  some  jump — but  it  is  no  more  than  typical  of 
the  great  gains  we  are  making  in  national  space  capabilities. 

"The  accuracy  requirements  for  all  these  missions  are  almost  in- 
comprehensible and  are  one  of  the  least  understood  parts  of  the  space 
program.  A  good  case  in  point  was  the  launch  of  Friendship  7  3  years 
ago.  The  speed  at  insertion  into  orbit  was  over  25,000  feet  per  second 
or  5  miles  per  second,  and  the  booster  and  spacecraft  were  accelerating 
at  approximately  240  feet  per  second  at  a  steadily  increasing  rate.  At 
booster  cutoff,  each  error  of  1.4  feet  per  second  resulted  in  a  difference 
of  approximately  1  mile  in  apogee  on  the  far  side  of  the  Earth.  When 
you  consider  that  before  the  onboard  signal  for  cutoff  was  received, 
information  had  to  be  obtained  by  radar  at  the  Cape,  transmitted  by 
landline  to  Goddard.  run  through  the  computers,  returned  by  landline 
to  the  Cape,  checked  against  Cape  data  and  then  transmitted  350  miles 
down  range  to  the  spacecraft,  still  allowing  time  for  onboard  delays 
in  operation  of  relays,  valves,  and  thrust  termination,  it  looks  like  an 
almost  impossibly  accurate  requirement. 

"Those  accuracies,  however,  are  rather  crude  compared  with  some 
now  being  obtained  on  the  deep  space  probes. 

"Now  we  have  Mariner  IV  which  at  6  o'clock  tonight  will  be 
20.194,023  miles  out  from  Earth  on  an  extremely  difficult  and  signifi- 
cant mission.  As  you  know,  there  was  a  checkout  of  equipment  aboard 
the  spacecraft  last  week  that  indicates  the  chances  are  still  good  that 
we  will  get  revealing  pictures  of  Mars  next  July,  when  Mariner  IV  will 
be  134  million  miles  from  Earth,  so  far  it  will  take  12Vo  seconds  to  get 
a  radio  signal  back. 

"To  wax  philosophical  for  a  moment,  we  might  liken  our  space  pro- 
gram to  one  of  Plato's  allegories.  He  told  of  prisoners  chained  in  a 
cave  for  so  long  they  had  lost  touch  with  reality  and  felt  that  their 
whole  existence  was  wrapped  up  in  the  shadows  they  could  see  on  the 
wall  ahead  of  them.  He  goes  on  to  say  that  if  one  escaped  to  the  out- 
side world  and  returned  to  tell  the  others  of  what  really  lay  outside 
the  dark  cave,  they  would  probably  think  him  completely  crazy. 

"Even  though  we  have  seen  such  tremendous  break-throughs  in  sci- 
entific knowledge  in  recent  years,  our  knowledge  has  necessarily  been 
limited  to  such  a  cave,  for  practically  all  we  know  has  been  limited  to 
this  one  tiny  speck  of  earth  in  a  much  larger  environment.  But  that 
is  in  the  process  of  becoming  changed  and  with  a  rapidity  no  one  can 
forecast."  (Text,  CR,  2/22/65,  A751-53) 
February  19:  Sen.  A.  S.  (Mike)  Monroney  (D-Okla.)  said  in  an  interview 
that  if  commercial  airlines  would  voluntarily  join  the  Federal  Gov- 
ernment in  subsidizing  helicopter  lines,  these  services  might  be  saved. 
Commercial  helicopter  lines  operating  in  New  York,  Chicago,  Los 
Angeles,  and  San  Francisco  had  received  Federal  subsidies  since  1947, 
but  President  Johnson  proposed  in  his  budget  message  that  they  be 
cut  off  after  Dec.  31. 

Sen.  Monroney  said:  "Congress  isn't  going  to  appropriate  any  more 
money.  We  haven't  a  chance  of  selling  them  or  continuing  the  subsidy 
without  added  help  from  the  airlines."  His  plan  involved  artificially 
lowering  helicopter  fares  so  that  a  greater  portion  of  the  flying  public 
would  use  them.     This  higher  load  factor,  combined  with  the  use  of 


84  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

larger,  more  economical  aircraft  and  hoped-for  improvements  in  heli- 
copter technology  might  lead  to  self-sustaining  helicopter  service  in  a 
few  years,  the  Senator  said.  (NYT,  2/19/65,  69) 
February  19:  On  the  floor  of  the  Senate,  Sen.  John  Stennis  (D-Miss.) 
argued  for  development  of  an  advanced  manned  strategic  aircraft, 
pointing  out  that  "for  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  American  strategic 
air  power,  there  is  no  follow-on  manned  bomber  under  development." 
He  cited  Gen.  Curtis  E.  LeMay  who  testified  last  year:  "I  am  afraid 
the  B-52  is  going  to  fall  apart  on  us  before  we  can  get  a  replacement 
for  it.  There  is  a  serious  danger  this  may  happen."  (CR,  2/19/65, 
3176) 

•  AFSC  announced  that  an  airborne  jet  engine  analyzing  system,  designated 

to  improve  flight  safety  and  operational  readiness  of  USAF  tactical  air- 
craft, would  be  flight-tested  for  one  year  at  Nellis  afb,  Nev.,  and  Davis- 
Monthan  afb,  Ariz.  The  jet  engine  analyzer  system  would  be  used  to 
monitor,  analyze,  and  assess  engine  performance  of  turbojets;  to  assist 
in  predicting  required  maintenance;  and  to  indicate  engine  failures 
before  they  occurred,      (afsc  Release  57.64) 

•  AFSC  Aeronautical  Systems  Div.  had  awarded  to  North  American  Avia- 

tion, Inc.,  an  $8,150,000  increment  to  previously  awarded  contract  for 
the  XB-70  aircraft,  dod  announced,      (dod  Release  100-65) 

•  Boeing  Co.   announced   it  had   ordered   its   737   model   into   production 

and  that  it  had  already  received  an  order  for  21  of  the  short- 
range  jets  from  Lufthansa  German  Airlines.  The  737  would  be  a  twin- 
engine  jetliner  designed  for  short-haul  routes,  (upi,  NYT,  2/20/65, 
52) 
February  20:  ranger  viii  lunar  photography  probe  struck  its  target  on  the 
moon  at  4:57:36.8  est,  after  radioing  to  earth  about  7,000  close-up 
pictures  of  the  lunar  surface  during  the  last  23  min.  of  flight.  The 
point  of  impact  was  2.59°  north  latitude.  24.77°  east  longitude,  in  the 
Sea  of  Tranquillity,  an  area  slightly  east-northeast  of  the  center  of  a 
full  moon.  The  spacecraft  impacted  at  slightly  less  than  6.000  mph. 
Total  distance  of  travel  along  its  trajectory  from  lift-off  had  been 
calculated  as  248,766  mi.  Accuracy  of  the  shot  was  reflected  in  the 
fact  that  impact  had  been  planned  for  4:57:30,  and  at  3°  north  lati- 
tude and  24°  east  longitude. 

ranger  viii  had  been  programed  to  execute  a  "terminal  sequence" 
just  before  impact  to  point  the  six  TV  cameras  more  in  the  direction 
of  flight;  this  sequence  was  omitted  to  allow  the  cameras  to  cover  a 
larger  area  than  planned  and  to  provide  greater  continuity  with  the 
pictures  transmitted  by  ranger  vil  last  July  31.  A  second  change  in 
the  flight  was  to  turn  on  cameras  23  min.  before  impact  instead  of  13 
min.  and  40  sec.  as  planned.  The  new  time  had  been  chosen  so  that 
initial  pictures  would  be  about  equal  to  earth-based  resolution  and 
then  continue  into  impact. 

Two  small  anomalies:  one  part  of  the  spacecraft  had  registered  a 
higher  temperature  than  had  been  anticipated  and  more  telemetry  data 
had  been  lost  during  midcourse  maneuver  than  had  been  expected. 
RANGER  viii  had  been  launched  Feb.  17  from  Cape  Kennedy.  (NASA 
Transcript:  Appel.  NYT,  2/21/65,  1,  65) 

•  Dr.  Gerard  P.  Kuiper  of  the  Univ.  of  Arizona,  heading  the  panel  for 

scientific    evaluation    of    RANGER    viii    photographs,    said    at    a    press 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  85 

conference  that  one  of  the  most  important  results  of  this  flight  had 
been  the  discovery  that  the  Sea  of  Clouds  and  the  Sea  of  Tran- 
quillity were  similar  in  structure.  He  noted  several  "odd  depressed 
regions"  and  said  that  they  could  be  areas  where  collapse  had  occurred, 
which  might  suggest  the  presence  of  lava  fields.  He  believed  the  lunar 
surface  was  composed  of  verv  light,  frothy  material  such  as  would  be 
formed  when  rock  was  melted  and  allowed  to  resolidify  within  a  high 
vacuum,  like  that  on  the  moon.  The  material  envisioned  by  Dr.  Kuiper 
might  be  considered  similar  to  certain  volcanic  rocks  found  on  earth: 
while  it  would  probably  be  hghter  than  water,  it  could  still  have  sub- 
stantial strength.  This  theory  was  based  on  laboratory  attempts  several 
years  ago  to  simulate  conditions  existing  when  the  moon  was  formed. 

Ewen  A.  Whitaker  of  the  Univ.  of  Arizona  said  he  felt  the  lunar 
material,  which  he  thought  had  a  consistency  of  crunchy  snow,  would 
support  a  manned  spacecraft.  He  said  color  lines  and  sharp  bound- 
aries tended  to  show  that  the  surface  was  some  sort  of  frothy,  lava-like 
material  and  definitely  not  dust. 

Another  member  of  the  Panel,  Dr.  Harold  C.  Urey,  of  the  Univ.  of 
California,  noted  dimples  on  the  moon's  surface  and  said  their  curved 
walls  indicated  material  must  have  been  thrown  out  of  their  centers 
when  comparatively  soft  terrain  was  gouged  by  heavy  masses  of  rock. 
He  thought  he  saw  spots  in  the  center  of  some  dimples  into  which  soft 
material  might  be  draining  and  estimated  the  depth  of  some  dimples 
at  50  to  60  ft.  Dr.  Urey  also  suggested  the  surface  material  might 
have  the  consistency  of  crunchy  snow.  (NASA  Transcript;  Appel,  NYT, 
2  21  65;  Miles,  L.  A.  Times,  2/21  65;  ap,  Indianapolis  Star,  2/22/65) 
February  20:  No  evidence  of  lunar  origin  had  been  found  in  rock  samples 
from  western  Iowa  tested  at  nasa  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center,  said 
Donald  E.  Perry,  GSFC  Information  Officer:  "We  had  not  .  .  .  found 
anything  in  Iowa  which  could  be  identified  as  meteoritic  or  of  the  na- 
ture of  a  tektite." 

NASA  had  requested  a  six-county  area  of  western  Iowa  to  submit 
rocks  for  analysis  since  GSFC  astronomer.  Dr.  Walter  O'Keefe,  had  had 
the  theory  that  tektites  came  from  the  moon.  Western  Iowa  had  been 
chosen  as  a  likely  spot  for  the  search  for  tektite  fragments  because  of 
its  heavy  deposits  of  loose  soil  and  near  absence  of  natural  rock  forma- 
tions.     (Barton.  Omaha  Sunday  World  Herald,  2/21/65) 

•  Sir  John  Eccles,  professor  of  physiology  at  Australian  National  Univer- 

sity, cautioned  Australia  and  New  Zealand  against  overconcentration 
of  scientific  energy  on  space.  At  a  scientific  congress  in  New  Zealand, 
he  warned:  ".  .  .  we  are  spending  too  much  of  our  resources,  especially 
our  intellectual  resources,  on  the  exploration  of  space  when  we  have 
the  much  more  important  problem  of  life,  and  of  man  and  his  brain." 
{NYT,  2/21/65,  9) 

•  The  Soviet  Union  was  considering  sending  weather  observers  into  outer 

space  in  manned  meteorological  satellites.  Prof.  K.  I.  Kondratief,  Univ. 
of  Leningrad,  said  at  a  meeting  in  Geneva  of  the  World  Meteorologi- 
cal Organization's  Scientific  Advisory  Committee.  {NYT,  2/21/65,  24) 
February  21 :  Vice  President  Hubert  Humphrey,  Chairman  of  the  National 
Aeronautics  and  Space  Council,  said  in  remarks  taped  for  the  NBC-TV 
program,  "The  Sunday  Show,"  that  the  U.S.  would  extend  its  national 
strength  into  the  space  dimension.     "We  expect  to  explore  the  moon, 


86  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

not  just  to  photograph  it  or  visit  it,"  he  said.  "We  plan  to  explore 
and  chart  the  planets  as  well.  We  shall  expand  our  earth  laboratories 
into  space  laboratories." 

Mr.  Humphrey  praised  the  Nation's  space  effort,  saying  that  such 
activities  had  encouraged  economic  development,  stimulated  new  prod- 
ucts and  processes,  and  furthered  the  cause  of  peace.  This  was 
Mr.  Humphrey's  first  public  statement  on  the  space  program  as  Vice 
President.      (  nbc-tv  ) 

February  21 :  U.S.S.R.  launched  cosmos  liv,  cosmos  lv,  and  cosmos  lvi 
on  one  rocket  booster.  All  three  satellites  were  moving  in  close  initial 
orbits:  apogee,  1,856  km.  1 1.141  mi.)  ;  perigee,  279.7  km.  (170  mi.)  ; 
period,  106.2  min.;  inclination,  56°4'.  Equipment  aboard  "for  the 
further  investigation  of  outer  space"  was  functioning  normally.  ( Tass. 
Pravda,  2/22  '65,  atss-t  Trans.;  NYT,  2/22/65,  12) 

February  22:  Vice  President  Hubert  H.  Humphrey  spent  six  hours  visiting 
Cape  Kennedy  launching  pads,  talking  to  space  experts,  and  looking 
over  NASA  Kennedy  Space  Center's  Merritt  Island  Launch  Area  ( MILA ) . 
"I'm  sure  the  American  people  can  feel  this  program  is  in  good  hands," 
he  said  before  returning  to  Washington.  At  one  point,  Humphrey 
rode  to  the  top  of  the  100-ft.  launching  vehicle  to  be  used  in  next 
month's  manned  orbital  flight  and  exclaimed:  "Man,  oh  man,  what  a 
fantastic  job!"      (nasa  Release  65-57;  ap.  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  2/23/65) 

•  COSMOS  LVii  earth  satellite  was  launched  by  the  U.S.S.R.     Orbital  data: 

apogee,  512  km.  (318  mi.)  :  perigee.  175  km.  (109  mi.)  ;  period,  91.1 
min.;  inclination,  64°46'.  Tass  said  the  satellite  carried  scientific  ap- 
paratus "intended  for  the  further  investigation  of  outer  space."  Equip- 
ment was  functioning  normally.  (Tass,  Pravda,  2/23/65,  atss-t 
Trans.) 

•  DOD  Secretary  Robert  S.  McNamara  told  the  House  Armed  Services  Com- 

mittee that  deferral  of  the  decision  on  Nike-X  production  from  FY 
1966  to  FY  1967  "should  not  delay  an  initial  operational  capability  by 
many  months  beyond  what  we  would  expect  to  achieve  if  we  were  to 
start  production  in  Fiscal  1966."  He  said  this  was  primarily  because 
of  the  development,  test,  and  evaluation  work  already  under  way.  He 
added  that  the  FY  1966  requests  included  S400  million  for  the  continued 
development  of  Nike-X  "on  an  urgent  basis."  Of  this,  SIO  million 
had  been  programed  for  preliminary  production  engineering.  Mc- 
Namara confirmed  "...  a  broadening  of  the  objectives  of  Air  Force's 
Manned  Orbiting  Laboratory  (mol)  program,  including:  1)  develop- 
ment of  technology  contributing  to  both  manned  and  unmanned  space 
operation;  2)  development  of  manned  capability  to  assemble  and  serv- 
ice large  orbiting  structures;  and  3)  other  manned  military  space  ex- 
perimentation. In  addition,  MOL  will  be  used  to  investigate  servicing 
and  assembly  of  non-military  structures  .  .  .  and  will  progress  to  study 
man's  biological  responses  during  periods  in  orbit  of  as  long  as  30 
days."      (Av.  Wk.,  2/22/65,  26;  M&R,  2/22/65,  18) 

•  U.S.S.R.    had    kept    the    U.S.    under    relatively    continuous    surveillance 

with  photo  reconnaissance  satellites  launched  as  part  of  the  Cosmos 
program,  said  Edward  H.  Kolcum  in  an  article  in  Aviation  Week 
and  Space  Technology.  In  1964  14  such  satellites  were  launched, 
he  asserted.  The  article  continued:  "Soviet  photo  reconnaissance  pay- 
load  is  believed  to  be  an  unmanned  version  of  the  Vostok  spacecraft, 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  87 

which  successfully  carried  cosmonauts  into  orbit  six  times.  The  un- 
manned camera  mission  uses  the  same  launch  facilities  and  same  re- 
covery techniques  developed  from  Russian  manned  satellites.  The 
recoverable  section  is  the  pressurized  cabin,  which  weighs  about  5,000 
lb.  when  it  is  ejected  from  the  main  spacecraft  for  a  parachute  descent 
on  land.   .   .   . 

"Six  of  these  payloads  were  recovered  after  eight  days;  two  after 
seven  days,  one  after  six  days  and  another  after  five  days.  One  came 
down  after  24  hr.  in  orbit;  one  remained  up  five  weeks,  another  eight 
and  a  half  weeks,  and  another,  launched  Aug.  29,  is  still  in  orbit.  De- 
partures from  the  norm  are  believed  to  indicate  retrofire  malfunctions 
or  failures.  Most  recent  Soviet  reconnaissance  satellite  was  Cosmos 
52,  launched  Jan.  11  and  recovered  Jan.  19.  .  .  ." 

He  stated  that  11  of  the  14  reconnaissance  satellites  orbited  in  1964 
were  orbited  at  65°  inclination.  The  remaining  three  orbited  at  51° 
inclination — "an  inclination  that  also  permits  the  payload  to  sweep 
over  the  entire  continental  United  States."  The  other  Cosmos  satel- 
lites, orbited  at  49°  inclination,  had  remained  in  orbit  until  they  de- 
cayed naturally.  They  were  "believed  to  be  scientific  applications  and 
military  development  payloads."  {Av.  Wk.,  2/22/65,  22) 
February  22:  TSR-2,  Britain's  tactical  and  reconnaissance  bomber,  broke 
the  sound  barrier  for  the  first  time.  The  aircraft  was  flown  to  more 
than  1,400  mph  over  the  Irish  Sea,  to  a  landing  at  Wharton.  This 
was  the  14th  test  flight  of  TSR-2  by  its  manufacturer,  British  Aircraft 
Corp.     (Reuters,  NYT,  2/23/65,  53) 

•  Martin  Co.  had  delivered  the  first  pair  of  prototype  nuclear  generators  for 

use  in  space  to  NASA,  it  was  reported.  The  units  contained  no  radio- 
active fuel  and  would  be  heated  electrically  for  their  qualification  tests. 
Each  generator  was  designed  to  deliver  30  watts  of  direct  current  to 
the  weather  satellite  Nimbus  B,  first  NASA  satellite  to  use  a  nuclear 
power  source,      (ap,  NYT,  2/23/65,  21) 

•  John  F.  Mason  outlined  in  Electronics  the  dramatic  changes  underway 

in  U.S.  tracking  and  communications  stations  around  the  world. 
"Before  the  end  of  the  year,  85%  of  the  telemetry  gear  on  the 
Atlantic  missile  range  will  be  replaced.  Everywhere,  new  communica- 
tions equipment  is  going  in,  new  pulse  radars  are  being  installed  and 
continuous-wave  radar  networks  are  being  expanded.  Slowly,  the 
separate  ranges  are  becoming  an  integrated  global  network.  .  .  . 

"Besides  the  work  going  on  at  the  ranges,  research  and  develop- 
ment effort  for  programs  of  the  future  continues  at  an  active  pace  at 
the  various  government  and  industry  centers  throughout  the  United 
States. 

"The  reason  for  this  general  overhaul  of  the  missile  ranges  is  to 
support  Apollo,  the  manned  lunar  mission,  and  approximately  70  other 
ambitious  missile  and  space  programs  already  under  way.  .  .  ." 
(Electronics,  2/22/65,  94^105) 

•  Esso  Research  and  Engineering  Co.  announced  development  of  a  fuel  cell 

that  could  convert  methanol,  a  petroleum  derivative,  into  electricity. 
The  most  immediate  practical  uses  of  the  cell  would  be  military,  the 
company  said.      (NYT,  2/23/65,  48) 

•  Leonid   Seliakov,   a   deputy   to   the   Soviet   aircraft   designer   Andrei   N. 

Tupolev,   said   fundamental   breakthroughs   would    be   made    in    civil 


88  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

aircraft  between  1970  and  1975.  Seliakov  was  quoted  in  Vechernaya 
Moskva  as  saying:  "Airliners  will  be  designed  for  flight  speeds  up 
to  2,500  kilometers  (1,550  miles)  an  hour.  I  am  sure  that  in  10 
years  from  now,  Muscovites  will  be  able  to  fly  to  Khabarovsk  in  three 
instead  of  eight  hours."  Khabarovsk  is  about  4,000  miles  from 
Moscow.  (AP,  NYT,  2/23/65,  53 ) 
February  23:  usaf  1,175-lb.  Project  Asset  reentry  glider,  last  in  a  test  series 
of  six,  was  launched  from  Cape  Kennedy  by  a  Thor-Delta  rocket  booster 
on  a  13,300  mph  suborbital  flight;  the  spacecraft  then  was  lost  at  sea. 
The  experiment  was  to  test  materials  for  future  lifting  body  reentry  de- 
signs; it  consisted  of  2,000  tiny  heat-sensitive  spots  in  ten  different 
colors  designed  to  change  hue  as  the  ghder  came  back  through  the 
atmosphere  from  an  altitude  of  40  mi.  usaf  said  that  most  of  the 
information  sought  had  been  radioed  to  the  ground  during  the  30  min. 
flight,  but  that  visual  examination  of  the  glider  was  necessary  for  data 
on  heat  distribution. 

Officials  presumed  the  glider  sank  into  the  sea,  although  intermittent 
radio  signals  received  had  indicated  it  had  been  at  least  partially 
afloat  for  some  hours.  Planes  and  ships  were  combing  an  area  in  the 
Atlantic  Ocean  about  2,750  mi.  southeast  of  Cape  Kennedy  for  the  miss- 
ing craft.  (AP,  Wash.  Post,  2/24/65;  U.S.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act.,  1965, 
134) 

•  Addressing  the  U.S.  Military  Academy  at  West  Point,  NASA  Administrator 

James  E.  Webb  said:  "I  would  like  to  acknowledge  the  debt  that  NASA 
owes  to  the  armed  forces  for  early  and  continuing  work  that  has  con- 
tributed to  some  of  our  most  successful  space  projects.  As  you  know, 
NASA  works  closely  with  the  Air  Force  in  the  development  of  launch 
vehicles  and  in  the  general  technology  of  space  flight.  .  .   . 

"As  an  example — among  many — of  cooperative  nasa-dod  activities: 
on  January  1,  NASA  transferred  control  of  its  operating  SYNCOM  II  and 
SYNCOM  III  communications  satellites  to  the  Department  of  De- 
fense. .  .  . 

"When  the  great  dod  missile  site  construction  program — which  ran 
at  one  time  to  $2.8  billion  a  year — subsided,  the  Corps  of  Engineers 
brought  its  tremendous  engineering  capability  to  the  construction  of 
NASA  facilities.  As  the  Corps  moved  toward  completion  of  its  work 
for  NASA,  its  abilities  will  have  been  enhanced  by  the  experience  of 
building  these  great  new  national  resources.  The  Corps,  with  new 
skills,  will  be  able  to  move  to  new  national  requirements  with  assurance 
that  it  has  performed  extraordinarily  well  in  engineering  fields  never 
before  attempted. 

"Today  there  are  detailed  to  NASA  254  active  duty  military  person- 
nel. Five  of  our  astronauts  are  graduates  of  this  great  Academy. 
Nothing  could  be  more  fitting.  For  the  debt  modern  American  science 
and  technology  owes  to  West  Point  is  too  large  to  be  repaid.  It  can 
visibly  be  traced  back  to  Sylvanus  Thayer  who  not  only  is  the  father 
of  this  Academy  but  who  had  a  tremendous  influence  for  half  a  century 
in  the  field  of  technical  and  scientific  education  throughout  the  United 
States."      (Text) 

•  Statement    of    Edmond    C.    Fiuckley,    NASA    Director    of    Tracking    and 

Data  Acquisition,  was  presented  by  Gerald  M.  Truszynski,  NASA 
Deputy  Director  of  Tracking  and  Data  Acquisition,  in  testimony  before 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  89 

the  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics:  ''Since  1958,  NASA 
has  provided  tracking  and  data  acquisition  support  by  means  of  the 
NASA  Satellite  Tracking  and  Data  Acquisition  Network  for  approx- 
imately 50  DOD  earth  satellites.  During  1965  we  expect  to  provide 
continuing  telemetry  support  for  as  many  as  10  DOD  earth  satellites,  and 
limited  tracking  support  for  several  more.  Also,  our  station  at 
Carnarvon,  Australia,  being  in  an  excellent  geographical  relation 
to  the  launch  facilities  at  Cape  Kennedy,  will  be  used  to  support 
a  number  of  DOD  spacecraft,  as  well  as  NASA  spacecraft,  where  data  and 
flight  control  after  one-half  orbit  is  required.  For  example,  the  DOD 
TITAN  III  launch  vehicle  development  program  is  vitally  dependent  on 
support  by  this  station.  We  anticipate  support  of  approximately  15 
TITAN  III  operations  per  year  for  the  next  two  years. 

"In  a  similar  fashion,  the  tracking  and  data  acquisition  support 
which  the  DOD  provides  for  NASA  is  extensive.  At  Cape  Kennedy,  for 
example,  DOD  has  supported  the  launch  phase  of  each  NASA  space  flight 
mission.  The  extensive  support  provided  by  DOD  for  the  Mercury  pro- 
gram is  well  known.  The  Gemini  program  requires  continuation  of 
this  DOD  support." 

Referring  in  his  testimony  to  current  trends  affecting  planning  for 
support  networks.  Mr.  Buckley  said:  ".  .  .  equally  significant  require- 
ment, is  the  increase  in  the  number  of  spacecraft  which  will  have  high- 
ly elliptical  or  synchronous  orbits.  Spacecraft  in  highly  elliptical 
orbits  must  be  supported  by  a  particular  ground  station,  much  in  the 
same  way  as  done  for  deep  space  missions,  i.e..  a  particular  station  is 
required  to  provide  as  much  as  8-10  hours  per  day  of  its  available 
time  for  support  of  one  satellite.  Spacecraft  in  synchronous  orbits 
require  support  of  a  particular  station  for  24  hours  per  day.  As  a 
result,  tracking  and  data  acquisition  links  are  being  committed  to 
longer  support  periods  which  means  not  only  that  more  equipment  is 
required,  but  additional  personnel,  ground  communications,  and  other 
operations  expenditures  are  needed  to  meet  this  upcoming  satellite 
support  workload."  (Testimonv;  1966  NASA  Auth.  Hearings,  187- 
212) 
Fehnmry  23:  On  the  floor  of  the  House.  Rep.  George  P.  Miller  (D-Calif.), 
Chairman  of  the  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics,  com- 
mented on  the  successful  RANGER  viii  spacecraft  as  "yet  another  major 
American  space  achievement.  For  the  second  time  in  less  than  a  year 
a  Ranger  spacecraft  has  successfully  taken  closeup  pictures  of  the  lunar 
surface  and  returned  them  to  earth  from  a  distance  of  a  quarter  of  a 
million  miles.  .  .  ."  (nasa  lar  iv/33-35) 
•  Rep.  John  R.  Schmidhauser  (D-Iowa)  commented  upon  and  inserted  in 
the  Congressional  Record  an  article  which  appeared  in  the  Davenport 
Times-Democrat  about  the  Davenport  Alcoa  plant  and  the  construction 
of  Pegasus  satellites.  It  said:  "A  unique  arrangement  of  special 
equipment  that  senses  infrared  energy — thus  indicating  which  part  of 
the  satellite  is  facing  earth — enables  scientists  to  determine  the  direction 
each  meteoroid  is  traveling  when  it  strikes  Pegasus.  Such  information 
will  tell  spacecraft  designers  the  extent  of  possible  damage  from  hits, 
enabling  them  to  build  manned  craft  which  will  be  relatively  un- 
affected by  meteoroids."     (CR,  2/23/65,  A77374) 


90  ASTRONAUTICS  A-\U  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

February  23:  Scientists  at  Mix's  new  Center  for  Sensory  Aids  Evaluation 
and  Development  were  screening  and  testing  new  items  that  could  po- 
tentially help  the  blind  and  deaf-blind,  it  was  reported.  Scheduled  for 
early  testing  was  an  inertial  navigation  system  that  could  sense  move- 
ment off  a  straight  line.  It  was  about  the  size  of  a  cigaret  package  and 
would  be  held  flat  between  the  thumb  and  index  finger.  If  a  blind 
person  holding  this  battery-operated  device  in  his  right  hand  veered 
off  course  to  the  left,  a  projection  would  hit  him  in  the  thumb;  if  he 
veered  off  to  the  right  he  would  be  hit  in  the  index  finger.  The  sys- 
tem of  gyroscopes  and  accelerometers  that  would  operate  this  instru- 
ment was  also  found  in  missile  and  spacecraft  guidance  systems.  ( Sci. 
Serv., /Vyr,  2  23  65,  31) 

February  24:  Dr.  Raymond  L.  Bisplinghoff,  NASA  Associate  Administrator 
for  Advanced  Research  and  Technology,  told  the  House  Conunittee  on 
Science  and  Astronautics  that  "although  space  research,  development, 
and  operations  have  absorbed  much  of  our  resources  within  the  past 
few  years,  the  NASA  has  been  and  will  continue  to  be  dedicated  to  a 
strong  program  of  aeronautical  research  keyed  to  the  Nation's  needs." 
He  testified:  ".  .  .  The  [aeronautics]  program  embraces  the  entire 
spectrum  of  flight  from  lowspeed  private  and  v/sTOL  aircraft  to  hy- 
personic vehicles.  I  have  already  described  .  .  .  our  part  in  the 
evolution  of  the  XV-5a  and  F-111  aircraft,  in  the  evaluation  of 
supersonic  transport  proposals,  and  in  the  solution  of  jet  transport 
rough  air  problems.  Looking  ahead  to  FY  1966,  we  are  requesting 
$42.2  million  in  Research  and  Development  for  aeronautics.  This 
figure  can  be  separated  into  two  categories:  one  funds  a  broad  and 
continuing  effort  in  the  scientific  disciplines  underlying  advances  in 
all  areas  of  air  transportation,  civil  and  military;  the  other  funds  a 
more  concentrated  attack  on  specific  advances  in  air  transportation 
whose  potential  is  identified  by  research  in  the  various  scientific 
disciplines.  .  .  . 

"Throughout  the  aeronautics  program  budget,  provision  has  been 
made  to  support  the  direct  requests  of  the  Department  of  Defense  and 
the  Federal  Aviation  Agency.  It  can  be  pointed  out  that  although 
the  Research  and  Development  request  in  FY  1966  for  aeronautics  is 
$42.2  million,  we  expect  to  spend  a  total  sum  of  $106.2  million  in  this 
field.  The  difference  is  accounted  for  by  Administrative  Operations 
and  Construction  of  Facilities  funds  as  well  as  supporting  research  and 
technology  directly  applicable  to  aeronautics  in  fields  such  as  elec- 
tronics, human  factors,  basic  research,  and  others.  Approximately 
1600  direct  personnel  will  be  engaged  in  aeronautical  research  in  FY 
1966.  .  .  ."      (Testimony;  NASA  Auth.  Hearings,  213-269) 

•  In  testimony  before  the  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics, 
George  Friedl,  Jr.,  NASA  Deputy  Associate  Administrator  for  In- 
dustry Affairs,  said:  "NASA  spends  about  93  percent  of  its  dollars 
on  contracts  with  industry,  universities  and  private  research  or- 
ganizations. These  procurements  during  fiscal  year  1964  amounted 
to  $4.6  billion.  Approximately  96  percent  of  this  amount  or  $4.4 
billion  was  awarded  bv  our  field  installations  in  accordance  with  pro- 
gram and  project  research  and  development  requirements.  NASA  con- 
tracts support  our  in-house  research   and  development  activities  and 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  91 

establish  our  coupling  with  industry  and  the  private  scientific  com- 
munity. .  .   ." 

Reporting  on  contract  administration,  Mr.  Friedl  testified:  "The 
cost  reimbursement  contract  has  been  the  basic  instrument  for  procuring 
research  and  development  because  the  Government  has  had  to  risk  the 
uncertainties  and  assume  the  high  cost  involved.  No  other  type  of  con- 
tract provides  the  Government  and  the  contractor  the  latitude  and 
flexibility  needed  to  relate  scientific  and  technical  requirements, 
schedules  and  use  of  resources  to  mission  objectives.  By  adding  in- 
centive provisions  pertaining  to  time,  quality  and  cost  to  this  type  of 
contract,  it  is  our  intention  to  offset  some  of  its  deficiencies  and 
strengthen  the  purpose  of  the  Government-contractor  relationship. 

"NASA  has  made  a  concerted  effort  to  introduce  suitable  incentive 
arrangements  in  our  cost  reimbursement  type  contracts  whenever 
practicable.  In  each  case,  the  objective  is  to  encourage  the  contractor 
to  manage  better  and  improve  his  performance;  adhere  to  schedules; 
and  hold  down  costs. 

"As  a  consequence  of  our  incentive  contracting  drive,  there  has 
been  a  marked  increase  in  this  activity  in  the  past  4V2  years.  In  fiscal 
year  1961  we  had  one  contract  worth  about  $100,000.  By  December 
31,  1964,  we  had  awarded  75  contracts  with  a  target  value  of  over 
S751  million,  7  of  these  have  been  completed  leaving  68  contracts 
totalling  over  S724  million  currently  being  administered.  .   .  . 

"In  view  of  the  undesirable  features  of  letter  contracts,  NASA  Head- 
quarters began  a  concerted  effort,  early  in  1963,  to  curtail  the  issuance 
of  new  letter  contracts  and  to  assure  the  timely  definitization  of  all 
outstanding  letter  contracts.  Headquarters  issued  instructions  to  all 
centers  directing  program  and  project  managers  to  plan  ahead  and 
allow  adequate  lead  time  for  the  initial  negotiation  of  definitive  con- 
tracts. ...  At  the  end  of  January  only  3  letter  contracts  having  a 
total  value  of  S4  million  were  outstanding.  We  expect  that  these  con- 
tracts will  be  definitized  in  March  1965." 

Mr.  Friedl  said  that  NASA  had  "structured  a  sound  practicable  man- 
agerial technique  to  direct  the  planning,  approval  and  execution 
of  .  .  .  future  programs.  We  believe  that  adoption  of  what  we  have 
termed  'phased  project  planning'  will  materially  assist  us  in  achieving 
this  goal. 

"Phased  project  planning  represents  an  orderly  sequential  progres- 
sion in  the  execution  of  NASA  major  projects.  It  provides  for  formulat- 
ing proposed  work  goals  and  missions,  and  allows  for  decisions,  re- 
appraisal points  for  management  consideration  to  advance  or  replan 
such  proposals,  as  well  as  the  resources  to  implement  them. 

"Specifically,  phased  project  planning  provides  for  four  distinct 
phases  as  follows: 

"Phase  A  Conceptual/Feasibility  Phase  .  .  . 

"Phase  B  Preliminary  Definition  Phase  .  .  . 

"Phase  C  Final  Definition  .   .   . 
and     Phase     D    Development  Operation.   .   .   ."      (Testimony:     NASA 
Auth.  Hearings,  269-88) 
February  24:  Canada's  National  Defence  Research  Council  said  it  would 
negotiate  an  agreement  with  NASA  for  Canadian  operation  of  the  rocket 
launching;  ran^fe  at  Churchill,  Manitoba.     The  announcement  said  such 


92  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

an  agreement  would  open  the  way  for  -a  new  partnership  between  the 
two  countries  in  research.  {NYT,  2/26/65,  13) 
February  24:  NASA  Kennedy  Space  Center  announced  it  had  awarded  three 
contracts  for  equipment  used  on  launch  complexes  at  both  Cape  Ken- 
nedy and  Merritt  Island  Launch  Area  {  mila  ) .  American  Machine  and 
Foundry  Co.  received  $1,198,923  for  umbilical  devices  that  would  pro- 
vide fuel,  liquid  oxygen,  and  air  conditioning  to  the  fin  section  of 
Saturn  V's  first  stage.  $745,601.15  was  awarded  Kaiser  Aluminum 
and  Chemical  Sales  for  the  fabrication  of  bulk  electrical  cable  for 
Complex  39.  Spaco  Inc.  received  $596,356  to  fabricate  interconnect 
cables  for  joining  terminal  boards  in  the  umbilical  towers  of  Com- 
plexes 34,  37,  and  39.      (ksc  Release  35-65) 

•  NASA    Marshall    Space    Flight    Center    awarded    a    $8,774,000    research 

and  development  contract  modification  to  North  American  Avia- 
tion's Rocketdyne  Div.  for  continued  uprating  of  the  H-1  rocket 
engine  from  188,000  to  200.000  lbs.  Uprated  engines  would  be  used 
in  clusters  of  eight  to  provide  a  total  thrust  of  1.6  million  lbs.  in  first 
stage  of  Saturn  IB  launch  vehicle.  Modification  brought  H-1  contract 
total  to  $20,648,500.      (Marshall  Star,  2/24/65,  6) 

•  NASA   had   contracted   with   Collins   Radio   Co.,   Dallas    (Tex.)    Div.,   to 

procure  Unified  S-Band  Telemetry  Systems  for  three  85-ft.  -diameter 
antennas  in  support  of  Project  Apollo.  Under  the  fixed-price  type  con- 
tract worth  $2,740,000,  Collins  would  install  the  three  systems  at 
antennas  to  be  built  at  Goldstone,  Calif.;  Canberra,  Australia;  and 
Madrid,  Spain,      (nasa  Release  65-63) 

•  usaf  abandoned  the  search  in  the  Atlantic  for  the  Project  Asset  glider 

launched  Feb.  23.  The  6-ft.  spacecraft,  which  had  just  completed  an 
otherwise  successful  2,700-mi.  experimental  flight  at  13,300  mph,  was 
never  sighted  visually  after  impact  in  the  Atlantic.  The  only  guide 
was  a  weakening  signal  from  its  radio  beacon  that  faded  out  yesterday 
afternoon.  Although  the  glider  had  radioed  valuable  data,  engineers 
had  wanted  to  examine  the  skin  of  the  spacecraft  to  determine  the 
ability  of  its  exotic  metals  and  superalloys  to  withstand  prolonged  heat 
of  reentry.      (Wash.  Post,  2/25/65;  ap.  Bait.  Sun,  2/25/65) 

•  The  number  of  women  earning  more  than  $10,000  annually  in  scientific 

government  jobs  had  increased  dramatically  from  1959  because  of 
interest  in  space  programs,  Mrs.  Catherine  Dryden  Hock,  NASA  systems 
engineer,  informed  the  New  York  Section  of  Society  of  Women  Engi- 
neers. Between  1959  and  1963,  number  of  women  in  Government 
grades  of  GS-12  and  above  in  computer  fields  rose  790*/^  ;  in  mathe- 
matics and  mathematical  statistics,  137%  :  and  in  physical  sciences, 
1229r.  NASA's  engineering  force  was  3%  women.  (NASA  Release 
65-60) 
February  25:  President  Johnson  visited  NASA  Headquarters,  accompanied 
by  Vice  President  Humphrey,  for  a  briefing  on  the  mariner  iv  project 
and  to  congratulate  and  express  appreciation  to  NASA  officials  and  mem- 
bers of  the  Mariner  and  Ranger  project  team.  The  President  recalled 
that  he  had  sponsored  legislation  in  1958  that  had  created  NASA:  "I 
think  it  is  really  incredible  that  we  have  come  so  far.  It  was  only 
seven  years  ago  this  month  that  we  were  deliberating  and  debating  and 
still  seeking  to  come  to  grips  with  the  realities  of  the  .space  age."  Mr. 
Johnson  told  NASA  officials  that  the  ])eople  of  America  and  the  whole 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 


93 


February  25:    President  Lyndon  B.  Johnson  is  briefed  on  the  Mariner  mission  at  NASA 
Headquarters.    Left  to  right,  James  E.  Webb,  nasa  Administrator,  President  Johnson, 
Vice  President  Hubert  H.  Humphrey,  and  Dr.  Hugh  L.  Dryden,  nasa  Deputy  Admin- 
istrator. 


world  were  "deep  in  your  debt."  (NASA  Announcement  65-43;  Simons, 
Wash.  Post,  2  26  65:  Sehlstedt.  Bait.  Sun.  2/26  65:  Young,  Chic. 
Trih.,  2/26/65;  Mohr,  NYT,  2/26/65,  10) 
February  25:  usaf  launched  Thor-Agena  D  launch  vehicle  from  Western 
Test  Ranse  with  unidentified  satellite  pavload.  (  U.S.  Aeron.  &  Space 
Act.,  1965,  135) 

•  ComSatCorp  announced  decision  of  DOD  that  continuation  of  its  present 

program  to  secure  satellite  services,  presumably  with  Ford  Motor  Co.'s 
Philco  Corp.  Div.,  was  superior  to  that  proposed  by  ComSatCorp.  The 
satellites  involved  would  make  up  "initial"  DOD  system;  ComSatCorp 
might  bid  to  supply  advanced  satellites.  ComSatCorp  hoped  its 
separate  commercial  system  would  be  afforded  some  DOD  nonsecret 
traffic.  Some  military  men  had  argued  that,  since  the  Government 
would  build  its  own  system  for  secret  communications,  it  should  also 
use  these  facilities  for  nonsecret  transmissions.  This  had  caused  Com- 
SatCorp to  raise  the  question  of  the  degree  to  which  the  Government 
should  enter  the  communications  business  in  competition  with  private 
enterprise.  President  Johnson  had  established  policy  in  a  report  to 
Congress,  "...  a  system  tailored  for  the  military's  exclusive  use,  does 
not  alter  the  policy  under  which  .  .  .  the  Government  will  use  the 
commercial  satellite  system  for  the  transmission  of  the  bulk  of  its 
traffic  between  the  United  States  and  various  overseas  areas."  {WSJ, 
2/25/65) 

•  NASA  had  granted  an  exclusive  patent  license,  the  second  it  ever  issued, 

to  Exactel  Instrument  Co.  for  a  "line-following  servo-system."  The 
device,  which  "remembers"  a  given  graph  curve,  could  measure  one 
characteristic  of  a  physical  situation  and  read  out  resulting  charac- 
teristics in  specific  quantities.  President  of  Exactel,  Eugene  A.  Glassey 
had  invented  the  servo-system  while  an  employee  at  NASA  Ames  Re- 


94  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

search  Center.  Issuance  of  the  exclusive  license  on  a  Government- 
owned  patent  to  a  private  individual  was  part  of  NASA's  continuing 
effort  to  make  aeronautical  and  space  inventions  available  for  com- 
mercial development  as  rapidly  as  possible.  The  only  previous  ex- 
clusive licensing  was  to  Union  Carbide  in  1963  for  a  nickel-based  alloy 
invented  by  a  NASA  scientist,  (arc  Release  65-6) 
February  25:  NASA  Kennedy  Space  Center  awarded  a  Sll  million  cost-plus- 
award-fee  supplement  to  the  Chrysler  Corp.  for  support  services  on 
the  Saturn  I  and  Saturn  IB  space  programs.  Chrysler  would  provide 
prelaunch,  launch,  and  post-launch  services  at  Complexes  34  and  37 
through  June  30,  1968.      ( KSC  Release  43-650) 

•  dod's  Hibex,  the  high  acceleration  experimental  booster,  was  successfully 

tested  at  White  Sands  Missile  Range,  N.Mex.      {M&R,  3/8/65,  11) 

•  Douglas  DC-9,  a  twin-jet  airliner,  made  its  maiden  flight.     The  short-to- 

medium-range  transport,  expected  to  benefit  smaller  airports,  flew  from 
Long  Beach,  Calif.,  to  Edwards  afb  in  two  hours  and  13  min.  The 
plane  had  a  wing  span  of  87  ft.  and  used  about  3,500  ft.  of  the  run- 
way in  taking  off.  Its  cabin  could  accommodate  up  to  90  passengers. 
The  DC-9  was  expected  to  go  into  passenger  service  early  next  year. 
Orders  or  options  for  121  of  the  planes  had  been  received  by  Douglas, 
of  which  24  were  placed  by  Eastern  Air  Lines.  (UPI,  NYT,  2/26/65, 
58;  2/26/65,  37) 

•  Dr.  C.  Stark  Draper,  head  of  the  Dept.  of  Aeronautics  and  Astronautics 

at  MIT,  and  Theodore  C.  Achilles,  a  former  ambassador  to  Peru  and 
presently  vice  chairman  of  the  executive  committee  of  the  Atlantic 
Council  of  the  U.S.,  were  sworn  in  as  consultants  to  NASA.  Dr.  Draper 
would  be  a  technical  consultant  on  a  part-time  basis;  AchiUes  would 
be  available  for  consultation  on  NASA's  university  program,  (nasa 
Release  65-66) 
February  26:  PEGASUS  I  satellite,  launched  by  NASA  Feb.  16,  was  function- 
ing normally  and  recording  information  to  ground  stations  on  the  size 
and  frequency  of  meteoroid  "strikes"  or  impacts  on  all  three  sensor 
panel  groups.  Scientists  at  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  said  the 
number  of  penetrations  of  the  panels  was  not  greatly  different  from  the 
expected  level.  PEGASUS  I  had  a  wing-like  structure  96  ft.  long  and 
14  ft.  in  width,  offering  more  than  2.300  square  ft.  of  area  instrumented 
to  detect  collisions  with  meteoritic  particles.  The  basic  information 
on  the  penetrating  power  and  frequency  of  meteoroids  was  needed  for 
the  design  of  future  spacecraft.  In  addition,  data  on  temperature, 
power  levels,  and  the  intensity  of  radiation  were  being  received.  The 
latter  were  also  as  predicted,      (msfc  Release  65-45) 

•  COSMOS  LViii  satellite,  containing  "scientific  equipment,"  was  orbited  by 

the  U.S.S.R.  Initial  orbital  data:  apogee,  659  km.  (409  mi.)  ;  perigee, 
581  km.  (360  mi.);  period,  96.8  min.;  inclination,  65°.  Equipment 
was  said  to  be  functioning  normally.  (Krasnaya  Zvezda,  2/27/65,  1, 
ATSS-T  Trans.) 

•  X-15  No.  1  was  flown  by  pilot  John  McKay  (nasa)  to  153,600-ft.  altitude 

at  a  maximum  speed  of  3,750  mph  (mach  5.40).  Purpose  was  to 
check  out  landing  gear  revised  recently,  give  pilot  experience  at  higher 
altitude,  and  get  apparatus  data,  (nasa  x-15  Proj.  Off.;  X-15  Flight 
Log) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  95 

February  26:  Dr.  Frank  K.  Edmonson,  chairman  of  the  Astronomy  Dept. 
at  the  Univ.  of  Indiana,  said  ranger  viii  photographs  had  suggested  that 
the  moon  miglit  have  features  in  common  with  the  Karst  limestone 
formation  in  southern  Indiana  and  that  a  request  for  aerial  photographs 
of  the  Karst  region  had  been  made,  ranger  viii's  pictures  showed  that 
the  Sea  of  Tranquillity  on  the  moon  was  pocked  and  mottled  by  innum- 
erable depressions.  Surface  of  the  Karst  limestone  layers  was  similarly 
pocked  with  sink  holes.  Dr.  Gerard  Kuiper,  chief  experimenter  for 
the  RANGER  VIII  project,  and  Dr.  Harold  C.  Urey  of  the  Univ.  of  Cali- 
fornia at  La  Jolla  proposed  that  these  "dimples"  were  produced  by 
drainage  of  material  through  holes  in  their  bottoms.  (NYT,  2/26/65, 
10) 

•  Col.  John  H.  Glenn,  Jr.,  was  sworn  in  as  a  consultant  to  NASA  by  Admini- 

strator James  E.  Webb.  His  duties  would  include  taking  part  in  con- 
ferences, making  speeches  in  the  U.S.  and  abroad,  and  checking  on 
projects  under  way.      (nasa  Release  65-67) 

•  Joseph   Campbell,   Comptroller   General,   reported   to   Congress  that  the 

decision  of  NASA's  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  to  lease  rather  than 
buy  two  electric  substations  from  the  Potomac  Electric  Power  Co.  had 
resulted  in  $174,000  of  unnecessary  costs  thus  far.  Campbell  ex- 
plained, "We  believe  that  the  Center  failed  to  make  this  determination 
because  of  the  Administration's  failure  to  provide  guidelines  to  its 
employees,  setting  forth  pertinent  factors  necessary  for  consideration 
in  making  decisions  whether  to  lease  or  purchase  property."  He  added, 
however,  that  NASA  had  agreed  with  gao  findings  and  would  purchase 
substations  as  provided  for  in  contract.  The  matter  was  nevertheless 
reported  to  Congress  because  it  "further  illustrates  that  significant  un- 
necessary costs  can  be  and  are  being  incurred,"  when  agencies  do  not 
make  complete  lease-versus-purchase  studies.      (Wash.  Post,  2/28/65) 

•  Use  of  ComSatCorp's  Early  Bird  communications  satellite  was  subject  of 

a  London  meeting  between  U.S.  and  European  participants  in  the 
program.  A  general  understanding  was  reached  that  once  commercial 
service  started,  television  networks  could  use  the  satellite  system  outside 
peak  transatlantic  telephone  hours.  The  peak  traffic  hours  were 
generally  considered  from  about  9  a.m.  to  3  p.m.  est.  Exceptions 
could  be  made  if  major  news  stories  broke  in  Europe  during  this 
period.      (Farnsworth.  NYT,  2/27/65,  51) 

•  Report  of  experiments  by  the  European  Organization  for  Nuclear  Re- 

search indicated  there  was  no  fifth  force  in  nature  as  had  been  pro- 
posed, independently,  by  two  groups  of  American  physicists  to  explain 
some  unexpected  experimental  results.  The  four  forces  in  nature  were 
gravity,  electromasnetism,  and  weak  and  strong  nuclear  forces, 
meuters,  NYT,  2/28/65,  69) 
February  27:  Thiokol  Chemical  Corp.  successfully  static-fired  its  156-in.- 
dia.,  lOO-ft.-long  solid  propellant  rocket  motor — the  largest  yet  fired — ■ 
for  64  sec.  The  900,000-lb.  motor  developed  over  three  million  lbs.  of 
thrust,  consumed  over  800.000  lbs.  of  propellant,  and  generated  tem- 
peratures up  to  6,000°F.  The  solid  propellant  was  encased  in  a  half- 
inch-thick  steel  and  nickel  casing  which  apparently  escaped  damage. 
Also  left  intact  was  the  10-ton,  20-ft.-tall  nozzle  which  rested  on  top  of 
the  12-stories-deep  testing  pit.  The  motor  was  fired  below  ground 
level.     Primary   objective   of  the  test  was  to   validate   design   of  the 


96  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

nozzle  for  use  later  on  the  260-in.  motor.  A  secondary  mission  was  to 
check  out  the  propellant  processing  system  which  would  be  used  in  the 
larger  motor.  The  test  was  part  of  the  large-solid  demonstration 
program  currently  managed  by  NASA's  Lewis  Research  Center.  (Shipp. 
Atlanta  J /Const.^ 2  28 '65^  M&R.  3  8  65,  16) 

February  27:  NASA  announced  it  had  approved  a  grant  of  8100.000  for 
establishment  of  a  Technical  Utilization  Program  at  the  Univ.  of 
Minnesota.  Along  with  funds  to  be  provided  by  private  business 
concerns,  the  NASA  grant  would  support  the  development  and  experi- 
mental testing  of  new  ways  in  which  developments  in  space  science 
and  technology  could  be  rapidly  transferred  to  and  assimilated  by 
business  and  industry.  North  Star  Research  and  Development  In- 
stitute would  participate  in  part  of  the  program.  ( NASA  Release 
65-69) 

February  28:  The  first  industry-produced  Saturn  I  first  stage  (s-i-8) 
arrived  at  Cape  Kennedy  aboard  the  NASA  barge  Promise  after  a  six- 
day  trip  from  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center.  The  stage,  which 
was  80  ft.  long  and  21.5  ft.  in  diameter,  had  been  built  by  the  Chrysler 
Corp.      (msfc  Release  65-46;  ap,  NYT,  3/1/65,  12) 

•  Louis  Walter,  gsfc  geochemist,  told  ap  reporter  his  research  with  tektites 

indicated  lunar  surface  may  be  sand-like.  The  key  to  this  conclusion 
lay  in  Walter's  discovery  of  the  presence  of  coesite  in  tektites.  believed 
to  be  particles  of  the  moon  sent  into  space  when  meteorites  impact  the 
lunar  surface.  Coesite,  also  found  around  the  world  at  known  meteorite 
craters  and  sites  believed  to  have  sustained  meteoritic  impacts,  is  a 
form  of  silicon  dioxide — a  major  constituent  of  sand — produced  under 
high  pressure.  "If  we  accept  the  lunar  origin  of  tektites.  this  would 
prove  or  indicate  that  the  parent  material  on  the  moon  is  something 
like  the  welded  tuft  that  we  find  in  Yellowstone  Park.  Iceland,  New 
Zealand,  and  elsewhere,"  according  to  Walter.  Welded  tuft  was  said 
to  have  some  of  the  qualities  of  beach  sand,      (ap,  Chic.  Trib.,  3/1/65) 

•  Three    Univ.     of    California     ( Berkeley )     scientists    concluded     on     the 

basis  of  their  laboratory  studies  that  Dr.  William  M.  Sinton's 
spectroscopic  evidence  of  organic  matter  on  Mars  was  not  valid.  Dr. 
Sinton  of  Lowell  Observatory  had  made  spectroscopic  studies  of  Mars 
in  1959  that  suggested  infrared  radiation  from  dark  portions  of  Mars 
was  comparable  to  that  produced  by  some  terrestrial  plant  life.  The 
California  chemists — James  S.  Shirk.  William  A.  Haseltine.  and  George 
C.  Pimentel — concluded  Dr.  Sinton  had  detected  vaporized  "deuterated 
water"  ( H_.0  plus  heavy  hydrogen — deuterium  (  rather  than  plant- 
produced  molecules.      fuPi,  S.F.  Chron.,  2/28/65) 

•  NATO  officials  were  examining  preliminary  bids  for  a  $310  million  NATO 

Air  Defense  Ground  Environment  (Nadge)  system  that  would  be  used 
to  protect  continental  Europe  from  enemy  aircraft.  Nadge  was  ex- 
pected to  be  an  improved  version  of  the  Sage  system  that  had  been 
used  to  defend  the  United  States.  At  last  December's  NATO  ministerial 
meeting,  it  was  agreed  that  each  country  be  guaranteed  Nadge  sub- 
contracts equal  to  the  amount  the  country  was  contributing  to  the 
program.  The  cost  sharing  formula  for  Nadge  was  based  on  the  con- 
tributive  capacity  of  the  member  countries;  the  advantage  accruing  to 
the  user  country:  and  the  economic  benefit  to  the  countries  in  which 
the  installations  would  be  placed.     Under  this  formula  the  U.S.  was 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  97 

expected  to  contribute  30.85%  of  the  cost  of  the  program.  (Smith, 
A^yr,  2  28  65,  12F) 

February  28:  Prospecting  for  high-grade  silver  could  be  done,  according  to 
Thor  H.  Kiilsgaard.  Chief  of  the  Resources  Research  Branch  of  the 
U.S.  Geological  Survey,  by  using  an  infrared  system  mounted  on  air- 
craft. He  explained  that  deposits  of  silver  in  the  earth  were  associated 
with  hot  water  and  that  areas  of  heat  flow  could  be  detected  by  the 
infrared  devices.  If  the  heat  zones  conformed  with  mineral  zones  or 
faults,  silver  might  be  present.   (Sci.  Serv.,  NYT,  2/ 28  65,  64) 

During  February:  The  prime  and  backup  crews  for  the  upcoming  GT-3 
three-orbital  mission  underwent  parachute  and  egress  training  exer- 
cises. Parachute  training,  with  the  astronauts  in  space  suits,  was  con- 
ducted in  Galveston  Bay.  Tex.  Egress  training  from  a  submerged 
Gemini  boilerplate  spacecraft  was  conducted  in  a  large  tank  at  Elling- 
ton. AFB.        ( Msc  Roundup.  2  17/65,  2) 

•  Atlantic  Research  Corp.  announced  the  Frangible  Areas  meteorological 

sounding  rocket,  developed  for  USAF,  had  successfully  passed  flight  tests 
at  the  Western  Test  Range.      {M&R,  3/8/65,  11) 

•  New   York  Times  continued  its  editorial  opposition  to  the  national  ob- 

jective for  Project  Apollo  of  landing  a  man  on  the  moon  in  this  decade. 
On  Feb.  19,  an  editorial  drew  from  the  two  successful  major  launch- 
ings  of  the  week  (  ranger  viii  and  saturn  i  sa-9  )  the  lesson  that  the 
kinds  of  experiments  on  these  flights  ( lunar  photography  of  RANGER 
VIII  and  PEGASUS  i  micrometeoroid  detection  satellite  on  Saturn  I) 
proved  there  were  many  unmeasured  perils  in  space  and  that  "In  the 
face  of  these  uncertainties,  the  American  space  program  ought  to  retain 
maximum  flexibility  of  timing,  rather  than  try  at  all  costs  to  achieve 
the  artificial  goal  of  a  manned  lunar  landing  by  1970." 

On  Feb.  22,  following  the  successful  conclusion  of  the  RANGER  viil 
lunar  photography  mission,  another  editorial  praised  the  accomplish- 
ment, then  noted  that  the  Ranger  series  was  not  providing  all  of  the 
answers  to  lunar  questions  critical  to  the  Apollo  program,  and  con- 
cluded: "The  two  successful  Ranger  shots,  however,  make  clear  that 
much  valuable  information  can  be  gathered  about  the  earth's  natural 
satellite  by  relatively  cheap  instrument-carrying  rockets  that  do  not  risk 
human  lives.  This  demonstration,  and  the  continuing  uncertainties 
about  matters  essential  for  a  safe  manned  round  trip  to  the  moon, 
strengthen  still  more  the  case  for  making  progress  slowly,  without  any 
arbitrary  deadline,  on  Project  Apollo."  (NYT,  2/19/65,  34;  2/22/65, 
20) 

•  A  warning   that   "In   looking   for   life   on   Mars   we   could   establish   for 

ourselves  the  reputation  of  being  the  greatest  Simple  Simons  of  all 
time"  came  from  Dr.  Philip  H.  Abelson  in  an  editorial  in  Science. 
Dr.  Abelson  was  editor  of  the  magazine  and  director  of  the 
Carnegie  Institution's  Geophysical  Laboratory.  He  said  he  did 
not  believe  that  life,  particularly  life  resembling  that  on  earth,  would 
be  found  on  Mars  and  proposed  "a  few  inexpensive  experiments"  on 
earth  to  save  years,  billions  of  dollars,  and  the  possibility  of  "con- 
siderable eventual  disappointment"  if  the  search  for  life  on  Mars  should 
prove  fruitless. 

Attempts  to  sterilize  spacecraft  to  prevent  them  from  carrying  earth 
organisms  to  Mars  might  add  "many  years  and  billions  of  dollars"  to 


98  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

the  cost,  the  editorial  said.  It  suggested,  instead,  careful  selection  of 
experiments  to  be  sent  to  Mars  and  "relatively  inexpensive  studies  here 
on  earth"  to  determine  whether  sterilization  were  really  necessary. 
(Clark,  NYT,  2/13/65;  Wash.  Post,  2/13/65) 
During  February:  Dr.  Leo  Steg.  manager  of  General  Electric  Co.'s  Space 
Sciences  Laboratory,  Missile  and  Space  Div.,  was  named  Engineer  of 
the  Year — 1964.  He  was  cited  for  outstanding  contributions  to  the 
advancement  of  space  science  and  the  engineering  profession.  The 
award  was  presented  by  an  amalgamation  of  41  societies  during  the 
1965  National  Engineers'  Week  in  Philadelphia.  (Av.  Wk.,  2/1/65, 
13) 

•  NASA's  contributions  to  the  technology  of  inorganic  coatings  were  de- 

scribed in  a  new  technology  survey  (NASA  SP-5014)  published  by  the 
NASA  Technology  Utilization  Division.  They  were  thermophototropic 
coatings;  thermal  control  coatings  for  space  vehicles;  solid  lubrication 
coatings;  thermal  insulation  coatings;  methods  of  applying  coatings  to 
substrates;  measurement  of  coating  optical  properties;  and  refractory 
metal  oxidation  resistant  coatings,  (nasa  Release  65-39,  65-44,  and 
65-61) 

•  GAO    saved    the    military    services    a    total    of    S254.7    million,    AEC    S3 

million,  and  NASA  S727.000  last  year.  This  information  was  re- 
leased in  a  251-page  document  released  by  GAO  in  addition  to  the 
GAO  Administrator's  Annual  Report  to  Congress.      {M&R,  2/15/65,  9) 

•  Nikita  Khrushchev,  in  his  first  known  public  appearance  in  Moscow  since 

his  removal  from  power  in  October  1964,  visited  the  cosmonauts' 
monument  on  the  outskirts  of  the  city,  Reuters  reported.  A  militiaman 
on  duty  at  the  monument  said:  "Yes,  it's  quite  true.  Nikita 
Sergeyevich  visited  the  monument  and  spent  about  30  minutes."  After 
the  Soviet  Union's  three-man  orbital  mission,  voskhod  I,  last  October, 
Khrushchev  had  been  scheduled  to  welcome  the  cosmonauts  to  Moscow 
and  to  dedicate  the  monument,  but  his  sudden  retirement  intervened. 
(Reuters,  Waller,  Wash.  Post,  2/22/65,  1) 

•  France's  Emeraude  rocket,  first  stage  of  the  Diamant  booster,  was  success- 

fully launched  from  Hammaguir  Range,  Algeria,  after  three  failures. 
Its  liquid-fueled  engine  provided  62.000-lbs.  thrust  for  88  sec.  Twelve 
Emeraude  launchings  were  originally  scheduled.  Second  and  third 
stages  of  the  Diamant  launch  vehicle,  both  solid  fueled,  had  already 
been  successfully  tested.  No  attempt  had  been  made  to  launch  the 
three  stages  linked  together.  (Av.  Wk.,  3/22/65,  18;  M&R,  3/22/65, 
9) 

•  William    Cohen,    Chief    of    Solid    Propulsion    Experimental    Motors    in 

NASA's  OART,  discussed  the  great  strides  in  large  solid-propellant  rocket 
motors  taken  in  the  past  few  years,  in  Astronautics  &  Aeronautics 
article.  Among  the  new  technologies  he  mentioned  were  maraging 
steels,  ablative  nozzles,  vector  control,  and  the  cast-cure-test  facility. 
Looking  toward  the  future,  Cohen  said  among  the  advanced  concepts 
associated  with  large  solids  showing  promise  of  success  were  reusable 
motor  cases,  insulation,  and  nozzle  component;  and  failure-warning 
systems.      {A&A,  2/65,  42-16) 

•  Cost    and    performance    comparability    of    large    solid-propellant    rocket 

motors  was  topic  of  article  by  G.W.G.  Van  Winkle,  Boeing 
Co.,  in  Astronautics  &  Aeronautics.     The  information  was  based  on 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  99 

research  obtained  in  study  made  by  Boeing  for  MSFC.  In  the 
same  issue,  Dr.  Walter  G.  Berl  of  Johns  Hopkins  Univ.  Applied 
Physic  Laboratory  discussed  combustion  instability  in  solid-propellant 
rocket  motors.  Four  types  of  instability  were  listed,  and  the  status 
of  solutions  to  these  problems  was  discussed.  Dr.  Berl  concluded 
that  it  was  "too  much  to  expect  that  the  always  latent  instability 
problem  has  been  banished  from  the  new  propellants  of  the  future. 
It  is  more  likely  that  the  most  obvious  troubles  can  be  eliminated, 
partly  through  analysis,  partly  through  recognition  and  exploitation  of 
past  trends.  .  .  ."      [A&A,  2/65,  48-61) 

During  February:  In  a  report  titled  "Federal  Funds  for  Research,  Develop- 
ment, and  other  Scientific  Activities,"  National  Science  Foundation  said 
DOD  obligations  for  R&D  increased  each  year  from  $2.3  billion  in  1956 
to  an  estimated  S7.5  billion  in  1964.  Although  survey  predicted  a 
small  decrease  to  $7.2  billion  for  1965,  the  10-yr.  period  showed  a 
200%  gain.  Support  to  applied  research  accounted  for  about  22%  of 
1965  R&D  Defense  funds,  with  2  or  3%  used  for  basic  research;  about 
75%  went  for  development.  Profit-making  organizations  had  done 
most  of  dod's  R&D  during  the  10  yrs.,  increasing  from  about  50%  in 
1956  to  65%  in  1965.  The  report  added:  "On  the  other  hand,  the  re- 
lative share  of  Defense  research  and  development  performed  intramu- 
rally  decreased  each  year  from  about  40%  in  1956  to  21%  in  1963, 
but  an  increase  to  25%  was  expected  in  1965.  .  .  ."  (nsf  Rpt.  65-13) 

•  Experimental  model  isotopic  thruster  was  tested  at  AEC  Mound  Labora- 
tory, using  heat  from  radioactive  decay  of  polonium  210.  Mound 
Laboratory  was  continuing  development  of  polonium  210  fuel  forms 
and  fuel  encapsulating  techniques  for  specific  space  applications.  The 
isotopic  small  rocket  engine,  or  thruster,  concept  envisions  use  of  a 
radioisotope  to  heat  hydrogen,  which  is  expelled  through  a  nozzle  to 
produce  low  thrust.      {Atomic  Energy  Programs,  1965,  149) 


March   1965 


March  1:  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  sent  a  letter  to  the  House 
and  Senate  space  committees  outlining  major  reprograming  of  funds 
planned  by  NASA  during  the  remainder  of  FY  1965.  Webb  said  $13 
million  had  been  allocated  to  large  solid  rockets  in  FY  1965  and  noth- 
ing in  the  following  year  "due  to  the  President's  decision  not  to  in- 
clude funds  in  the  NASA  '66  budget."  Close-out  costs  for  the  large 
solids  would  amount  to  S8.5  million  in  addition  to  the  S13  million 
already  earmarked  "and  would  yield  no  technical  confirmation  of  the 
planned  objectives."  By  adding  another  S5.3  million,  "bringing  the  FY 
'65  funding  to  $26.8  million."  NASA  would  "carry  the  Phase  I  program 
through  to  completion."  Phase  I  called  for  the  manufacture  and 
firing  of  two  "half-length"  rockets  78  ft.  long  and  260  in.  in 
diameter.  Additional  close-out  funds  were  also  granted  to  the  other 
programs  not  included  in  the  FY  '66  budget:  $2.15  million  for  Snap-o; 
$3  million  for  the  M-1  engine.  (Text;  NASA  Auth.  Hearings  [Part 
4],  279-88) 

•  First  Saturn  V  booster  (s-ic-T)   had  been  moved  to  static  test  stand  at 

NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  to  prove  out  its  propulsion 
system.  The  280,000-lb.  stage,  developed  jointly  by  MSFC  and  Boeing 
Co.,  had  two  tanks  with  total  capacity  of  4,400,000  lbs.  of  liquid  oxy- 
gen and  kerosene,  and  five  F-1  engines,  each  weighing  ten  tons,  which 
provided  total  thrust  of  7.5  million  lbs.  (  msfc  Release  65^7;  Mar- 
shall Star,  3/3/65,  1,  6) 

•  Louis  Walter,  geochemist  at  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center,  reported 

that  of  the  400  specimens  received  from  "Operation  Moon  Harvest" 
none  analyzed  was  a  meteor  or  other  non-earth  fragment.  It  had  been 
theorized  that  because  of  the  low  gravity  of  the  moon,  meteoroids 
striking  the  moon  might  dislodge  fragments  which  would  be  attracted 
by  earth's  gravity,  and  that  analysis  of  the  fragments  would  provide 
important  clues  to  composition  of  the  moon.  {Des  Moines  Register, 
3/2/65) 

•  Dr.  Mose  L.   Harvey,  Director  of  the  Univ.   of  Miami  Center  for  Ad- 

vanced International  Studies  and  history  professor,  was  sworn  in  by 
NASA  as  part-time  consultant  in  international  affairs.  Dr.  Harvey  also 
was  a  consultant  to  U.S.  State  Department's  Policy  Planning 
Council.      (NASA  Release  65-71) 

•  JPl's  Dr.  Robert  Nathan  had  developed  computer  system  that  was  dou- 

bling resolution  of  Ranger  lunar  photographs.  Picture  data  were  tak- 
en directly  from  magnetic  tape  and  digitized  for  insertion  into  an  IBM 
7094,  thereby  bypassing  kinescope  response  that  had  contributed  to 
distortion  of  published  Ranger  pictures.  Calibration  data  obtained 
before  Ranger  flight  were  used  to  remove  noise  and  distortion  which 

100 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  101 

brought  "a  dramatic  increase  in  resolution."  Craters  became  visible 
that  were  not  seen  in  original  pictures.  [M&R,  3/1/65,  8) 
March  1:  ComSatCorp  announced  delay  of  Early  Bird  synchronous  satellite 
launch,  previously  targeted  for  end  of  March,  because  of  decision  to 
replace  defective  transistors  and  retest  replacements.  (ComSatCorp 
Release) 

•  David    Sarnoff.    Chairman    of    RCA.    accepting    National    Commander's 

Award  for  Distinguished  Service,  said  at  the  American  Legion's  fifth 
annual  Washington  conference:  "The  same  sense  of  mission  that  ignit- 
ed our  young  nation's  Westward  expansion  a  century  ago  should  now 
be  brought  to  bear  in  support  of  the  President's  space  objectives.  .  .  . 

"Leadership  in  space  and  in  the  communications  art  which  is  the 
key  to  mastery  in  space,  translates  itself  today  into  political,  military, 
economic  and  social  leadership  among  the  nations  of  the 
world.  Technological  leadership  resembles  a  magnet  which  attracts 
other  forces.  When  it  is  weakened,  these  forces  are  drawn  into  other 
orbits." 

President  Johnson  sent  a  message  endorsing  the  award  and  praising 
Mr.  Sarnoff's  achievements  "on  behalf  of  a  grateful  nation."  {NYT, 
3/2/65) 

•  Editorializing  in   Missiles   and  Rockets,   William   Coughlin   suggested   a 

"useful  mission"  for  which  ranger  ix  might  be  adapted:  "Our  un- 
solicited proposal  to  NASA  is  that  Ranger  be  employed  to  return  to 
Earth  photographs  of  Earth  from  space.  Satellites  have  told  us  the 
Earth  is  'pear-shaped'  rather  than  round  and  that  it  draws  a  perhaps 
invisible  but  comet-like  tail  after  it  through  space.  Photographs  of 
the  entire  Earth  globe  as  seen  from  space  would  have  high  scientific 
value.  As  a  propaganda  triumph,  it  would  be  unequalled.  .  .  ." 
M&R,  3/1/65,  46) 

•  President    Johnson,    addressing    40    winners    of    annual    Westinghouse 

science  talent  search,  said  science  and  politics  should  strive  to  "serve 
humanity."  He  added  that  this  country  was  "very  anxious  to  produce 
all  the  scientists  that  we  can,"  and  expressed  hope  that  scientists  would 
learn  about  government  and  politics.  Larry  Dean  Howard  of  Canoga 
Park,  Calif.,  won  first  prize  for  having  developed  a  method  of  ac- 
curately defining  the  orbits  of  earth  satellites  through  the  use  of 
differential  calculus.  Prize  was  a  $7,500  Westinghouse  scholarship. 
(AP,  NYT,  3/1/65;  Loftus,  NYT,  3/2/65,  14) 

•  USAF  conducted  first  inland  Minuteman  ICBM  flight  test,  launching  the 

missile  from  a  silo  near  Newell,  N.  Dak.      {M&R,  3/8/65) 
March  1-3:  The  aiaa  Unmanned  Spacecraft  Meeting  was  held  in  Los  An- 
geles. 

Maj.  Gen.  0.  J.  Ritland,  afsc's  Deputy  Commander  for  Space,  said 
in  address  that  focus  on  manned  space  events  often  caused  us  to  lose 
sight  of  the  numerous  space  missions  adequately  performed  by  un- 
manned spacecraft.  Although  much  of  unmanned  spacecraft  activity 
had  directly  supported  manned  missions,  "unmanned  space  technology 
has  benefitted  only  indirectly  from  manned  space  effort."  He  predict- 
ed that  future  manned  missions  might  reverse  this  relationship  and 
cited  the  objectives  of  the  USAF  Mol  program  as  an  effort  to  strength- 
en and  expand  technology  for  all  space  programs.  Mol  program 
would  develop  technology  to  improve  manned  space  capability;  dem- 


102  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

onstrate  servicing  by  man  of  large  structures  in  space;  conduct  basic 
scientific  and  general  technological  manned  experimentation;  deter- 
mine biological  response  of  man  in  space  for  extended  periods.  Gen- 
eral Ritland  said:  "With  a  laboratory  in  space,  astronaut-scientists  or 
engineers  can  assemble,  test,  and  observe  the  operation  of  many  sub- 
systems or  components  in  the  actual  space  environment.  They  can 
observe  equipment  failures  on  the  spot  and  will  be  able  to  make  neces- 
sary replacements  or  repairs.  I  have  spent  many  hours  .  .  .  looking 
over  space  flight  data — attempting  to  determine  exactly  what  failed 
and  why  it  failed.  The  time  is  near  when  we  can  overcome  many  of 
these  frustrations  and  uncertainties  by  use  of  the  astronaut  to  answer 
such  questions  or  to  relay  data  to  the  ground  for  detailed  analy- 
sis."     (afsc  Release) 

Discussing  future  requirements  for  military  satellite  communications 
systems,  Samuel  P.  Brown,  Technical  Director,  U.S.  Army  Satellite 
Communications  Agency,  said:  "The  feasibility  of  gaining  significant 
improvements  in  this  area  appears  very  good  based  on  the  lessons 
learned  from  the  syncom  spin  stabilized  satellite  and  the  approaches 
planned  for  the  dod's  Initial  Defense  Communications  Satellite  Project 
and  NASA's  Applications  Technology  Satellite  Program.  From  these 
and  other  programs  is  expected  to  evolve  techniques  for  spacecraft 
stabilization  which  will  permit  the  increase  of  satellite  antenna  gains 
by  an  order  of  magnitude."      (Text) 

NASA  Deputy  Associate  Administrator  for  Space  Sciences  and  Appli- 
cations Edgar  M.  Cortright  said  the  reason  for  a  civilian  and  a  mili- 
tary space  program  lay  in  fundamental  differences  in  the  respective 
roles  of  NASA  and  DOD:  "nasa's  role  is  to  explore  and  exploit  space  for 
peaceful  purposes.  The  dod's  role  is  to, stay  prepared  to  defend  the 
United  States  and  its  allies,  operating  in  any  medium  that  furthers  this 
end.  The  present  space  program  with  its  great  breadth  would  never 
have  evolved  under  the  dod,  which  must  necessarily  devote  its  full 
attention  to  its  awesome  military  responsibilities.  .  .  . 

"Fortunately,  the  two  space  programs  are  mutually  supporting  and 
blend  together  quite  well.  They  use  common  equipment  .  .  .  and 
draw  on  the  same  scientific  and  industrial  base  .  .  .  numerous 
projects  are  of  great  mutual  interest.  Top  management  in  both  agen- 
cies devotes  substantial  effort  to  insure  close  cooperation  and  to  mini- 
mize duplication."      (Text) 

JPl's  Dan  Schneiderman,  project  manager  for  NASA's  Mariner  pro- 
gram, told  AIAA  delegates  that  data  from  MARINER  iv's  solar  plasma 
probe,  which  ceased  normal  functioning  ten  days  after  the  Nov.  28, 
1964,  launching,  had  become  understandable  to  scientists  through  anal- 
ysis of  a  component  failure  in  the  plasma  probe.  Telemetry  from  a 
second  instrument  indicated  that  a  portion  of  the  ionization  chamber 
experiment,  which  measured  radiation  in  space,  was  not  operating 
properly.  Schneiderman  said  the  new  failure  was  in  the  Geiger- 
Mueller  tube.  Schneiderman  estimated  that  based  on  nitrogen  con- 
sumption to  date,  there  was  enough  gas  available  to  keep  MARINER 
IV  stablized  for  about  six  years.  He  said  there  had  been  no  loss  of 
lock  with  Canopus  since  a  special  command  was  transmitted  to  the 
probe  Dec.  17,  1964.      (nasa  Release  65-73) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  103 

March  1-3:  The  first  NASA  University  Program  Review  Conference  in  Kan- 
sas City,  Mo.,  assembled  over  400  university  representatives  interested 
in  learning  how  their  institutions  could  qualify  for  NASA  grants  for 
space-related  research  or  expand  present  programs.  Dr.  Thomas  L.  K. 
Smull,  Director  of  the  NAS4  Office  of  Grants  and  Research  Contracts, 
reported  that  200  universities  were  participating  in  the  program,  that 
some  of  the  grants  were  for  specific  projects,  some  in  university  sus- 
taining programs,  and  others  for  the  support  of  predoctoral 
candidates.  He  said  that  while  NASA  was  "mission  oriented,"  its  job 
was  not  limited  to  putting  a  man  on  the  moon:  "Its  objective  is  the 
expansion  of  human  knowledge  of  phenomena  in  the  atmosphere  and 
space.  One  problem  is  how  the  academic  community  can  communi- 
cate with  NASA."      ( McCoy,  Kansas  City  Star,  3/1/65) 

In  a  luncheon  address.  Dr.  Raymond  L.  Bisplinghoff,  NASA  Associate 
Administrator  for  Advanced  Research  and  Technology,  urged  educa- 
tors not  to  strangle  "the  holy  curiosity  of  inquiry."  He  said  the  suc- 
cess of  the  U.S.  space  program  depended  largely  on  "formation  of 
ideas  by  individuals  working  as  individuals  in  universities."      (Text) 

Sen.  Stuart  Symington  (D-Mo.)  told  the  Conference  that  the  U.S. 
must  "widen  the  scope  of  man's  imagination,  trample  rough-shod  over 
intellectually  inhibiting  barriers  and  stimulate  to  their  fullest  potential 
the  mental  powers  of  young  and  reasonably  young  Americans  if  the 
United  States  were  to  achieve  and  maintain  preeminence  in 
space."  Symington  emphasized  the  need  for  communication  of  new 
knowledge.      (Kansas  City  Times,  3/3/65) 

Dr.  Willard  F.  Libby,  Director  of  Univ.  of  California's  Institute  of 
Geophysics  and  Planetary  Physics,  reviewed  activities  supported  by 
NASA  multidisciplinary  grant:  "In  the  three  years  UCLA  has  adminis- 
tered [the  .  .  .  NASA  grant,  we  have  aided  in  bringing  thirty-seven 
visiting  scientists  to  this  campus  for  short  periods  of  time.  This  grant 
has  supported  fourteen  visiting  researchers  for  periods  of  up  to  one 
year.  Through  the  use  of  these  funds  and  program  enrichment  funds 
from  the  NASA  Predoctoral  Traineeship  grant,  we  have  aided  in  bring- 
ing seven  new  faculty  members  to  this  campus  to  augment  the  existing 
faculty  in  space-related  fields.  .  .  .  Finally,  we  have  made  over  fifty 
sub-grants  to  faculty  for  new  starts  on  space-related  research  in  var- 
ious areas — Biology  and  Medicine,  Physical  Sciences,  Engineering, 
and  Business  Administration."      (Text) 

•  More  than  250  scholars  and  theologians  met  in  New  York  to  discuss 
means  of  attaining  world  peace  and  "to  lay  groundwork  for  a 
theology  for  the  dawning  age  of  cybernation."  Moral  and  tech- 
nological implications  of  Pope  John  XXlll's  encyclical  Pacem  in  Ter- 
ris  were  studied.  Meeting  was  sponsored  by  Center  for  the  Study  of 
Democratic  Institutions  and  the  Fellowship  of  Reconciliation.  (NYT, 
3/2/65,28;  /VFr,  3/3/65.  24) 

March  2:  Two  seconds  after  lift-off.  NASA's  Atlas-Centaur  5,  carrying  a 
dummy  Surveyor  spacecraft,  exploded  and  burned  on  Launch  Pad 
36-B  at  Cape  Kennedv.  Failure  occurred  when  two  of  the  three  Atlas 
engines  shut  off  simultaneously  due  to  closing  of  a  fuel-line 
valve.  The  150-ton.  108-ft.  rocket  rose  three  ft.  from  the  pad,  then  fell 
back  to  the  ground  and  exploded.     Although  burning  propellant  cov- 


104  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

ered  most  of  the  launch  complex,  no  injuries  to  personnel  were 
reported.     Damage  to  the  launching  pad  was  estimated  at  S5  million. 

Objectives  of  the  Atlas-Centaur  test  had  been  to  test  the  ability  of  its 
guidance  system  and  hydrogen-powered  second  stage  to  send  a  payload 
the  size  of  the  2.150-lb.  Surveyor  on  a  precise  path  to  the  moon  and  to 
evaluate  how  well  the  mock-up  Surveyor  spacecraft  would  withstand 
the  stresses  of  launching.  (AP.  Phil.  Eve.  Bull,  3/2/65;  UPI,  Chic. 
Trib.,  3/2/65;  ap,  NYT,  3/3/65;  Av.  Wk.,  3/8/65) 
March  2:  NASA  invited  international  scientific  community  to  propose  re- 
search experiments  and  design  studies  for  upcoming  missions,  primarily 
those  scheduled  between  1967  and  1970.  and  to  propose  space  investi- 
gations not  presently  scheduled.  In  addition,  they  were  invited  to  sug- 
gest experiments  ( 1 )  involving  the  design  and  construction  of  entire 
spacecraft  and  (2)  involving  special  characteristics  or  requirements 
calling  for  the  development  of  a  new  Explorer  spacecraft  or  for  sched- 
uling of  additional  missions  for  Explorers  already  developed.  Pro- 
posals would  be  evaluated  on  scientific  merit,  technological  feasibility, 
competence  and  experience  of  investigator,  assurance  of  institutional 
support,  and  scientific  adequacy  of  apparatus  suggested.  Proposal 
deadline:   Jan.   1,   1966.      (nasa  Release  65-70) 

•  In  a  letter  of  explanation  to  Congress,  NASA  discussed  priorities  in  the 

FY  1966  budget:  ".  .  .  As  the  President  pointed  out  when  he  sub- 
mitted the  budget  to  the  Congress,  'It  is  a  budget  of  priorities.  It 
provides  for  what  we  must  do,  but  not  for  all  we  would  like  to  do.'  In 
assessing  priorities  and  the  most  urgent  national  needs,  the  260-inch 
solid  propellant  rocket  program,  the  M-1  liquid  hydrogen-oxygen 
rocket  engine  capable  of  providing  lYo  million  pounds  of  thrust,  and 
the  SNAP-o  nuclear  electric  power  generating  system  to  provide  35 
kilowatts  of  electrical  power  in  space  could  not  be  supported  in  the 
Fiscal  Year  1966  budget. 

".  .  .  [nasa]  is,  therefore,  preparing  plans  for  reprogramming  Fis- 
cal Year  1965  funds  so  as  to  logically  phase  out  these  program  activi- 
ties in  such  a  way  as  to  obtain  as  much  technical  information  as  is 
possible  for  future  use.  .  .  .  Every  effort  is  being  made  to  achieve 
the  greatest  possible  benefit  from  the  funds  already  invested."      (Text) 

•  Prof.     Thomas     Gold,     Cornell     Univ.     astronomer,     discussing     RANGER 

VIII  photographs  in  an  interview  with  John  Lear,  World  Book  Ency- 
clopedia Science  Service,  Inc.,  suggested  that  long,  narrow  rills  and 
irregular  depressions  could  be  caused  by  moon's  surface  collapsing 
into  crevasses  opened  by  the  movement  of  a  glacier  hidden  beneath 
lunar  dust.  He  attributed  gently  rounded  shapes  to  a  shifting  of  small 
particles  by  electrical  forces  which,  on  earth,  were  inhibited  by 
atmosphere.  Concerning  the  manned  expedition.  Gold  indicated: 
"The  presence  of  ice  oceans  could  give  rise  to  many  problems.  But 
once  these  were  solved,  the  ice  itself  could  be  mined  and  used  to  make 
hydrogen  for  fuel  for  rockets  returning  to  Earth."  Referring  to  the 
electrically-charged  particles:  "Many  particles  would  be  dislodged  me- 
chanically by  the  landing  of  a  spacecraft  or  the  footstep  of  a 
man.  Once  loose,  the  dust  would  jump  in  response  to  electrical  attrac- 
tion or  repulsion.  If  particles  landed  on  the  astronaut's  visor,  brush- 
ing wouldn't  remove  them  but  would  instead  intensify  the  electrical 
charges  affecting  their  behavior."     Dr.  Gold  recommended  more  re- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  105 

search  on  possible  control  of  these  electrical  forces.  (Lear,  Houston 
Chron.,  3/2/65;  Ind.  Star,  3/7/65;  wbe  Sci.  Serv.) 
March  2:  A  $1,366,511  contract  for  construction  of  a  high  temperature  heat 
load  testing  facility  at  NASA  Flight  Research  Center  was  awarded  to 
Santa  Fe  Engineers,  Inc.  The  facility  would  be  capable  of  producing 
temperatures  up  to  3.000 °F  on  small  isolated  areas  of  aircraft;  larger 
areas  could  be  heated  up  to  about  600°.  Contract  was  awarded  by 
Army  Corps  of  Engineers,  which  was  administering  it  for  NASA,  (frc 
Release  9-65) 

•  A  Sl,260.000  contract  to  build  an  addition  to  Central  Computer  Facility 

at  SHdell,  La.,  had  been  awarded  by  NASA  Marshall  Space  FHght 
Center  to  Quinn  Construction  Co..  New  Orleans,  La.  The  computer 
facility  was  used  to  support  the  Michoud  Operations  in  New  Orleans 
and  tiie  Mississippi  Test  Operations,  Hancock  County,  Miss,  (msfc 
Release  65^8) 

•  In  a  Christian  Science  Monitor  editorial,  Leonard  Schwartz  posed  the 

problem  of  ''how  the  capability  represented  by  manned  orbiting  space 
stations  can  be  used  to  enhance  national  security  and  promote 
peaceful-scientific  uses  of  outer  space."  Schwartz  suggested  formation 
of  an  inspection  agency — International  Space  Patrol — to  neutralize 
military  potential  represented  by  manned  space  stations  and  to  ensure 
usage  of  outer  space  for  peaceful  purposes  only.  He  pointed  out  that 
Vice  President  Humphrey,  one  of  the  first  proponents  of  an  arms  con- 
trol agency  and  an  international  space  agency,  was  now  Chairman  of 
National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Council,  on  which  sat  the  Secretaries 
of  Defense  and  State  and  administrators  of  AEC  and  NASA.  This  posi- 
tion provided  him  with  "an  appropriate  vantage  to  supervise  their 
arms  control  capabilities  in  order  to  reach  a  national  decision  which 
would  reconcile  control  with  security  and  scientific  use  of  outer 
space."  (CSM,  3/2/65,  4) 
March  2-3:  In  testimony  before  the  House  Committee  on  Science  and  As- 
tronautics' Subcommittee  on  Advanced  Research  and  Technology,  Ed- 
mond  C.  Buckley.  Director  of  NASA's  Office  of  Tracking  and  Data  Ac- 
quisition, said  that  during  1965,  data  processing  facilities  would 
handle  70.000.000  data  points  per  day  and  that  there  would  be  an 
increase  to  200.000.000  data  points  per  day  in  1966.  He  continued: 
"In  fiscal  year  1966.  effort  under  this  category  will  be  directed  toward 
developing  and  evaluating  techniques  for  building  up  the  existing  te- 
lemetry data  reduction  capability  to  match  the  increasing  require- 
ments. In  order  to  reduce  this  tremendous  amount  of  data  in  an 
efficient  and  reliable  manner,  new  techniques  must  be  evaluated  for 
obtaining  this  additional  capability. 

"The  heart  of  this  prototype  system  is  the  Satellite  Telemetry  Auto- 
matic Reduction  System  (Stars).  The  development  program  for  this 
system  was  initiated  in  prior  years  and  is  planned  to  continue  through 
fiscal  year  1968.  The  Stars  equipment  presently  includes  automatic 
editing,  decommutation,  and  calibration  of  the  telemetry  data.  Func- 
tions in  addition  to  these  will  be  included  in  the  prototype  equipment 
as  the  developmental  subsystems  become  available.  .  .  ."  (Testi- 
mony; NASA  Auth.  Hearings,  1-87) 


106  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

March  3:  nasa's  pegasus  i  meteoroid-detecting  satellite  recorded  19  wing 
punctures  in  its  3  to  4  million  mi.  travels.  Earth-transmitted  electron- 
ic signals  might  have  been  the  cause  of  several  recorded  hits,  but  some 
were  definitely  meteoroid  particles.  PEGASUS  I  orbited  the  earth  every 
97  min.      (ap.  NYT,  3/4/65,  50;  ap,  Wash.  Post,  3/4/65) 

•  NASA,  at  dod's  request,  had  halted  syncom   ii's  westward   drift  at  68° 

east  longitude  over  the  Indian  Ocean.  Under  the  direction  of  project 
managers  at  nasa's  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center,  the  command  signals 
had  been  sent  from  the  Syncom  station  in  Salisbury,  Australia,  begin- 
ning Feb.  20  and  ending  Feb.  24.  No  future  major  locational  correc- 
tions were  anticipated;  SYNCOM  ii  should  remain  in  same  general  area 
indefinitely,      (nasa  Release  65-72) 

•  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  said  at  a  press  conference  held  in 

conjunction  with  the  NASA  University  Program  Review  Conference  in 
Kansas  City,  Mo.,  that  the  space  research  program  would  cost  $35 
billion  over  a  ten-year  period.  At  the  end  of  that  time,  NASA  expected 
to  have  accomplished  (1)  12  to  15  flights  of  the  Saturn  V,  (2)  5,000 
hrs.  of  astronaut  flight  time,  and  (3)  the  capability  of  lifting  240,000 
lbs.  from  the  earth  and  orbiting  90,000  lbs.  {Kansas  City  Times, 
3/3/65) 

•  Gen,  Bernard  A.  Schriever    (usaf),  addressing  American  Management 

Assn.  conference  in  New  York  City,  announced  recent  approval  and 
initation  of  usaf  Spacecraft  Technology  and  Advanced  Reentry  Tests 
program  (Start),  "a  four-fold  research  spacecraft  program  to  develop 
unmanned  test  vehicles  capable  of  maneuvering  to  a  precision  re- 
covery site  after  reentering  from  orbit."  In  a  Baltimore  Sun  editorial, 
Albert  Sehlstedt,  Jr.,  said  that  the  Martin  Co.  had  designed  for  this 
program  a  new,  wingless  V-shaped  plane,  maneuverable  in  atmosphere 
because  its  shape  would  provide  aerodynamic  lift.  The  program 
would:  (1)  launch  the  sv-5  by  Atlas  booster,  (2)  continue  Asset 
experiments  to  test  vehicles  entering  atmosphere  at  very  high  speeds, 
(3)  study  effects  of  vehicles  passing  through  atmosphere  at  slower 
speeds,  and  (4)  relate  to  allied  studies  that  had  not  yet  led  to  specific 
designs  for  identifiable  reentry  vehicles.  (Text;  AFSC  Release  31.65; 
Sehlstedt,  Bait.  5an,  3/4/65) 

•  Rep.  J.  Edward  Roush   (D-Ind.),  addressing  the  House,  cited  the  1965 

National  Science  Foundation  Report  to  the  House  Subcommittee  on 
Science,  Research  and  Development  of  the  House  Committee  on 
Science  and  Astronautics,  which  pointed  out  the  heavy  concentration 
of  Government  research  contracts  in  New  York,  California,  and 
Massachusetts.  "One-half  of  the  50  states  have  96.78  percent  of  all 
the  funds  listed  for  the  various  States.  The  remaining  3.22  percent  is 
shared  by  the  other  25  states,"  the  report  continued.  Roush  main- 
tained that  more  equitable  distribution  of  Federal  funds  would  alle- 
viate economic  depression  in  many  areas.  {CR,  3/3/65,  3895) 
March  4:  nasa's  oso  ii  satellite,  which  completed  its  first  month  in  orbit 
at  11:36  a.m.  est,  had  circled  earth  419  times  and  daily  returned  about 
7  mi.  of  tape-recorded  data,  NASA  reported.  Designed  to  provide  de- 
tailed information  on  solar  x-rays,  gamma  rays,  and  ultraviolet  rays, 
oso  II  was  functioning  normally  except  for  failure  of  the  Harvard 
College  Observatory  ultraviolet  scanning  spectrometer  and  for  sporadic 
return  of  data  from  the  spectroheliograph  portion  of  Naval  Research 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  107 

Laboratory  coronagraph.  Earlier  problems  with  data  transmissions 
from  GSFC  ultraviolet  spectrometer  had  been  resolved.  (NASA  Release 
65-74) 
March  4:  NASA's  OGO  I  had  received  ground-administered  "shock  treat- 
ments" to  correct  faulty  inverter.  Continued  malfunctioning  of  in- 
verter, which  supplied  power  for  rotation  of  solar  panels  to  maintain 
proper  angle  to  the  sun,  would  have  shortened  OGO  I's  lifetime  for  lack 
of  electric  power.  All  other  systems  were  functioning  normally  ex- 
cept attitude  control.  OGO  I  was  still  spin-stabilized  in  orbit;  ap- 
parently horizon  scanners  were  obscured  by  experiment  boom  only 
partially  deployed.  19  of  the  20  scientific  experiments  were  returning 
usable  scientific  data.      (NASA  Release  65-75) 

•  U.S. -Mexican  agreement  for  operation  of  NASA  tracking  station  at  Guay- 

mas.  Mexico,  had  been  extended  to  1970,  NASA  announced.  The  sta- 
tion would  be  used  to  track  Project  Gemini  and  Project  Apollo.  The 
two  Governments  also  agreed  to  cooperate  on  meteorological  sounding 
programs,      (nasa  Release  65-76) 

•  Milton  B.  Ames,  Jr.,  Director  of  nasa  Space  Vehicle  Research  and  Tech- 

nical Div..  told  the  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics' 
Subcommittee  on  Space  Sciences  and  Applications  that  lightweight, 
flexible  plastic  baffles  had  proved  more  efficient  for  controUing  fuel 
"sloshing"  in  launch  vehicle's  propellant  tanks  than  heavy  metal 
baffles.  He  said  plastic  baffles  could  also  serve  to  prevent  leakage  of 
propellant  gas  used  in  fuel-pumping  during  w'eightlessness.  (Text; 
NASA  Auth.  Hearings,  133-50) 

•  Dr.  Maurice  Goldhaber.  Director  of  AEc's  Brookhaven  (N.Y.)  Laborato- 

ry, testifying  before  a  subcommittee  of  the  Joint  Senate-House  Atomic 
Energy  Committee,  announced  discovery  of  the  "antideuteron,"  largest 
particle  of  antimatter  yet  known  to  be  produced  on  earth.  Antimatter 
consisted  of  various  subatomic  particles  which  could  annihilate  their 
particular  opposite  number  if  they  struck  them.  Goldhaber  later  told 
newsmen  that  scientists  had  reported  observing  occasional  particles  of 
antimatter  running  earthward  from  outer  space.  "It  could  be  that 
somewhere  else  in  the  universe  there  is  an  'anticosmos'  that  occasional- 
ly leaks  particles  to  the  earth."  (ap,  Louisville  Courier-Journal, 
3/4/65) 

•  Basing  his  judgment  on  successful  Feb.  27  firing  of  Thiokol's   156-in. 

solid  propellant  rocket  motor,  Harold  W.  Ritchey,  President  of  Thiokol 
Chemical  Corp.,  predicted  U.S.  could  produce  within  30  months  a  flya- 
ble  rocket  capable  of  generating  7  million  lbs.  of  thrust.  Brig.  Gen. 
Joseph  J.  Bleymaier  (USAF),  Deputy  Commander  (Manned  Systems) 
of  USAF  Space  Systems  Div.,  commented:  ".  .  .  this  firing  provides  us 
with  final  proof  that  we  can  configure  an  all-sohd  space  booster  of 
tremendous  capability  when  the  requirement  presents  itself."  (Appel, 
NYT,  3/5/65) 

•  Senate  passed  House-passed  bill  designating  March  16  of  each  year  as  Dr. 

Robert  Hutchings  Goddard  Day.      iCR,  3/4/65,  4009,  4010) 

•  Firefly,  a  new  life  detection  instrument  containing  an  extract  of  common 

firefly's  lamp,  had  been  developed  by  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight 
Center  to  help  determine  how  far  out  and  how  much  life  existed  in 
earth's  atmosphere.  This  information  would  be  essential  to  prevent 
contamination    of    sterilized    probes    enroute    through    earth's    atmo- 


108  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

sphere.  Firefly,  containing  luciferin.  luciferase,  and  oxygen,  would 
glow  whenever  it  encountered  adenosine  triphosphate,  a  chemical  es- 
sential to  all  life  known  on  earth.  Report  of  any  encounter  with  live 
microorganisms  would  be  immediate,  precluding  need  for  recovering 
detector,  (gsfc  Release  G-5-65) 
March  4:  Columbia.  Harvard,  and  Yale  Universities'  medical  libraries, 
aided  by  a  National  Science  Foundation  grant,  were  linked  by  a  net- 
work of  computers  and  telephone  lines,  thereby  giving  students  instant 
access  to  medical  literature  in  all  collections.  Frederick  G.  Kilgour, 
Yale  medical  librarian,  foresaw  elimination  of  duplicate  material  when 
telecommunication  and  photographic  reproducing  devices  were  added 
to  the  network.  Pages  from  a  book  in  one  city  could  be  furnished 
to  student  in  another  city  and  even  reproduced  for  him  to  check  out. 

(Phillips,  yvyr,  3/5/65,  i) 

March  5:  NASA's  mariner  iv  spacecraft,  at  8:02  a.m.,  est,  automatically 
switched  from  its  omnidirectional  antenna  to  fixed  narrow  beam  anten- 
na to  communicate  with  earth,  thereby  becoming  radio-ready  for  the 
remaining  130  days  of  its  Mars  flight.  JPL  received  report  from 
tracking  station  at  Canberra,  Australia,  of  a  prompt  increase  in  signal 
strength,      (nasa  Release  65-78) 

•  NASA  Aerobee  150  sounding  rocket  launched  from  White  Sands,  N.  Mex., 

went  to  a  peak  altitude  of  188.5  km.  (117  mi.).  Primary  experimen- 
tal objective  was  to  study  the  group  of  stars  of  Orion  in  the 
ultraviolet.  Because  of  a  failure  with  the  attitude  control  system  the 
experiment  had  no  chance  to  operate.  Experiment  instrumentation 
was  provided  by  Princeton  Univ.  Observatory,      (nasa  Rpt.  srl) 

•  In   summary  of  activities   of  the  NASA   Office  of  Lunar   and   Planetary 

Programs  in  testimony  before  the  House  Committee  on  Science  and 
Astronautics'  Subcommittee  on  Space  Sciences  and  Applications,  Dr. 
Homer  E.  Newell,  NASA  Associate  Administrator  for  Space  Science  and 
Applications,  said:  "The  Ranger  pictures  represent  our  major  scientific 
achievement  in  1964.  In  addition  to  their  direct  value  as  new  infor- 
mation, the  subtle  significance  of  these  pictures  toward  increasing  the 
value  of  other  astronomical  data  is  perhaps  worthy  of  mention,  as  it 
may  not  be  recognized  generally.  It  is  interesting  to  note  how  the 
information  presented  in  the  high  resolution  Ranger  pictures  has  sent 
scientists  scurrying  back  to  the  files  of  photographic  plates  taken  years 
before  to  discover  features  which  have  remained  unnoticed  throughout 
the  years.  Some  new  interpretations  of  long  recognized  features  have 
also  been  made  possible  by  the  close-up  look  obtained  by 
Ranger."      (Testimony;   NASA  Auth.  Hearings,  56-111) 

•  At  a  House  Science  and  Astronautics  Committee  budget  hearing  at  NASA 

Manned  Spacecraft  Center,  Rep.  Olin  Teague  (D-Tex.)  said  he 
thought  U.S.  had  about  a  50-50  chance  of  landing  a  man  on  the  moon 
by  1970  "if  we  get  the  money  for  our  space  team."  Teague  felt  that 
America  was  ahead  of  Russia  in  development  of  scientific  programs  in 
space,  but  Russia  was  ahead  in  development  of  large  boosters.  Rep. 
Robert  Casey  (D-Tex.)  stressed  that  the  program  would  be  considered 
a  success  even  if  1970  schedules  were  not  met.  Rep.  George  Miller 
(D-Calif.),  Chairman  of  House  Science  and  Astronautics  Committee, 
said  that  in  50  to  100  years,  "people  won't  care  if  we  made  it  in  this 
decade,  if  the  program  itself  is  successful."     Dr.  Robert  R.  Gilruth, 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  109 

MSC  Director,  said  that  the  Apollo  and  Gemini  spacecraft  would  not  be 
limited  to  manned  space  program  but  also  would  be  useful  in  other 
scientific  programs.  Teague  expressed  his  disappointment  at  the  mili- 
tary's failure  to  make  greater  use  of  NASA-developed  spacecraft  and 
boosters.  He  predicted  that  both  Gemini  and  Apollo  would  be  used 
some  day  as  weapon  carriers.  (Maloney,  Houston  Post,  3/6/65) 
March  5:  NASA  had  awarded  one-year,  cost-plus-incentive-award  fee  con- 
tracts to  nine  firms  for  engineering,  fabrication,  and  institutional  sup- 
port services  to  six  laboratories  and  three  offices  of  Marshall  Space 
Flight  Center.  Cost  of  work  was  estimated  at  $58.5  million  for  one 
year  and  was  primarily  in  support  of  the  Saturn/Apollo  launch  vehicle 
program.  The  firms  were  Sperry  Rand  Corp.,  Brown  Engineering 
Corp.,  Vitro  Corp.,  Hayes  International  Corp.,  Northrop  Corp.,  Spaco, 
Rust  Engineering  Co.,  RCA  Service  Co.,  and  Management  Services, 
Inc.      (NASA  Release  65-77;  msfc  Release) 

•  USAF  launched  a  Titan  I  ICBM  from  Vandenberg  afb,  Calif.,  as  one  of  a 

series  of  tests  to  determine  compatibility  of  the  missile  with  various 
payloads.     (ap,  NYT,  3/6/65,  9;  M&R,  3/15/65,  11) 

•  General  Dynamics  Corp.'s  F-111  fighter  jet  broke  the  sound  barrier  for 

the  first  time  in  a  1  hr.  32  min.  flight  test.  Afterward,  in  quick-stop 
braking  test,  both  tires  in  main  landing  gear  blew  out.  (ap,  NYT, 
3/6 /65';  11) 

•  Dr.  Clyde  W.  Tombaugh  of  the  New  Mexico  State  Univ.  Research  Center 

was  quoted  in  an  editorial  in  the  Kansas  City  Times  as  saying  that  the 
"canals"  seen  on  Mars  through  telescopes  were  fractures  of  the  planet's 
crust.  He  said:  "The  origin  may  be  due  to  asteroids  impacting  on  the 
surface,  much  as  what  happens  when  a  stone  hits  the  windshield  of  a 
car.  I  think  I  have  the  right  answer.  .  .  ."  (McCoy,  Kansas  City 
Times,  3/5/65) 

•  West  Germany  was  waging  vigorous  campaign  by  letter,  circular,  and 

word-of-mouth  to  persuade  German  technicians  to  leave  their  jobs  in 
Egyptian  aircraft  and  rocket  industry.  The  campaign  could  be  result 
of  recent  arrests  in  Cairo  of  several  West  German  citizens  on  espio- 
nage charges.      { Olson,  NYT,  3/6/65,  7 ) 

•  Fred  P.  Strother,  in  charge  of  requirements  for  Boy  Scout  merit  badges, 

announced  that  details  of  a  space  exploration  merit  badge  were  being 
worked  out  with  nasa.     ( NYT,  3/6/65,  27 ) 

March  6:  John  W.  Findlay,  Deputy  Director  at  the  National  Radio  As- 
tronomy Observatory.  Green  Bank,  W.  Va.,  had  been  named  Director 
of  Arecibo  Ionospheric  Observatory  in  Puerto  Rico  for  a  one-year 
term  beginning  in  the  fall.  He  would  succeed  William  E. 
Gordon.     (A^yr,  3/7/65,  75) 

March  7:  cosmos  lix  satellite,  containing  "scientific  apparatus,"  was  or- 
bited by  the  U.S.S.R.  Initial  orbital  data:  apogee,  339  km.  (210.9 
mi.);  perigee,  209  km.  (129.6  mi.);  period,  89.7  min.;  inclination, 
65°.  Equipment  was  said  to  be  functioning  normally.  (Krasnaya 
Zvezda,  3/9/65,  1,  atss-t  Trans.  I 

•  Commercial  aviation's  first  nonstop  crossing  of  the  Pacific  was  made  by 

Qantas  Airlines  Boeing  707:  San  Francisco  to  Sydney  in  14  hrs..  33 
min.      (Wash.  Daily  News,  3/8/65) 

•  DMS,  Inc.,  aerospace  market  intelligence  operation  that  published  annual 

analysis  of  DOD  and  NASA  budget  requests  submitted  to  Congress,  fore- 


110  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

cast  a  S106.57  billion  market  for  the  aerospace  industry  from 
1966-1970,  an  increase  of  13/f  for  the  five-year  period,  dms  pre- 
ferred this  "generally  favorable  market  climate,"  to  the  "glorified  ma- 
jor growth  period  of  fiscal  1962-1964,  when  Government  spending 
skyrocketed,  inevitably  producing  an  influx  of  hopeful  though  unusual- 
ly ill-equipped  competitors,  followed  by  over-capacity  as  the  market 
tapered  off.  and  finally  a  retrenchment  still  under  way."  (NYT, 
3/7/65) 
March  7:  A  "Dictionary  of  Scientific  Biography"  containing  essays  on 
careers  of  scientists  and  mathematicians  would  be  published  by 
Scribner  with  a  National  Science  Foundation  grant  of  more  than 
S250,000.  Dr.  Charles  C.  Gillispie,  Princeton  professor  of  History  of 
Science,  had  been  named  Editor-in-Chief.  (NYT,  3/7/65,  Book  Re- 
view Sec,  8) 

•  Professor  Fred  Hoyle,  British  astronomer,  might  accept  U.S.  position  if 

U.K.  Department  of  Scientific  and  Industrial  Research  determined  not 
to  build  new  Institute  of  Theoretical  Astronomy  which  would  house  an 
American  computer  essential  to  his  work.  Hoyle  complained  last  year 
that  he  had  been  prevented  from  using  the  only  American-built  com- 
puter in  Britain  that  would  do  his  work  properly.  (Feron,  ISYT, 
3/8/65,  9;  Wash.  Post,  3/9/65) 

Week  of  March  7:  Drop  tests  at  North  American  Aviation's  Downey, 
Calif.,  plant  demonstrated  that  substructure  of  Apollo  spacecraft  could 
withstand  maximum  Apollo  water-landing  conditions.  A  series  of  18 
more  drop  tests  was  planned.      (M&R,  3/15/65,  7) 

March  8:  In  first  Pacific  Ocean  sounding  rocket  experiment  from  NASA's 
Mobile  Range  Facility,  two  two-stage  Nike-Apaches  were  launched 
from  USNS  Croalan  about  one  mile  north  of  the  equator  at  84°  west 
longitude.  Conducted  by  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center,  the  mis- 
sion of  first  rocket  was  to  measure  ionospheric  currents  and  magnetic 
fields  in  "equatorial  electrojet,"  a  system  of  electrical  current  circulat- 
ing in  ionosphere  in  the  region  of  magnetic  equator  which  could  be 
responsible  for  intensifying  equatorial  magnetic  field  at  about  local 
noon.  Second  Nike-Apache,  conducting  an  experiment  for  Univ.  of 
Michigan,  was  launched  about  2  hrs.  later  carrying  Pitot-static  probe 
to  measure  pressure,  temperature,  and  density  in  the  region  of  20  to  75 
mi.  altitude.  (NASA  Release  65-82;  Wallops  Release  65-12;  NASA 
Rpts.  srl) 

•  The    countdown    rehearsal    for    the    Gemini     (GT-3)     flight,    conducted 

at  Cape  Kennedy,  was  delayed  two  hours  because  of  (1)  a  propel- 
lant  leak  in  Titan  ii  rocket,  (2)  crossed  wires  in  ground  support 
equipment,  (3)  failure  of  some  of  the  batteries  to  reach  peak  power 
immediately,  and  (4)  faulty  reading  in  control  center.  Project  Gemi- 
ni officials  said  none  of  these  problems  had  been  serious,  but  the  com- 
bination would  have  caused  a  postponement  on  launch  day.  {NYT, 
3/9/65;  /V.y.  Her.  Trib.,  3/9/65;  Bait.  Sun,  3/9/65) 

•  In   testimony   before  the   Senate  Committee   on    Aeronautical   and   Space 

Sciences,  on  "the  status,  management,  and  prospects  of  the  aeronauti- 
cal and  space  program,"  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  said: 
"The  progress  during  this  period  in  the  space  program  has  been  made 
possible  by  the  cooperative  efforts  of  many  organizations  and 
people.     Ninety-four  per  cent  of  our  work   during   Fiscal   Year   1964 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  HI 

was  conducted  by  American  industry  and  involved  a  total  of  about 
380,000  people  in  industry,  universities,  research  institutes,  and  gov- 
ernment installations.  Almost  250.000  separate  procurement  transac- 
tions were  initiated  during  this  time. 

".  .  .  the  past  year  saw  the  continued  strengthening  of  the  coordi- 
nation and  the  mutual  support  between  NASA  and  the  DOD  in  space  and 
aeronautics.  The  Aeronautics  and  Astronautics  Coordinating  Board 
has  continued  to  be  an  effective  medium  for  formal  coordi- 
nation. During  1964  NASA  and  the  DOD  developed  procedures  for  the 
coordination  of  the  space  science  programs;  a  national  program  in 
satellite  geodesy  was  established  by  the  DOD,  NASA,  and  the  Department 
of  Commerce:  a  standardized  basis  for  reporting  space  and  aeronau- 
tical sciences  research  and  technology  information  has  been  adopted;  a 
joint  NASA-DOD  study  was  conducted  to  determine  the  launch  vehicles 
needed  to  meet  projected  requirements  during  the  next  decade;  a  joint 
study  was  conducted  of  the  current  and  planned  lifting  reentry  vehicle 
research  and  development  programs;  the  needs  of  NASA,  the  Air  Force, 
and  the  Federal  Aviation  Agency  were  incorporated  into  an  expanded 
flight  research  program  utilizing  the  XB-70  aircraft  to  confirm  theoret- 
ical and  wind  tunnel  data  on  supersonic  flight  vehicles. 

"AH  of  this.  Mr.  Chairman,  of  course,  is  under  an  umbrella  of  poli- 
cy followed  closely  by  the  [National  Aeronautics  and]  Space  Coun- 
cil. ..." 

Commenting  on  the  Soviet  space  program,  Webb  said:  "Our  rapid 
rate  of  advance  and  the  success  we  have  achieved  already  has,  we 
believe,  denied  the  USSR  many  of  the  benefits  and  many  of  the  options 
which  the  Soviets  expected  their  space  program  to  provide  as  a  part  of 
their  forward  thrust  toward  world  domination.  However,  there  is 
every  evidence,  on  the  basis  of  their  activity  during  the  past  three 
years,  that  the  Russians  intend  to  maintain  a  vigorous  effort  in  space, 
and.  in  fact,  that  their  activities  may  be  further  increased.  During 
1963  and  1964  more  Soviet  spacecraft  were  put  in  earth  orbit  or  deep 
space  than  in  the  six  previous  years  combined.  The  number  placed  in 
orbit  last  year  was  double  that  of  the  year  before.  .  .  ."  (Testimony; 
NASA  Auth.  Hearings,  13-50) 
March  8:  NASA  Deputy  Administrator  Dr.  Hugh  L.  Dry  den  reported  on  the 
status  of  NASA  cooperation  with  the  Soviet  Union  in  testimony  before 
the  Senate  Committee  on  Aeronautical  and  Space  Sciences:  "Let  me 
review  where  we  stand.  Of  three  projects  agreed  to  in  1962,  the  only 
one  completed  is  that  which  involved  communications  tests  with  Echo 
II.  .  .  . 

"The  second  project — joint  mapping  of  the  geomagnetic  field — is  at 
the  stage  of  exchanging  ground-based  magnetic  observations  ...  we 
are  now  acquiring  data  that  was  not  previously  available  in  the  United 
States.  .  .  . 

"In  the  third  project — for  the  coordination  of  meteorological  satel- 
lite launchings  and  the  establishment  of  a  link  for  exchange  of  data — 
our  prime  purpose  was  and  remains  a  sharing  of  the  cost  of  providing 
weather  satellite  service  and  the  exchange  of  satellite  data.  ...  we 
are  .  .  .  exchanging  conventional  data  over  the  link,  which  ...  is 
financed  on  a  50-50  basis.  I  look  forward  for  a  meeting  soon  with 
Academician  Blagonravov  which  will  afford  opportunity  to  review  this 


112  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

exchange  and  the  prospects  of  satellite  data  exchange.  ...  a  recent 
check  shows  the  U.S.  sending  surface  data  for  more  stations  than  it 
receives  but  receiving  upper  air  data  for  more  stations  than  it 
sends.  In  sum,  the  present  exchange  is  considered  by  the  Weather 
Bureau  to  improve  the  quality  of  forecasts  by  our  national  weather 
services  since  it  makes  more  data  available  in  time  for  such  forecasts 
than  was  the  case  prior  to  establishment  of  the  link."  (Testimony; 
NASA  Auth.  Hearings,  50-76) 
March  8:  NASA  Associate  Administrator  Dr.  Robert  C.  Seamans,  Jr.,  dis- 
cussing the  management  of  NASA's  aeronautics  and  space  effort  before 
the  Senate  Committee  on  Aeronautical  and  Space  Sciences,  said: 
".  .  .  our  performance  in  terms  of  data  returned  is  perhaps  the  most 
succinct  evidence  of  success.  The  volume  of  information  brought 
back  from  space  in  1964  averaged  57  million  data  points  per  day  in 
comparison  with  a  previous  high  of  some  6  million  data  points  per 
day.  This  indicates  not  only  more  advanced  instrumentation  but  also 
more  reliable  functioning  of  flight  experiments.  We  averaged  54 
working  experiments  throughout  1964,  which  represents  an  improve- 
ment of  35%  over  the  1963  average. 

"We  have  achieved  significant  results  in  ground  based  experimenta- 
tion, testing,  aeronautical  flights,  and  sounding  rocket 
launchings.  Work  conducted  in  our  wind  tunnels  continues  to  refine 
aircraft  configurations  for  vertical  takeoff  and  landing,  supersonic 
transportation,  and  hypersonic  flight.  We  are  continuing  to  experi- 
ment with  materials,  fuels,  turbines,  injectors,  and  nozzles  in  order  to 
improve  the  efficiency  of  air-breathing  and  rocket  propulsion 
systems.  The  3  successful  power  tests  of  the  Kiwi  reactor  demon- 
strated the  applicability  of  nuclear  energy  to  rocket  propulsion.  In 
1964  we  conducted  27  more  flights  of  the  X-15  aircraft,  19  of  them 
over  Mach  5,  amassing  data  important  to  supersonic  and  hypersonic 
flight.  In  addition,  we  launched  131  successful  sounding  rockets  from 
stations  around  the  world  to  test  new  instrumentation  and  to  obtain 
important  scientific  data  in  geophysics,  astronomy,  and  meteorolo- 
gy. In  the  areas  of  manned  space  flight,  the  Apollo  escape  system  has 
been  successfully  tested,  and  a  boilerplate  spacecraft  checked  out  and 
flown  on  the  Saturn  I.  A  mock-up  of  the  lunar  excursion  module  has 
been  approved.  The  Saturn  IB  and  Saturn  V  'battleship'  upper 
stages  have  been  successfully  fired.  The  F-1  engine  has  passed  its 
flight  rating  test.  This  record  was  established  by  the  hard  work  and 
careful  attention  to  detail  of  the  government-industry-university  team 
charged  with  aeronautic  and  space  exploration.  This  total  team,  num- 
bering 380,000  people,  is  managed  by  the  relatively  small  hard  core 
NASA  organization  of  less  than  34.000."  (Testimony;  NASA  Auth. 
Hearings,  76-114) 

•  Gemini  astronaut  parachute  system  was  successfully  tested  in  drops  from 

a  c-130  at  15,000  ft.  altitude  by  USN  Chief  Warrant  Officer  Mitch 
Kanowski  and  usaf  Maj.  Dan  Fulgham  over  the  Naval  Air  Facility  El 
Centro.  Parachutes  deployed  at  9,000  ft.  as  they  would  on  actual 
Gemini  missions.  Additional  tests  would  be  made  in  drops  from  alti- 
tudes up  to  35,000  ft.      ( Miles.  L.A.  Times,  3/9/65) 

•  U.S.S.R.'s    ZOND    II    would    pass    within    9(J0   mi.    of   Mars    on    Aug.    6, 

according  to  Soviet  space  scientist  Prof.  Mstislav  Keldysh.     This  an- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  113 

nouncement  was  relayed  by  Dr.  Charles  S.  Sheldon  of  the  National 
Aeronautics  and  Space  Council,  who  quoted  Keldysh  as  saying  ZOND 
II  weighed  about  2.000  lbs.  Dr.  Sheldon  speculated  that  the  probe's 
considerable  weight — four  times  more  than  MARINER  iv — could  mean 
'"it  mav  be  doing  something  more  than  a  simple  fly-by"  of 
Mars.  '(UPI,  Denver,  Post  3  10  65:  UPi,  A'iT,  3/11  65,  42) 
March  8:  According  to  Missiles  and  Rockets,  Dr.  Joseph  Shea,  director  of 
Apollo  spacecraft  program  at  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center,  said 
Apollo  spacecraft  was  having  no  weight  problems.  He  explained  that 
the  current  weight  of  89,000  lbs.  was  under  90,000  lbs.  goal  and  there 
was  room  for  additional  growth  since  Saturn  V  booster  had  increased 
estimated  payload  capability  to  95.000  lbs.  Weight  of  Lem  was  in- 
creasing in  early  development  stage,  but  new  evaluation  stemming  from 
NASA  decision  to  make  it  as  safe  in  terms  of  redundancy  as  command 
and  service  modules,  could  raise  weight  from  29,500  lbs.  to  32,000 
lbs.  Shea  commented  that  a  stable  baffled  injector  had  been  selected 
for  service  module's  propulsion  system  and  it  was  currently  undergo- 
ing qualification  test  series.  Recent  tests  of  heatshield  in  reentry  tests 
with  Scout  (Aug.  18,  1964 »  achieved  high  total  heat  of  250  Btu's  per 
square  foot — about  80 /V  of  the  heat  expected  to  be  encountered  during 
return  from  moon.      iM&R,  3  8/65,  14) 

•  NASA  had  decided  to  replace  Lem's  fuel-cell  power  subsystem  with  a  more 

conventional  battery  system.  Missiles  and  Rockets  reported.  Motiva- 
tion was  concern  for  reliability.  Decision  would  not  affect  use  of  fuel 
cell  in  the  Apollo  command  module.      (M&R,  3/8/65,   14) 

•  In  a  letter-to-the-editor  in  Missiles  and  Rockets,  Thomas  M.  Morse  said 

that  since  there  were  no  indications  that  the  Russians  were  building  a 
bigger  booster  for  their  lunar  program,  they  might  be  planning  to  use 
a  libration  orbit  to  reach  the  moon.  He  described  the  libration  orbit 
as  an  almost  stable  earth  orbit  in  which  a  spacecraft  would  always  be 
on  a  direct  line  between  earth  and  moon,  about  33,000  mi.  from  the 
moon.  Advantages  offered  over  the  U.S. -planned  lunar  orbit  included 
easier  rendezvous:  pre-parking  of  unmanned  freight,  shielding,  and 
modules:  unlimited  rendezvous  and  liftoff  windows;  continuous  line- 
of-sight  communications  between  earth,  rendezvous  craft,  and  lunar 
landing  crew;  better  radiation  protection;  improved  safety  factor;  re- 
duced cost.     iM&R,  3/8/65,  6) 

•  California's  Gov.   Edmund  G.   Brown,  in  his  second  Annual  Economic 

Report  to  the  legislature,  warned  that  new  cutbacks  in  defense  and  aero- 
space spending  could  dilute  "the  reservoir  of  scientific  brainpower  and 
skilled  manpower  that  has  made  California  the  leader  in  the  space 
age."  Brown  said  that  200,000  new  jobs  a  year  would  have  to  be 
created  and  that  the  state  had  already  contracted  with  aerospace  firms 
for  studies  that  might  provide  solutions  "in  transferring  manpower 
from  defense  and  aerospace  production  to  other  areas.''  (ap,  L.A. 
Herald-Examiner,  3  8/65  I 

•  France  announced  successful  launching  in  the  Sahara  of  the  Emeraude 

stage  of  the  Diamant  booster.   (M&R,  3/15/65,  11) 
March  8-9:  President  Johnson's  proposal  to  cut  Federal  subsidies  to  heU- 
copter  carriers  in  New  York,  Los  Angeles,  and  Chicago  by  Dec,  31, 
was  opposed  by  the  cab,  who  suggested  continuation  of  Federal  subsi- 


114  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

dies  on  declining  basis  until  1970.  Sen.  A.  S.  Mike  Monroney 
iD-Okla.),  Chairman  of  the  Senate  Aviation  Subcommittee  investigat- 
ing ways  to  keep  helicopter  lines  alive,  suggested  increased  support 
from  major  airlines  as  possible  alternative  to  Federal  aid.  Stuart  G. 
Tipton,  President  of  Air  Transport  Association  which  represented  al- 
most every  scheduled  U.S.  airline,  testified  that  helicopter  lines  re- 
ceived about  SI  million  a  year  in  indirect  support  and  that  "as  a 
matter  of  principle,  this  is  as  far  as  the  airlines  should  go  or  be 
expected  to  go."  He  added  that  experience  and  advances  in  helicop- 
ters and  poor-weather  landing  equipment  were  about  to  make  helicop- 
ters potentially  profitable  in  all  large  cities.  Withdrawal  of  Federal 
support  now  would  be  disastrous.  (Clark.  NYT,  3 '9/65;  Clark.  NYT, 
3/10/65,  69) 

March  8-12:  "Efficiency  and  Perfection  through  People"  was  objective  of 
AFSc's  Internal  Zero  Defects  Program  which  encouraged  people  to  "set 
their  own  immediate  goals  and  devise  measurement  techniques."  Re- 
sults of  the  program  would  be  analyzed  and  recognition  awards  would 
be  given  to  individuals  making  significant  achievements.  ( AFSC  Re- 
lease 19.65;  CR,  A1315-A1318) 

March  9:  Thor-Agena  D  launched  from  Vandenberg  afb  orbited  eight  mili- 
tary satellites,  the  most  in  any  single  launch  to  date.  Two  satellites 
would  measure  solar  radiation  (greb  vi  and  solrad)  ;  two  would  test 
stabilization  methods  for  future  spacecraft  (ggse  ii  and  GGSE  ill)  ; 
one  would  be  used  in  geodesy  (SECOR  ill)  ;  two  would  help  calibrate 
satellite  tracking  networks  (surcal  satellites)  ;  and  one  would  transmit 
radio  broadcasts  for  ham  operators  (oscar  hi  ) . 

OSCAR  III  would  transmit  signals  from  25  amateur  radio  channels 
over  a  4.000-mi.  radius  and  was  being  tracked  by  ham  radio  operators 
at  Foothill  Jr.  College,  Calif.  Amateur  tracking  stations  in  30  foreign 
countries  were  informally  participating  in  the  project.  (  U.S.  Aeron.  & 
Space  Act.,  1965,  135-36;  gsfc  SSR,  4/15/65;  Clark.  NYT,  5/19/65; 
Wash.  Post,  5/20/65,  A12;  ap,  Omaha  Eve.  World-Herald,  3/10/65) 

•  Gemini  astronaut  parachute  system  for  use  in  launch  emergency  failed 

to  function  properly  during  test  at  El  Centro,  Calif.  When  the  jumper 
stepped  from  a  c-130  aircraft  at  23,000-ft.  altitude,  a  "ballute"  (com- 
bination balloon  and  parachute )  device  for  stabilizing  the  fall  failed 
to  deploy;  the  chute  was  opened  manually  at  12.000  ft.  (UPI, 
Minneapolis  Trih.,  3/10/65) 

•  In  testimony  on  NASA  lunar  and  planetary  programs  before  the  House 

Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics'  Subcommittee  on  Space 
Sciences  and  Applications,  NASA  Associate  Administrator  Dr.  Homer  E. 
Newell  said:  "The  Surveyor  program  to  date  has  accomplished  a 
number  of  significant  advanced  developments  that  have  found  or  will 
find  their  way  into  other  programs. 

"The  closed  loop  automatic  landing  system  has  other  potential  space 
and  terrestrial  applications. 

"The  planar-array  high  gain  antenna  has  several  significant  advan- 
tages over  the  usual  parabolic  dish. 

"The  doppler  and  altimeter  radars  represent  a  significant  advance  in 
technology  and  have  been  adopted  by  the  Apollo  Lunar  Excursion 
Module. 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  115 

"The  throttlable  high  performance  vernier  engines,  which  have  an 
almost  unlimited  operating  lifetime,  represent  another  significant  step 
forward. 

"The  high  performance  spherical  main  retro  rocket  has  appreciably 
advanced  the  state  of  the  art.  Several  launch  vehicle  programs  are 
interested  in  this  motor  as  a  high-energy  upper  stage. 

"The  Surveyor  landing  gear  design  represents  a  new  high  in 
efficiency  of  impact  energy  absorption. 

"Many  of  the  miniaturized  geophysical  instruments  developed  for 
Surveyor  mav  have  terrestrial  applications."  (Testimony;  NASA 
Auth.  Hearings,  243ff) 
March  9:  World's  longest  antenna  had  been  stretched  on  the  top  of  the 
Antarctic  icecap  to  study  radio  conditions  in  space  beyond  the  earth, 
the  National  Science  Foundation  reported.  The  antenna  was  a  21-mi., 
plastic-coated,  %-in.  copper  cable  that  radiated  low  frequency  waves 
that  traveled  far  out  into  space  along  a  line  of  force  in  the  earth's 
magnetic  field.  The  waves  followed  the  line  of  force  as  it  curved  back 
toward  the  earth  in  the  opposite  hemisphere,      (upi,  ISYT,  3/10/65) 

•  Rep.  Westen  E.  Vivian  (D-Mich.)  told  the  House  Committee  on  Science 

and  Astronautics'  Subcommittee  on  Space  Science  and  Applications 
that  he  intended  to  request  adoption  of  a  policy  to  award  one  half  of 
all  NASA  Phase  lA  contracts  to  companies  in  areas  presently  receiving 
less  than  one  half  of  NASA  business.  Chairman  Joseph  E.  Karth  CD- 
Minn.  )  said  that  although  fiscal  expedience  demanded  that  procure- 
ment contracts  go  to  industralized  areas,  geographic  distribution  should 
be  seriously  considered  in  the  allocation  of  research  and  development 
funds.  He  said  the  Subcommittee  would  consider  Vivian's  proposal. 
(Transcript,  3/9/65) 

•  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  hosted  group  of  61  Navy,  Air  Force, 

and  civilian  personnel  from  Navy  Field  Office  for  Manned  Orbiting 
Laboratory  at  Los  Angeles.  The  group  received  briefings  on  Apollo 
and  Saturn  programs  and  saw  facilities  at  Marshall.  They  had  previ- 
ously visited  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  and  were  scheduled 
to  tour  NASA  Kennedy  Space  Center.      ( MSFC  Release  65-52) 

•  A  job  classification  dispute  at  the  Chrysler  facility  of  the  Michoud  Sat- 

urn plant  in  New  Orleans  caused  over  200  United  Auto  Workers 
(UAW)  to  walk  off  the  job.  Chrysler  was  responsible  for  developing 
first  stage  of  Saturn  IB  rocket  for  NASA.      (UPi,  Wash.  Post,  3/10/65) 

•  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  awarded  $1,059,000  contract  to  Ae- 

tron,  a  division  of  Aerojet-General  Corp.,  for  installation  of  equipment 
on  a  Saturn  V  second-stage  test  stand  at  Mississippi  Test  Operations. 
Equipment  would  include  consoles  to  check  out  systems  on  the  flight 
stages  being  tested  as  well  as  in  the  area's  test  control  center.  (MSFC 
Release  65-53 ) 

•  Prompted  by   results  of  the  experiments  of  Dr.   Frank   A.   Brown,  Jr., 

Northwestern  Univ.  biology  professor,  NASA  and  Northwestern  Univ. 
scientists  were  studying  a  plan  to  orbit  a  potato  around  the  sun  in  an 
attempt  to  prove  whether  man  could  survive  in  long  trips  in 
space.  Dr.  Brown  had  concluded  that  rhythmic  patterns  of  wakeful- 
ness and  sleep,  glandular  activity,  cellular  respiration,  and  all  other 
biological  cycles  of  most  live  organisms  were  timed  by  biological 
clocks   outside  the   organism,   not  inside.     The   three   primary   forces 


116  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

were  day-night  changes  and  temperature,  atmospheric,  and  pressure 
fluctuations. 

For  ten  years,  Brown  had  kept  potato  tubers  under  constant  pressure 
and  temperature  and  in  constantly  dim  light,  yet  they  continued  to 
fluctuate  at  same  rate  and  time  as  potatoes  planted  in  IlUnois  and 
they  detected  atmospheric  pressure  changes.  Brown  concluded  that 
"something  is  getting  thru  to  the  isolated  potatoes  to  tell  them  what  the 
weather  is  outside.  It  could  be  the  earth's  magnetic  or  electric  fields 
or  radiation,  since  they  all  observe  a  24-hour  pattern  geared  to  the 
rising  and  setting  sun,  but  we  are  not  sure. 

".  .  .  biological  clocks  are  necessary  to  keep  a  living  system  a  coor- 
dinate, Hving,  functioning  whole.  If  the  clocks  are  stopped,  the  orga- 
nism may  go  beserk  and  die."  If  the  orbiting  potato  were  to  die 
within  90  days,  it  would  indicate  that  a  24-hour  rhythm  was 
vital.  (Kotulak,  Chic.  Trib.,  3/9/65) 
March  10:  A  dummy  model  of  the  Gemini  spacecraft,  dropped  from  11,000 
ft.  altitude  by  a  c-119  aircraft,  parachuted  into  the  Atlantic  Ocean 
and  was  recovered  by  three  usaf  pararescue  men.  This  was  a  practice 
mission  in  case  Astronauts  Virgil  I.  Grissom  (USAF)  and  John  W. 
Young  (usn)  had  to  abort  their  GT-3  flight  during  the  launching 
phase.      (AP,  Or/.  Se/r^.,  3/11/65) 

•  Reviewing  nasa's  activities  in  manned  space  flight  in  the  last  year.  Dr. 

George  E.  Mueller,  NASA  Associate  Administrator  for  Manned  Space 
Flight,  testified  before  the  Senate  Committee  on  Aeronautical  and 
Space  Sciences:  "It  is  a  pleasure  to  report  that  .  .  .  there  has  been 
substantial  progress  in  the  development  and  testing  of  flight  vehicles 
and  earth-based  facilities,  in  the  nearly  complete  marshalling  of  the 
government-industry  manned  space  flight  team,  and  in  the  consoli- 
dation of  firm  program-wide  management. 

"During  the  past  year,  the  Gemini  Program  has  advanced  to  the 
point  that  we  are  ready  for  manned  flight  operations.  The  Apollo 
Program  is  entering  a  year  of  comprehensive  development  testing  of 
major  systems  prior  to  the  'all-up'  unmanned  earth-orbital  flights, 
which  will  begin  in  1966.  And  our  study  of  advanced  manned  mis- 
sions has  established  that  it  is  feasible  to  return  dividends  from  the 
current  investment  by  applying  the  wide  range  of  Apollo  capabilities 
to  a  number  of  other  potential  missions."  (Testimony;  NASA  Auth. 
Hearings,  143ff) 

•  Harold  B.  Finger,  Director  of  NASA  Nuclear  Systems  and  Space  Power 

and  Manager  of  the  AEC-NASA  Space  Nuclear  Propulsion  Office,  dis- 
cussed NASA's  electric  thrustor  program  in  testimony  before  the  House 
Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics'  Subcommittee  on  Advanced 
Research  and  Technology:  "We  conducted  the  first  successful  flight 
test  of  an  electric  rocket  engine  in  July,  using  the  SERT  I  spacecraft. 
This  flight  demonstrated  that  ion  beam  neutralization  will  take  place 
satisfactorily  in  space  and.  therefore,  eliminated  the  only  uncertainty 
regarding  the  basic  feasibility  of  successful  space  operation.  A  second 
major  accomplishment  was  the  design,  fabrication,  and  test  of  a  30 
kilowatt  thrustor.  This  thrustor  is  10  times  larger  than  previous  ion 
engines,  and  demonstrates  that  we  are  successfully  developing  the 
engineering  relations  required  to  build  the  mega-watt  size  thrustors 
needed  for  spacecraft  prime  propulsion." 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  117 

Discussing  nuclear  propulsion  programs,  he  said:  "1964  was  a  year 
of  significant  progress  in  the  Nuclear  Rocket  Program.  It  was 
marked  by  the  successful  completion  of  the  kiwi  series  of  reactor 
development  experiments  and  the  successful  initiation  of  the  nerva 
reactor  testing.  These  reactor  experiments,  coupled  with  work  in 
other  portions  of  our  Nuclear  Rocket  Program,  provide  assurance  that 
the  graphite  core  nuclear  rocket  can  be  available  to  fulfill  its  role  as 
the  next  major  space  propulsion  system. 

"Of  particular  significance  in  1964  was  the  successful  demonstration 
of  the  adequacy  of  the  reactor  structural  design,  the  elimination  of 
reactor  structural  vibrations,  full  power  reactor  operation  for  over  ten 
minutes  at  an  altitude  equivalent  specific  impulse  of  about  750  sec- 
onds, a  rapid  automatic  startup,  the  ability  to  restart  the  rocket  reac- 
tor, the  determination  of  the  effect  of  a  maximum  reactor  power  excur- 
sion, and  the  neutronic  investigation  of  two  rocket  reactors  located 
side-by-side  as  would  be  necessary  in  clustered  engine  configura- 
tions. .  .  . 

"During  this  year  emphasis  will  be  placed  upon  extending  our  reac- 
tor technology  to  higher  temperature,  longer  duration,  and  higher 
power  while  we  proceed  as  rapidly  as  possible  to  close  coupled  nuclear 
rocket  engine  system  testing.  We  face  this  task  of  developing  nuclear 
rocket  technology  including  component,  subsystem,  and  engine  system 
work,  with  a  confidence  that  is  based  on  the  solid  accomplishments  in 
our  reactor  development  program  and  with  the  knowledge  that  the 
technology  we  are  developing  will  provide  the  propulsion  capability 
that  will  ultimately  be  required  for  extensive  space 
exploration."  (Testimony;  NASA  Auth.  Hearings,  243-300) 
March  10:  According  to  usaf  Cambridge  Research  Laboratories  study,  a 
continuous  barrage  of  meteoroids  was  causing  moon  to  lose  up  to 
6,000  tons  a  day  and  earth  to  gain  10,000  lbs.  a  day.  Because  of  its 
strong  gravity,  earth  absorbed  about  four  times  as  many  impacts  as 
moon.      (  OAR  Release  3-65-3;  Chic.  Trib.,  3/11/65) 

•  NASA  announced  award  of  S3.713.400  contract  to  Raytheon  Co.  to  pro- 

vide digital  systems  for  Project  Apollo.  Options  for  additional  dis- 
plays and  consoles,  if  exercised,  could  add  .$400,000  to  basic 
price.  The  equipment  was  for  use  at  NASA  control  centers  and  critical 
tracking  stations  to  give  instantaneous  display  of  information  received 
by  encoded  radio  signals  during  Apollo  flight  permitting  immediate 
decisions  concerning  welfare  of  the  astronauts  and  conduct  of  the 
mission.      ( NASA  Release  65-79 ) 

•  Sen.  Claiborne  Pell  (D-R.I.)   introduced  in  the  Senate  S.  1483,  a  bill  to 

provide  for  a  National  Foundation  on  the  Arts  and  the  Humanities. 
(C/?,  4/26/65,  8122) 

•  Roy  W.  Jenkins,  British  Aviation  Minister,  presented  a  plan  to  House  of 

Commons  to  give  grants  of  up  to  £100  ($280)  each  to  householders 
plagued  by  noise  of  jetliners  to  soundproof  their  homes.  It  was  esti- 
mated that  about  40%  of  200.000  householders  affected  would  accept 
the  grant,  bringing  the  total  cost  to  S7  million.  An  Airport  Authority 
would  be  established  to  underwrite  the  cost  of  the  grants.  Householders 
complained  that  money  was  insufficient  for  adequate  sound-proofing. 
(NYT,  4/11/65,  57) 


118  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

March  10:  Dr.  W.  Randolph  Lovelace  ii.  nasa's  Director  of  Space  Medicine, 
said  NASA  physicians  screening  future  astronauts  were  eliminating  peo- 
ple with  heart  and  spine  defects  so  slight  they  would  be  insignificant 
on  earth.  "We  are  interested  in  finding  minute  defects  between  the 
left  and  right  heart,"  he  explained.  "If  you  lose  pressure  and  you 
have  this  defect,  thousands  of  little  air  bubbles  may  find  their  way  up 
to  the  brain.  If  there  is  no  defect,  they  are  removed  from  the 
lungs.  We  are  also  looking  for  congenital  defects  of  the 
spine.  When  someone  experiences  the  acceleration  astronauts  do, 
however,  a  small  defect  may  be  magnified  in  effect."  (Kass,  Houston 
Post,  3/11/65) 

March  10-11:  Stuart  G.  Tipton,  President  of  the  Air  Transport  Associa- 
tion, testified  before  Senate  Aviation  Subcommittee  that  "more  joint 
fares,  perhaps  more  guaranteed  flights,  certainly  more  sales  cam- 
paigns" by  larger  airlines  might  be  initiated  to  help  helicopter  lines 
which  were  facing  end  of  Federal  subsidies.  Tipton  stipulated,  how- 
ever, that  cab's  five-year  declining  subsidy  proposal  still  would  be 
essential.  Earlier  in  the  week,  he  had  testified  that  airlines  would  not 
increase  their  aid. 

Senators  and  Representatives  from  all  three  states  that  had  helicop- 
ter service  testified  in  support  of  subsidies.  Sen.  Robert  F.  Kennedy 
(D-N.Y.)  said:  "I  think  that,  really,  if  we  don't  do  it  now  [continue 
subsidy]  it  won't  be  done  and  that  will  affect  not  just  New  York  and 
the  other  two  cities  but  the  entire  country."  Opposition  came  from 
Sen.  William  Proxmire  (D-Wis.)  who  argued  for  a  "user  tax  on  the 
people  who  use  helicopters  .  .  ."  (Clark,  NYT,  3/11/65,  55;  Clark, 
A^yr,  3/12/65,  66 ) 

March  11:  nasa  announced  that  mariner  iv,  scheduled  to  reach  the  vicin- 
ity of  Mars  July  14,  had  traveled  over  168  million  mi. — more  than  half 
way.      (NASA  Release  65-80) 

•  USAF  launched  Thor-Able-Star  booster  from  Western  Test  Range,  placing 

in  orbit  an  unidentified  satellite  and  U.S.  Army's  SECOR  II  geodetic 
satellite.  SECOR  ii  "failed  to  deploy  properly  from  its  piggyback 
container."   [V.S.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act.,  1965,  136;  M&R,  4/5/65,  12) 

•  Dr.  C.  0.  Bostrom  and  Dr.  D.  J.  Williams  of  the  Space  Research  Div.  of 

Johns  Hopkins'  Applied  Physics  Laboratory  said  danger  of  radiation 
damage  to  satellites  from  the  artificial  radiation  belt  created  in  July 
1962,  following  the  nuclear  detonation  over  Johnston  Island,  was  "now 
significantly  less  severe."  Results  of  measurements  by  instruments 
aboard  Navy  research  satellite  1963  38C  showed  that  the  number  of 
high-energy  electrons  in  the  artificial  radiation  belt  decreased  by  50% 
in  from  three  months  to  one  year  in  different  parts  of  the  belt.  The 
decrease  in  intensity  as  time  passed  would  continue  until  natural  levels 
of  intensity  were  reached.  Dr.  Bostrom  said,  ".  .  .  the  observed  time 
decay  does  show  that  the  satellite  radiation  damage  problems  have 
been  reduced  by  a  factor  of  ten  from  what  they  were  two  years  ago." 
(Bait.  Sun,  3/11/65) 

•  Despite    U.S.    Federal    Court's    issuance    of    two    temporary    restraining 

orders,  building  trade  employees  halted  construction  on  Saturn  IB 
Launch  Complex  34  at  Cape  Kennedy,  for  second  straight  day.  Dis- 
pute  involved    general   contractor's    use   of   non-union    subcontractor. 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  119 

NASA  claimed  work  on  Launch  Complex  34  was  "critical"  to  the  na- 
tion's space  effort.  {Cocoa  Tribune,  3/11/65) 
March  11:  NASA  Kennedy  Space  Center  had  extended  for  the  second  year 
two  of  the  major  contracts  under  which  the  NASA  Merritt  Island  Launch 
Area  was  being  operated.  Extensions  were  negotiated  with  Trans- 
World  Airlines,  for  base  support  services,  and  Ling-Temco-Vought,  in- 
formation services.      (KSC  Release  58-65) 

•  Dr.  Hugh  L.  Dryden,  NASA  Deputy  Administrator,  speaking  in  Minneapo- 

lis, Minn.,  before  the  Twin  Cities  Section  of  aiaa,  said:  "We  believe 
that  activities  in  the  exploration  of  space,  a  modern  social  need  recog- 
nizable from  the  passage  of  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Act 
and  the  appropriation  of  large  sums  of  money  by  the  Congress,  pro- 
vide the  essential  environment  to  accelerate  greatly  the  growth  of  theo- 
retical and  experimental  science  in  many  areas.  It  is  true  that  this 
accelerated  growth  in  science  and  technology  is  essential  to  the  on-go- 
ing development  of  space  capability,  but  of  deeper  significance  is  the 
complex  dynamic  interaction  between  science,  technology,  and  space 
exploration,  which  is  essential  to  the  growth  of  science,  technology, 
and  space  exploration.  In  this  case,  as  in  the  cases  previously  cited, 
to  use  an  analogy  from  bacteriology,  there  has  to  be  a  nutrient  solu- 
tion (money  and  employment  opportunities)  to  feed  the  scientific  and 
technological  effort,  and  as  soon  as  this  environment  is  provided,  many 
latent  efforts  in  science  and  technology  begin  to  assert  themselves  and 
move  forward. 

"I  believe  that  this  interpretation  of  certain  aspects  of  the  space 
program  is  more  significant  and  meaningful  than  the  current  concepts 
of  technology  utilization  and  technological  spinoff  as  incidental  or  ser- 
endipitous benefits  of  space  exploration."      (Text) 

•  Gerald  L.  Smith.  NASA  Ames  Research  Center,  had  been  awarded  $1,000 

special  service  award  for  his  computer  analysis  which  resulted  in  de- 
cision to  give  ground-based  navigation  a  primary  role  during  Apollo 
lunar  missions.  Smith  explained  that,  although  radar  tracking  from 
earth  and  visual  tracking  onboard  spacecraft  were  almost  equally  re- 
liable, earth-based  system  could  be  maintained  more  easily  and  was 
not  restricted  by  weight  and  size  considerations.      (ARC  Release  65-8) 

•  American  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences  awarded  its  Rumford  Prize  to 

Dr.  William  D.  McElroy  for  his  analysis  and  isolation  of  chemicals 
that  cause  bioluminescence  in  the  firefly  and  other  organisms.  He 
identified  luciferin,  lucif erase,  and  adenosine-5-triphosphate  (atp). 
From  his  research  he  concluded  that  bioluminescence  had  evolved 
"as  an  accidental  consequence  of  chemical  reactions"  in  the  organisms 
as  they  adapted  to  changing  conditions  in  the  environment.  Dr.  Mc- 
Elroy was  head  of  the  McCollum-Pratt  Institute  of  Johns  Hopkins 
Univ.  and  a  member  of  the  President's  Science  Advisory  Committee. 
iSR,  4/3/65,  45-47) 

•  Victor    D.    Lebedev,    U.S.S.R.    Council    of   the    National    Economy,    an- 

nounced plan  to  convert  119  major  industrial  plants  to  electronic  com- 
puter system  of  production  management  within  two  years.  Aimed  at 
ensuring  fast  access  to  detailed  operating  information,  the  systems 
would     be     introduced     in     heavy     industry     and     consumer-goods 


120  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

production.  For  the  future:  computers  serving  individual  plants  or 
groups  of  plants  w  ould  process  detailed  data  and  transmit  generalized 
information  to  central  agencies  to  aid  in  planning  economy.  ( Sha- 
bad,  NYT,  3/12/65,  8 ) 
March  12:  cosmos  lx  satellite,  containing  "scientific  apparatus,"  was  or- 
bited by  the  U.S.S.R.  Initial  orbital  data:  apogee,  287  km.  (177.9 
mi.);  perigee,  201  km.  (124.6  mi.);  period,  89.1  min.;  inclination 
64°  42'.  Equipment  was  said  to  be  functioning  normally.  (Tass, 
Komsomolskaya  Pravda,  3/13/65,  1,  atss-t  Trans) 

•  NASA  Aerobee  150  sounding  rocket  launched  from  White  Sands,  N.  Mex., 

went  to  a  peak  altitude  of  155.5  km.  ( 96.6  mi. )  The  primary  experi- 
mental objective  was  to  obtain  ultraviolet  spectra  of  Mars  and  Orion 
by  the  use  of  four  spectrographs,  provided  by  NASA  Goddard  Space 
Flight  Center.  Because  of  an  attitude  control  system  failure  no  ex- 
perimental results  were  obtained.      (NASA  Rpt.  SRL) 

•  USAF  launched  Atlas-Agena  D  booster  with  unidentified  satellite  payloads 

from  Western  Test  Range.      {U.S.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act.,  1965,  136) 

•  Month-long  experiment  for  NASA  to  test  man's  ability  to  withstand  rota- 

tional stress  ended  at  U.S.  Navy  School  of  Aviation  Medicine.  Capt. 
Ashton  Graybiel,  Research  Director,  expressed  satisfaction  with  results 
of  the  test  which  confined  four  U.S.  Navy  men  in  a  windowless,  circu- 
lar room,  equipped  with  all  necessary  living  accommodations.  The 
room  began  rotating  at  2  rpm's  and  in  16  days  built  up  to  10  rpm's, 
stopping  three  times  daily  for  meals.  This  pattern  of  speed  build-up 
had  no  adverse  affect  on  the  men  and  produced  no  nausea  or 
significant  discomfort.  This  test,  one  of  a  series  conducted  by  Naval 
School  of  Aviation  Medicine,  was  to  check  new  procedure  for  condi- 
tioning men  for  space  flight.  Since  long  space  voyages  could  require 
rotating  spacecraft  to  create  artificial  gravity,  scientists  wanted  to  de- 
termine spinning  rate  man  could  endure  without  discomfort.  (NASA 
Release  65-84 )   ' 

•  Launching  pad   damage   caused   by   the   Mar.   2   explosion   of   an   Atlas- 

Centaur  rocket  at  Cape  Kennedy  amounted  to  S2  million  and  would  take 
three  to  four  months  to  repair,  NASA  reported.  To  avoid  delay  in  the 
Atlas-Centaur  launching  scheduled  for  mid-summer,  NASA  was  speeding 
completion  of  a  new  launching  pad  that  was  90%  completed  and  that 
could  be  ready  in  two  months.      (  UPI,  St.  Louis  Post-Dispatch,  3  14/65) 

•  DOD   announced   new   type   of  defense  contract  for   c-5a,   700-passenger 

supertransport  and  cargo  plane:  competitors  must  bid  not  only  for 
initial  development  contracts,  but  for  production  and  "lifetime"  sup- 
port of  proposed  aircraft.  Lifetime  support,  estimated  to  be  at  least 
10  yrs.,  would  cover  spare  parts  and  ground  maintenance  equipment. 
The  plane,  expected  to  be  biggest  jet  transport  ever  built,  would  have 
a  gross  take-off  weight  of  725.000  lbs.  and  a  payload  capacity  of 
250,000  lbs. 

Boeing,  Douglas,  and  Lockheed  were  competitors  for  airframe  con- 
tract; General  Electric  and  Pratt  &  Whitney  were  competitors  for  en- 
gine contract.  Contracts  would  be  awarded  this  summer.  $2.5  bil- 
Hon  was  estimated  cost  for  a  58-plane  program,  (dod  Release 
915-64) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS.  1965  121 

March  12:  AFSC  announced  award  of  five  letter  contracts  totaling  $3.8  mil- 
lion for  conceptual  phase  of  Mark  ll  Avionics  System  being  considered 
for  use  on  f-111a  aircraft.  General  Dynamics.  Hughes  Aircraft  Co., 
Sperrv  Gvroscope  Co..  Westinghouse  Electric  Corp.,  and  Autonetics 
Div.  of  North  American  Aviation,  Inc..  would  perform  analyses  leading 
to  system  design  recommendations  integrating  many  subsystems. 
( AFSC  Release  30-65 ) 

•  A  23-year  old  French  nurse,  after  three  months  in  a  240-ft.  deep  cave  in 

Grasse,  France,  emerged  thinking  it  was  Feb.  25.  Josie  Laures  had 
had  no  clock  and  a  white  mouse  had  been  her  sole  companion  in  this 
experiment  to  test  effects  of  solitude.  She  was  flown  immediately  to 
Paris  for  three  weeks  of  medical  examinations.  ( AP,  A'lT,  3/13/65, 
6) 
March  13:  President  Johnson  signed  a  bill  and  proclamation  declaring 
March  16  "Robert  H.  Goddard  Day."'  Dr.  Robert  Hutchings  Goddard 
of  Clark  Universitv  had  launched  world's  first  liquid-fuel  rocket  at 
Auburn.  Mass..  on  March  16.  1926.      ( Text,  A'lT.  3   15  65,  8) 

•  USNS  Croatan,  which  had  left  Balboa.  Panama  Canal  Zone,  on  Mar.  6. 

arrived  at  Lima.  Peru.  During  the  interval,  ten  two-stage  sounding 
rockets  had  been  launched  from  the  deck  of  the  ship,  carrying  upper 
atmosphere  and  ionosphere  experiments  for  the  Univ.  of  Michigan,  the 
Univ.  of  New  Hampshire,  and  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight 
Center.  Three  single-stage  Areas  meteorological  rockets,  two  of  which 
carried  experiments  to  measure  ozone  in  the  atmosphere,  were  also 
launched.      (  nasa  Release  65-13  ) 

•  Seventy  paintings  and  drawings  rendered  by  15  contemporary  American 

artists  at  rocket  and  satellite  launching  stations  were  exhibited  at  the 
National  Gallery.  Washington.  D.C.  According  to  the  National  Gallery, 
the  purpose  of  the  NASA-sponsored  art  programs  was  to  "record  the 
strange  new  world  which  space  technology  is  creating"  and  "to  probe 
for  the  inner  meaning  and  emotional  impact  of  events  of  fateful  signifi- 
cance to  mankind.'"  Accompanying  the  exhibit  was  a  film  "The  World 
Was  There"  which  contrasted  secrecy  of  some  nations'  space  programs 
with  the  openness  of  the  American  effort.  ( National  Gallery  Release, 
3/14/65) 

•  In   New    York   Times    Richard   Witkin   said   F-111   variable-sweep-wing 

plane,  intended  as  the  mainstay  of  U.S.  fighter  forces  before  1970,  had 
developed  problems  with  engines  and  with  the  inlets  that  feed  air  to 
the  engines.  Officials  maintained  that  problems  were  normal  in  any 
development,  but  conceded  that  fewer  difficulties  had  been  anticipated 
because  of  record  number  of  wind  tunnel  tests.  The  two  prototypes 
tested,  one  of  which  was  supersonic,  had  continuously  run  into  two 
main  difficulties:  (1)  air  flow  through  compressors  of  engines  had 
become  disturbed,  causing  erratic  power  output;  and  (2)  combustion 
in  afterburner  section  had  been  suddenly  stopping.  Otherwise, 
officials  contended  that  flight  tests,  including  tucking  wings  far  back 
for  high-speed  runs,  had  been  going  better  than  anticipated.  (Witkin, 
NYT,  3/14/65,  58;  Chic.  Trib.,  3/15/65) 

•  An  article  in  The  Economist  questioned  the  political  wisdom  of  the  State 

Dept.'s  ban  on  exchange  of  communications  satellite  information  be- 
tween Hughes  Aircraft  Co.  and  the  British  Aircraft  Co.;  it  suggested 
that  unfavorable  repercussions  to  Anglo-American  relations  could  re- 


122  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

suit:  "The  reason  had  little  to  do  with  military  security.  The  State 
Dept.  appeared  to  think  that  American  industry  has  a  valuable  monop- 
oly in  commercial  satellites  which  should  be  exploited  for  maximum 
profit,  which  means  keeping  the  know-how  in  America.  .  .  .  The  first 
commercial  satellite  of  Comsat  happens  to  be  the  Hughes-built  Early 
Bird  due  to  be  launched  in  the  first  half  of  April.  Comsat  is 
obliged  ...  to  distribute  its  orders  among  member  countries  on  a 
basis  proportional  to  the  shares  they  hold.  .  .  .  Britain  is  the  largest 
shareholder  after  the  United  States.  So  the  less  satellite  know-how 
there  is,  particularly  in  Britain,  the  more  work  goes  to  the  United 
States  .  .  .  this  ...  is  precisely  what  some  people  have  been  declar- 
ing the  Americans  would  do  whenever  they  found  themselves  in  a 
position  of  technical  superiority.  .  .  ."  {Economist,  3/13/65) 
March  13:  Two  Russian  airmen  had  set  a  world  altitude  record  by  flying 
m1-4  helicopter  with  a  load  of  nearly  two  tons  to  20,894  ft.,  Tass  re- 
ported.     (Reuters,  N.Y.  News,  3/14/65) 

•  Israel,  to  reassure  U.S.  of  her  peaceful  intentions  for  use  of  atomic  en- 

ergy, had  permitted  two  AEC  commissioners  to  inspect  Dimona  reactor, 
a  natural  uranium,  heavy-water-moderated  type,  capable  of  producing 
enough  plutonium  for  several  relatively  small  atomic  weapons.  Israel 
had  imposed  strict  secrecy  on  the  inspections,  one  a  year  ago  and  a 
second  last  month.  U.S.  tentatively  concluded  that  Dimona  was  not 
being  used  to  produce  plutonium  for  atomic  weapons  but  suggested  that 
reactor  be  placed  under  inspection  by  International  Atomic  Energy 
Agency.  Israel  refused,  explaining:  (1)  she  should  not  be  forced  to 
place  her  national  development  under  agency  inspection  until  interna- 
tional inspection  had  been  accepted  by  all  nations,  and  (2)  the  Agency 
had  discriminated  against  her  in  favor  of  Arab  states  in  membership  of 
its  board  and  location  of  research  centers. 

Many  American  and  British  specialists  feared  that  Israel  could  be 
"keeping  the  option  open"  to  develop  atomic  deterrent  against  Arab 
nations.  (Finney,  A^YI,  3/14/65,  1) 
March  14:  Writing  about  the  visit  of  President  Johnson  and  Vice  President 
Humphrey  to  NASA  Hq.  for  a  briefing  on  NASA  programs  on  Feb.  25, 
Lt.  Gen.  Ira  C.  Eaker  ( USAF,  Ret.)  said  in  an  article  for  the  San  Diego 
Union:  "I  was  particularly  pleased  at  the  deserved  tribute  the  President 
paid  Jim  Webb  and  Hugh  Dryden.  I  have  known  them  both  since 
1937.  They  are  extremely  modest  men.  They  avoid  personal 
publicity.  They  are  not  jealous  of  subordinates,  but  prefer  that  the 
publicity  and  credit  for  NASA  successes  carry  the  pictures  and  headline 
the  names  of  those  members  of  the  NASA  team  most  directly 
responsible.  For  this  reason  they  can  attract  and  hold  able  peo- 
ple.  .   .   . 

"While  we  are  giving  out  the  space  medals,  it  is  only  fair  to  say  that 
without  the  vision  and  tenacity  of  Lyndon  Johnson,  the  first  man  on 
the  moon  could  not  be  an  American. 

"To  have  man's  most  dramatic  and  significant  adventure  become  the 
achievement  of  a  slave  state  instead  of  a  free  society  would  be 
intolerable."      (Eaker,  CNS,  San  Diep,o  Union,  3/14/65) 

•  Soviet  scientists  announced  development  of  compact,  light-weight  nuclear 

power  system,  similar  to  U.S.  Snap  program,  to  meet  relatively  low 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  123 

power  requirements  of  up  to  several  hundred  watts  by  using  heat  from 
decay  of  radioisotopes  as  energy  source  for  generation  of  electrici- 
ty. Tass  described  system  as  a  power-generating  package  weighing 
150  kg.  (330  lbs.)  with  a  capacity  of  up  to  200  watts  and  a  lifetime 
of  10  yrs.  Known  as  Beta,  the  installation  was  designed  to  ensure 
continuous  operation  of  automatic  weather  stations  in  remote  areas. 
{NYT,  3/15/65,  5) 

March  14:  U.S.S.R.  reported  that  number  of  Soviet  science  teachers  and 
scientific  researchers  had  doubled  between  1958  and  1963.  At  the  end 
of  1963,  565,958  workers  were  engaged  in  scientific  research  and 
teaching,  compared  to  284,038  at  end  of  1958.  Most  of  this  increase 
was  in  persons  having  only  basic  undergraduate  scientific  and  techni- 
cal training,  with  women  increasing  more  rapidly  than  men.  Engi- 
neering sciences  accounted  for  more  than  half  the  total  of  all  Soviet 
scientific  workers;  physicians  and  mathematicians  comprised  sec- 
ond largest  group;  persons  in  medicine  and  pharmacy,  the  third. 
(Schwartz,  NYT,  3/14/65,  18) 

March  15:  U.S.S.R.  launched  into  orbit  three  earth  satellites^ — cosmos  lxi, 
COSMOS  LXii,  and  COSMOS  LXIII — with  a  single  booster  rocket.  Tass 
said  three  satellites  were  orbiting  in  close  initial  orbits:  apogee,  1,837 
km.  (1,141  mi.);  perigee,  273  km.  (170  mi.);  period,  106  min.;  in- 
clination, 56°.  It  was  reported  that  the  scientific  apparatus  onboard 
was  functioning  normally.  [Krasnaya  Zvezda,  3/17/65,  1,  ATSS-t 
Trans.) 

•  The   S-iB-1,   Chrysler-built   first  stage   of  NASA's   Saturn   IB,   arrived   at 

NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  from  Michoud  Operations  in  New 
Orleans  for  static-firing  tests.  The  stage  was  21  ft.  in  diameter,  80  ft. 
in  length,  and  weighed  90,000  lbs.  For  Saturn  IB  program,  its  eight 
engines  had  been  uprated  to  200,000  lbs.  thrust  each  and  weight  had 
been  reduced  by  some  16,000  lbs.  It  would  be  returned  to  Michoud 
Operations  in  about  six  weeks  for  post-firing  checks.  Saturn  IB  vehi- 
cles would  be  used  for  earth-orbital  missions  of  Apollo  spacecraft. 
(msfc  Release  65-60) 

•  NASA  and  DOD  had  approved  first  phase  of  a  General  Dynamics  proposal 

for  30% -uprated  Atlas  SLV  x3  booster.  This  phase  covered  only  reha- 
bility  improvement  by  introduction  of  new  components.  Order  to 
proceed  on  actual  uprating  was  expected  this  month.  {M&R,  3/15/65, 
7) 

•  The  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics  reviewed  the  master 

planning  standards  of  ten  major  NASA  centers  and  concluded  that,  con- 
sidering the  permanence  of  the  space  program,  ".  .  .  the  installations 
and  facilities  required  by  NASA  to  implement  the  program  should  be 
planned  ...  on  a  long-range  basis,  in  recognition  of  permanen- 
cy." In  addition,  they  suggested  that  NASA:  (1)  develop  "consistency 
of  planning  policy,"  (2)  invest  in  master  plans  to  prevent  situations 
similar  to  "confused  and  congested  layouts  of  Lewis  and  Wallops," 
(3)  invest  in  facility  planning,  and  (4)  avoid  procrastination  and 
expediency.  The  Committee  concluded  that  "nasa  has  achieved  sub- 
stantial success  in  master  planning  at  many  of  its  installations  .  .  ." 
but  that  attempts  should  be  made  to  succeed  at  all  NASA 
installations.      (  House  Report  No.  167,  3/15/65) 


124  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

March  15:  A  Benedictine  nun,  Sister  M.  Margaret  Bealmear.  said  she  had 
declined  an  invitation  to  apply  for  astronaut  training  and  that  she  as- 
sumed the  letter  from  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  had  been  a 
mistake.  Sister  Bealmear,  a  candidate  for  a  doctorate  in  biology  from 
the  Univ.  of  Notre  Dame,  said  she  had  received  the  invitation  in  Decem- 
ber 1964.  Invitations  had  been  extended  by  NASA  to  select  names 
appearing  on  a  list  provided  by  the  National  Academy  ©f  Sciences. 
<AP.  ATr,  3  16/65.  5;  msc  Historian) 

•  Dr.  John  T.  F.  Kuo,  associate  professor  at  Columbia  Univ.  Henry  Krumb 

School  of  Mines,  was  studying  the  earth's  gravity  from  each  of  the 
Empire  State  Building's  102  floors.  Kuo  was  using  a  gravimeter  sen- 
sitive to  weight  differences  of  one-billionth  of  a  pound  to  measure 
gravitational  acceleration  on  each  floor.  He  felt  that  extrapolations 
from  his  figures  might  help  in  the  "design  of  instrument  measuring  the 
gravitational  acceleration  on  space  vehicles  as  they  hurtle  through  the 
universe."      (NYT.  3/15/65,  29 ) 

•  Dr.    Thomas    F.    Bates,    professor    of   mineralogy    and    director    of   the 

Science  and  Engineering  Institute  at  Pennsylvania  State  Univ.,  had 
been  named  science  advisor  to  Interior  Secretary  Stewart  L.  Udall,  it 
was  announced.  He  would  succeed  Dr.  John  C.  Calhoun,  Jr.,  who  was 
returning  to  his  post  at  Texas  A&M.      (  UPI,  NYT,  3/16  ^65,  4) 

•  Despite  boasts  of  increased  Government  volume  by  Westinghouse  Elec- 

tric Corp.  and  Sylvania  Electric  Products,  Inc.,  most  major  companies 
complained  of  decline  in  defense.  Government,  and  aerospace 
contracts.  The  Electronic  Industries  Association  offered  solutions  to 
the  problem:  (1 )  look  for  new  fields  and  products,  (2)  work  harder  to 
find    Government   contracts,    or    (3)    continue    complaining.      (Smith. 

yvyr,  3/15/65) 

•  "Project  Stormy  Spring,"  a  meteorological  study  by  the  Air  Force  Cam- 

bridge Research  Laboratories  to  develop  more  precise  forecasting  tech- 
niques for  specific  local  areas,  began,  afcrl  scientists  would  investigate 
mesoscale  structures  and  weather  system  dynamics  in  New  England, 
particularly  within  a  mesoscale.  A  varying  distance  measure,  a  meso- 
scale in  New  England  in  March  was  an  area  about  100  mi.  sq.  Major 
storm  systems  would  be  observed  and  analyzed  for  continuous  periods 
of  24  to  36  hrs.  each.  A  weather  satellite,  U-2,  and  c-130  aircraft 
would  provide  cloud  photographs.  The  U-2  would  also  measure  ozone 
distributions,  temperature,  wind,  and  radiometric  data;  the  C-130 
would  contribute  cloud  physics,  temperature,  and  wind  data.  Perma- 
nent and  mobile  radiosonde  sites  60  mi.  apart  would  comprise  one 
aspect  of  the  data-gathering  network;  special  surface  linkage  of  25  sites 
spaced  20  mi.  apart  would  gather  wind,  temperature,  pressure,  humid- 
ity, and  precipitation  data.  The  study  would  continue  through  April 
30.      (usAF  OAR  Release  3-65-5 1 

•  Aviation  Week  reported  theory  of  many  U.S.  officials  that  COSMOS  LVII, 

launched  by  U.S.S.R.  on  Feb.  22,  1965,  had  strayed  from  its  pro- 
gramed flight  path  and  been  deliberately  destroyed  the  day  after  it  was 
launched.  The  alleged  reason  was  to  prevent  COSMOS  LVII  from  fall- 
ing into  foreign  hands.  U.S.  officials  were  said  to  have  assumed  that 
COSMOS  LVII  was  a  trial  run  for  VOSKIIOD  ii  flight  because  of  similar 
orbits:  voskhod  ii  had  30!;  mi.   (196.7  km.)   apogee,  108  mi.   (174.4 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  125 

km.  I  perigee,  65°  inclination:  COSMOS  LVii  had  317  mi.  (511.3  km.) 
apogee.  107  mi.  (172.6  km.)  perigee,  and  65°  inclination. 

According  to  XASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center's  Satellite  Situation 
Report,  51  pieces  of  cosmos  lvii  were  in  orbit  Feb.  28,  1965;  39  pieces 
on  ]\Iarch  15.  1965.  The  Report  also  listed  COSMOS  L,  launched  by 
U.S.S.R.  October  28.  1964.  in  88  pieces.  ( GFSC  SSR.  3  15/65,  33,  37; 
Av.  Wk.A  12  65.34) 
March  15:  B.  F.  Goodrich  Corp.  had  been  selected  by  Hamilton  Standard  to 
replace  International  Latex  Corp.  as  subcontractor  for  garment  portion 
of  the  Apollo  spacesuit.  Change  followed  problems  with  certain  por- 
tions of  garment.      i.M&R.  3   15  65.  7) 

•  Astronaut  R.  Walter  Cunningham  suffered  a  simple  compression  fracture 

of  a  neck  vertebra  during  exercise  unrelated  to  astronaut 
training.  Cunningham  would  be  grounded  during  the  three  months 
he  would  wear  a  neck  brace  but  would  continue  other  phases  of  astro- 
naut training.      (  \p.  Wash.  Eve.  Star.  3/17/65 ) 

•  Opening  the  annual  meeting  of  the  National  Research  Council,  Harvey 

Brooks,  professor  of  applied  physics  at  Harvard  Univ.,  discussed  recent 
trends  in  Federal  support  of  research  and  development.  Of  the  $14.5 
billion  R&D  budget  for  FY  1966.  he  observed,  nearly  half  was  for  space 
activities — expended  principally  through  DOD  and  NASA.  Scientific 
satellite  programs  accounted  for  36 //  of  all  basic  research  expenditures. 
He  noted  the  steady  trend  toward  greater  diversity  in  sources  of  Federal 
support  for  academic  research.  One  indication  is  the  fact  that  in  1954 
DOD  accounted  for  709^  of  academic  research  but  in  FY  1966  for  only 
27'7f.      (NAs-NRC  Neiis  Report,  3  65.  1) 

•  Theory  held  by  Soviet  astrophysicists  Vitaly  Ginzburg  and  Leonid  Ozer- 

noi  that  intergalactic  space  is  hot  was  reported  by  Tass.  Scientists 
generally  believed  the  hydrogen  gas  in  intergalactic  space  to  be  cold 
(— 273°C).  Ginzburg  and  Ozernoi  considered  it  "incomprehensible" 
that  the  gas  could  be  cold  yet  neutral — no  emissions  in  the  21-cm. 
wavelength  had  been  detected  from  the  intergalactic  hydrogen.  They 
theorized  that  the  gas  was  heated  by  galactic  explosions  and  likewise 
ionized  by  them,  making  impossible  any  21-cm.-wavelength  emissions. 
(Tass,  3/15  65 ) 

•  Lance  battlefield  missile  was  successfully  test  fired  at  the  White  Sands 

Missile  Range.  Built  for  the  Army  by  Ling-Temco-Vought,  Inc.,  the 
Lance  was  said  to  combine  guided  missile  accuracy  and  range  with  the 
low  cost  and  high  reliability  potential  of  a  free  rocket.  It  would  com- 
plement division  artillery  and  expand  the  capability  for  nuclear  and 
non-nuclear  fire.  ( AP,  NYT,  3  18/65,  57 ) 
March  16:  Dr.  Homer  E.  Newell,  nasa  Associate  Administrator  for  Space 
Science  and  Applications,  told  the  House  Committee  on  Science  and 
Astronautics'  Subcommittee  on  Space  Science  and  Applications  that 
NASA  had  an  obligation  to  make  information  gained  from  space  ex- 
ploration available  to  the  public.  He  continued:  "To  help  achieve  this, 
a  National  Space  Science  Data  Center  was  established  at  GSFC  in  April 
1964.  .  .  . 

"The  Data  Center  is  responsible  for  the  collection,  organization,  in- 
dexing, storage,  retrieval,  and  dissemination  of  all  scientific  data  re- 
sulting from  experiments  in  space  and  the  upper  atmosphere.     Since 


126  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

its  establishment  the  Data  Center  has  begun:  (1)  to  maintain  a  con- 
tinuing inventory  of  data  from  sounding  rockets  and  spacecraft;  (2) 
to  acquire  data  generated  by  spacecraft  previously  launched;  (3)  to 
collect  selected  ground  correlative  data;  and  (4)  to  produce  the  an- 
nouncement publications  which  support  its  functions. 

"In  anticipation  of  the  need  for  this  facility,  NASA  has  established  a 
line  item  in  the  Physics  and  Astronomy  budget,  Data  Analysis,  of 
three  million  dollars  in  FY  1966.  Of  this,  600  thousand  dollars  is  for 
the  operation  of  the  Data  Center  and  2.4  million  dollars  is  for  analysis 
of  data  from  a  flight  experiment  under  the  flight  project.  After  the 
initial  results  have  been  published  by  the  Principal  Investigator  and 
the  data  are  placed  in  the  data  center,  the  additional  analyses  of  these 
data  will  be  funded  from  Data  Analysis  funds  on  the  basis  of  propos- 
als from  competent  scientists  throughout  the  Nation  .  .  .  This  approach 
is  expected  to  .  .  .  encourage  them  to  use  all  of  the  available  informa- 
tion in  their  theoretical  research." 

Dr.  Newell  discussed  nasa's  orbiting  observatory  program:  "The 
primary  reason  for  .  .  .  solar  studies  is  to  meet  the  overall  NASA  ob- 
jective to  expand  human  knowledge  of  space  phenomena.  .  .  . 

"oso-c  [Orbiting  Solar  Observatory-C]  is  the  next  spacecraft  to  be 
launched  and  it  is  undergoing  final  testing  at  this  time.  On  30  May  a 
solar  eclipse  of  unusually  long  duration  will  occur.  Every  effort  is 
being  made  to  launch  oso-c  prior  to  this  event  so  that  two  oso's, 
with  complementary  payloads,  can  be  operating  and  transmitting 
unique  data  on  the  solar  radiation  at  the  time  of  the  eclipse." 

He  said  that  the  Orbiting  Geophysical  Observatory  (Ogo)  program 
would  make  a  major  contribution  to  our  understanding  of  earth-sun- 
environment  relationships  and  that  although  OGO  I  had  not  functioned 
as  planned  "it  has  proven  that  the  basic  spacecraft  design  is  adequate 
and  that  large  numbers  of  experiments  can  be  integrated  and  operated 
from  a  single  satellite.  Furthermore,  should  OGO  I  continue  to  trans- 
mit data  for  a  reasonable  period,  it  is  expected  that  the  results  will 
contribute  substantially  to  studies  of  the  Earth-Sun  relationships. 

"Investigation  of  the  OGO  I  failure  indicated  there  was  no  common 
cause  for  failure,  but  as  a  result  of  the  investigation,  design  modifica- 
tions and  additional  tests  are  planned  for  future  OGO  spacecraft.  The 
modifications  include:  (1)  relocation  of  the  horizon  scanner  and  cer- 
tain boom  appendages  to  assure  a  clear  field  of  view  for  the  horizon 
scanners;  (2)  the  use  of  a  new  type  development  spring  and  the  addi- 
tion of  separate  appendage  'kick-off'  springs;  and  (3)  the  relocation  of 
the  omnidirectional  antenna."  (Testimony;  NASA  Auth.  Hearings, 
461-580 1 
March  16:  The  communications  blackout  problem  was  discussed  by  Dr. 
Hermann  H.  Kurzweg,  nasa  Director  of  Research,  Office  of  Advanced 
Research  and  Technology,  in  testimony  before  the  House  Committee 
on  Science  and  Astronautics'  Subcommittee  on  Advanced  Research 
and  Technology :  "One  of  the  phenomena  that  occurs  in  gases  at  high 
temperatures  is  ionization,  that  is,  electrons  are  torn  away  by  the  high- 
speed collisions  of  the  gas  atoms  and  molecules.  .  .  .  The  free  elec- 
trons, produced  by  the  high  temperatures  in  the  shock  layer  around  a 
reentry  vehicle,  interfere  with  and  block  the  propagation  of  radio 
signals.  .  .  .     This     effect     produces     the     communications-blackout 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  127 

problem.  To  understand  what  is  going  on  and  to  eliminate,  or  at  least 
minimize  this  communication  difficulty,  one  must  be  able  to  calculate 
the  distribution  of  free  electrons  about  the  body  in  order  to  predict 
when  the  plasma  sheath  will  become  opaque  for  certain  radio 
frequencies.  This  calculation  cannot  be  made  until  the  flow  field 
(temperature,  density,  pressure  and  velocity)  about  the  body  is 
known.  A  significant  part  of  the  fluid  physics  program  is  concerned 
with  the  investigations  of  flow  fields.  The  results  of  these  studies  also 
give  us  better  information  on  the  heat  transfer  to  reentry  bodies. 

"As  a  possible  remedv  for  the  communications  blackout,  we  are 
studying  the  characteristics  of  various  gases,  called  electrophylic  gases, 
which  have  the  unique  property  of  capturing  free  electrons.  Such  a 
gas,  which  effectively  reduces  the  electron  concentration  when  injected 
into  the  flow,  might  solve  the  problem.  .  .  .  This  work  is  tied  closely 
with  the  work  on  radio  attenuation  going  on  at  the  Langley  Research 
Center  and  the  technique  is  being  adapted  to  test  a  variety  of  fluids 
suggested  by  the  work  at  Langley."  (Testimony;  1966  NASA  Auth. 
Hearings,  447-62 ) 
March  16:  First  observance  of  Robert  H.  Goddard  Day.  On  the  floor  of 
the  Senate,  Sen.  Stuart  Symington  (D-Mo.)  spoke  of  Dr.  Goddard's 
achievements  as  summarized  bv  G.  Edward  Pendray  in  Technology  and 
Culture  ( Fall  1963  )  : 

"Dr.  Goddard — 

"Was  the  first  to  develop  a  rocket  motor  using  liquid  propellants 
(liquid  oxygen  and  gasoline)  during  the  years  1920-25. 

"Was  first  to  design,  construct,  and  launch  successfully  a  liquid-fuel 
rocket — the  event  we  mark  today. 

"First  developed  a  gyrostabilization  apparatus  for  rockets  in  1932. 

"First  used  deflector  vanes  in  the  blast  of  a  rocket  motor  as  a  means 
of  stabilizing  and  guiding  rockets,  also  in  1932. 

"Obtained  the  first  U.S.  patent  on  the  idea  of  multistage  rockets,  in 
1914. 

"First  explored  mathematically  the  practicality  of  using  rocket 
power  to  reach  high  altitude  and  escape  velocity,  in  1912. 

"Was  first  to  publish  in  the  United  States  a  basic  mathematical 
theory  underlying  rocket  propulsion  and  rocket  flight,  in  1919. 

"First  proved  experimentally  that  a  rocket  would  provide  thrust  in  a 
vacuum,  in  1915. 

"Developed  and  demonstrated  the  basic  idea  of  the  bazooka  near  the 
end  of  World  War  1,  although  his  plans  lay  unused  until  finally  put  to 
use  in  World  War  ii. 

"First  developed  self-cooling  rocket  motors,  variable  thrust  rocket 
motors,  practical  rocket  landing  devices,  pumps  suitable  for  liquid 
rocket  fuels. 

"Forecast  jet-driven  airplanes,  and  travel  in  space."  iCR,  3/16/65, 
5051-52) 
•  In  commemoration  of  Goddard  Day.  Dr.  Hugh  L.  Dryden,  NASA  Deputy 
Administrator  and  other  Washington  officials  telephoned  greetings  via 
RELAY  II  to  Dr.  Goddard's  widow^  in  Worcester.  Mass.  The  call  had 
been  arranged  by  Vice  President  Humphrey,  Chairman  of  the  National 
Aeronautics  and  Space  Council.  Other  events  commemorating  God- 
dard Day:  At  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center,  a  film  on  Dr.  God- 


128  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

dard's  life  and  work  was  premiered;  at  nasa  Manned  Space  Flight 
Center.  Astronaut  Scott  Carpenter  spoke  to  several  hundred  science 
students  about  Dr.  Goddard  and  rocketry;  at  NASA  Marshall  Space 
Flight  Center,  special  recognition  was  shown,  and  at  Smithsonian  Air 
and  Space  Museum  an  original  Goddard  rocket  was  displayed.  ( NASA 
Release  65-87  I 
March  16:  At  the  dedication  of  a  new  laboratory  at  Worcester  Pol\technic 
Institute  in  memory  of  rocketry  pioneer  Dr.  Robert  H.  Goddard.  AFSC 
Commander  General  Bernard  A.  Schriever  said  that  Dr.  Goddard's 
writings  still  provided  guidance  to  1965  rocket  men.  General  Schriever 
said  the  nation  had  made  significant  strides  since  Goddard  conducted 
his  first  successful  rocket  launch  39  years  ago.  "His  booster  and  its 
payload  reached  an  altitude  of  41  feet  and  traveled  184  feet  before  it 
impacted  after  a  flight  lasting  about  2yo  seconds.  By  contrast,  the 
first  two-man  Gemini  orbital  space  shot  scheduled  for  later  this  month 
will  reach  several  hundred  miles  into  space  for  three  orbits.   .   .   . 

"The  Air  Force  Titan  ii  booster  and  the  Gemini  capsule  stand  al- 
most 110  feet — over  twice  the  altitude  achieved  by  Dr.  Goddard's  his- 
toric rocket." 

Mrs.  Esther  G.  Goddard,  Dr.  Goddard's  widow,  attended  the 
ceremonies,      (ap,  Bait.  Sun,  3/17/65) 

•  A  low-temperature,  primary,  non-rechargeable  battery  had  been  success- 

fully tested  over  a  range  from  — 100°  C  to  68°  C.  NASA  Lewis  Research 
Center  engineers  reported.  Designed  by  the  Livingston  Electronic  Co.. 
the  battery  delivered  constant  power  and,  when  fully  developed,  could 
be  used  on  Mars  where  the  nighttime  temperatures  were  — 100°  C  and 
the  average  daytime  temperature  —30°  C.      (  lrc  Release  65-20) 

•  North  American  and  European  television  broadcasters  met  at  ComSat- 

Corp  headquarters  in  Washington,  D.C.,  and  announced  outline  of  in- 
augural broadcast  between  the  two  continents  to  demonstrate  possibili- 
ties of  Early  Bird  communications  satellite  for  television  use.  Plans 
called  for  major  part  of  telecast  to  be  live  transmissions  of  events  in 
various  countries.  It  would  include  live  broadcasts  from  participating 
ground  stations  in  Europe  and  North  America,  a  short  documentary 
history  of  past  events  carried  on  satellite  television,  and  a  brief  explana- 
tion of  how  Early  Bird  worked  and  what  it  would  mean  to  communica- 
tions in  the  future.      ( ComSatCorp  Release  ) 

•  Sen.  Ralph  Yarborough   (D-Tex.)    said  on  the  floor  of  the  Senate  that 

results  of  Government-sponsored  research  should  be  "freely  available 
to  the  American  public"  and  that  he  "viewed  with  .  .  .  skepticism  any 
proposal  to  create  a  private  monopoly"  over  this  information.  [CR, 
3/16/65,5051) 

•  A  NASA-sponsored,  34-day  spacecraft  atmosphere  test  began  as  six  Navy 

and  Marine  Corps  fliers  entered  a  space  capsule  at  the  Naval  Air  Engi- 
neering Center's  Bioastronautics  Test  Facility  in  Philadelphia.  The 
fliers  would  wear  a  full  pressure  space  suit  during  three  weeks  of  the 
period,  eat  a  dehydrated  menu,  and  breathe  lOO/r  oxygen  while  ex- 
posed to  a  simulated  altitude  of  27,000  ft.  Investigators  would  con- 
duct periodic  tests  to  determine  the  overall  effects,  physiological  and 
psychological,  upon  each  of  the  men.      (  ap,  Bait.  Sun,  3/17/65) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  129 

March  16:  Dr.  Robert  Gilruth.  Director  of  nasa  Manned  Spacecraft  Center, 
told  a  press  conference  that  "there  is  a  question  whether  astronauts  can 
stand  long  confinement,  let  alone  weightlessness."  Dr.  Gilruth  was  in 
Los  Angeles  to  accept  the  1964  Spirit  of  St.  Louis  Medal  from  the  ASME 
at  the  Aviation  and  Space  Conference.  (Miles.  L.  A.  Times,  3/17/65; 
NAA  S&ID  Skyicriler,  .3  19  65.  1 ) 

•  Abraham  Hyatt,  a  former  NASA  Director  of  Plans  and  Program  Evalua- 

tion, delivered  the  9th  Minta  Martin  lecture  at  the  Conference  on  Aero- 
space Engineering  at  the  Univ.  of  Maryland.  He  said  that  while  much 
had  been  learned  about  the  space  environment  since  1958.  we  still  had 
only  meager  knowledge  of  the  processes  that  operated  on  the  sun;  the 
sun-earth  relationship:  the  sources  of  energy  of  the  observed  physical 
phenomena  in  space:  the  planets;  and  of  many  other  properties  of 
space.  For  a  better  understanding  of  the  origin  and  space  environ- 
ment of  the  solar  system,  the  origin  and  characteristics  of  the  universe, 
or  the  possibiUty  of  life  on  other  planets,  measurements  and  experi- 
ments in  space  would  be  necessary  for  a  long  time  to  come,  he  said. 
(Program  Notes) 

•  Dr.  Wernher  von  Braun.  Director  of  nasa  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  at 

Huntsville.  Ala.,  received  an  honorary  doctorate  of  laws  from  lona 
College.      (A/yr,  3  17  65,  38) 

•  Dr.  Athelstan  Spilhaus.  dean  of  Minnesota  Univ.'s  Institute  of  Technolo- 

gy and  past  chairman  of  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences,  urged  the 
Senate  Commerce  Committee  to  establish  sea-grant  colleges  that  could 
exploit  ocean  resources.  He  said  that  land-grant  colleges  had  done  a 
magnificent  job  in  furthering  agriculture  and  the  mechanical  arts  and 
that  sea-grant  colleges  could  do  the  same  in  the  field  of 
oceanography.  Dr.  Spilhaus  also  spoke  in  support  of  a  bill  to  provide 
for  expanded  research  in  the  oceans  and  Great  Lakes  by  creation  of  a 
national  oceanography  council.      (  AP.  NYT,  3/17/65,  52) 

•  Yevgeny  Artemyev.  vice  chairman  of  the  Soviet  Union's  State  Committee 

of  Inventions,  announced  Moscow's  intention  to  ratify  the  82-yr.-old 
Paris  Convention  for  the  Protection  of  Industrial  Property.  The 
agreement  required  that  each  member  state  grant  the  citizens  of  other 
member  countries  in  the  matter  of  patents,  trademarks,  and  other  in- 
dustrial property  rights  the  same  treatment  it  accorded  its  own 
nationals.  The  Soviet  Union  would  be  the  68th  country  to  adhere  to 
the  convention.  (NYT,  3/11/65) 
March  17:  mariner  iv's  ion  chamber  experiment  failed  completely,  Jet 
Propulsion  Laboratory  officials  reported.  Count-rate  of  the  Geiger- 
Mueller  tube  portion  of  the  experiment  had  become  abnormal  in 
February.  The  experiment  had  been  designed  to  measure  proton  and 
electron  radiation.  Otherwise  the  spacecraft  was  operating  normally; 
all  other  high-energy  radiation  detectors  aboard  were  continuing  their 
interplanetary  measurements.  In  its  110th  day  of  flight,  MARINER  IV 
was  traveling  27,743  mph  relative  to  earth  and  was  35,000,004  mi. 
from  earth.  It  had  traveled  more  than  178,000,000  mi.  (nasa  Re- 
lease 65-90 ) 

•  First  Saturn  IB  booster,  the  s-iB-1,  was  placed  into  a  static  test  stand  at 

NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  for  scheduled  static  firings.  Built 
by  Chrysler  Corp.,  the  1.6  million-lb. -thrust,  90,000-lb.  booster  con- 
tained eight  engines,  was  21   ft.  in  dia.  and  80  ft.  long.     The  stage 


130  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

would  be  shipped  to  NASA  Michoud  Operations  for  post-firins; 
checks.  (Marshall  Star,  3/17/65,  1,  2) 
March  17:  Discussing  the  need  for  sustaining  engineering  funds  for  Cen- 
taur starting  in  FY  1966,  NASA  Associate  Administrator  for  Space 
Science  and  AppUcations  Dr.  Homer  E.  Newell  testified  before  the 
House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics,  Subcommittee  on  Space 
Sciences  and  Applications:  "A  preliminary  study  and  design  phase  is 
being  initiated  by  NASA  this  Fiscal  Year  [for  adaptation  of  the  Centaur 
to  the  Saturn  ib].  The  primary  mission  for  this  vehicle  is  the 
Voyager.  Initial  studies  indicate  this  vehicle  is  capable  of  launching 
a  payload  to  Mars  in  excess  of  8000  pounds  during  all  of  the  opportu- 
nities in  the  1970's.  Generally,  the  modifications  necessary  to  create 
this  stage  combination  are  not  particularly  difficult.  They  do  repre- 
sent a  large  engineering  effort,  but  there  is  nothing  apparent  at  this 
time  which  indicates  that  new  technologies  will  be  required.  The  Cen- 
taur will  be  mounted,  along  with  the  Voyager,  inside  a  fairing  the  size 
of  the  Saturn  (260-inch  diameter).  By  constructing  this  size  fairing 
the  technical  problems  associated  with  adaptation  of  the  Centaur  to  this 
new  booster  are  significantly  reduced  and  the  diameter  required  for  all 
of  the  Voyager  missions  is  obtained." 

Dr.  Newell  described  NASA's  sustaining  university  program  as  an 
effort  "to  broaden  the  national  research  base  in  areas  of  importance  to 
the  national  space  effort  and  increase  our  capability  to  replenish  con- 
tinually the  reservoir  of  basic  knowledge.   .   .   . 

"In  response  to  the  continuing  manpower  requirements,  NASA  con- 
ducts a  predoctoral  training  program,  under  which  grants  are  made  to 
universities  to  select  and  train  outstanding  students  in  space-related 
fields.  Specialized  training  for  selected  students  offers  them  identifica- 
tion with  the  national  space  effort,  and  involves  them  directly  in  the 
new  programs  of  the  space  age.  .  .  . 

"At  the  present  time,  about  1,957  students  are  in  training  at  131 
institutions.  The  disciplines  represented  by  these  1,957  students  are 
distributed  as  follows:  physical  sciences,  51  percent;  engineering,  37 
percent;  life  sciences,  8  percent;  behavioral  sciences,  4  percent  ...  In 
September  1965,  about  1,275  new  students  will  begin  their  three  years 
of  study  and  research  as  NASA  predoctoral  trainees.  At  that  time,  142 
institutions,  located  in  every  state  in  the  union,  will  be  participating. 
With  the  proposed  budget  of  $25  million  for  fiscal  year  1966,  about 
1,300  new  students  would  enter  the  program.  Consequently,  the  NASA 
goal  of  an  output  of  1,000  Ph.D.'s  per  year  will  not  be  reached  before 
fiscal  year  1968  or  fiscal  year  1969  ...  Of  the  students  participating 
to  date,  40  trainees  have  received  their  Ph.D.  degrees.  .  .  ."  (Testi- 
mony; NASA  A  nth.  Hearings,  634-35) 

•  Astronauts  Virgil  I.  Grissom  and  John  W.  Young  gave  the  official  name 

"Gemini  3"  and  the  nickname  "Molly  Brown"  to  the  spacecraft  they 
would  ride  into  orbit  Mar.  23.  (msc  Historian;  ap,  Miami  Her., 
3/17/65) 

•  First   six   ships   of   a   20-vessel   fleet   that   would   participate   in    recovery 

of  the  Gemini  GT-3  spacecraft  following  the  two-man  orbital  flight 
scheduled  for  Mar.  23  left  Cape  Kennedy.  Ships  would  be  positioned 
from  the  mid-Atlantic  to  the  Canary  Islands.     [Wash.  Post,  3/17/65) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  131 

March  17:  A  strike  was  under  way  at  the  S256-million  Mississippi  Test  Op- 
erations under  construction  in  Gainesville,  NASA  announced.  The  dis- 
pute apparently  concerned  NASA's  contracting  policies.  (AP,  5/.  Louis 
Post-Dispatch,  3/18/65) 

•  DOD  attracted  more  than  1.000  industrial  representatives  to  its  "regional 

unclassified  briefing"  in  New  York.  It  outlined  the  nation's  military 
needs  for  the  next  decade  and  offered  guidance  in  planning  defense 
contracts.  This  was  one  of  five  meetings  DOD  had  called  throughout 
the  country  to  provide  industry,  business,  and  labor  with  an  idea  of 
the  military  research,  development,  and  production  requirements. 
(Wilcke,  NYT,  3/17/65,  65) 

•  FAA  granted  an  air  worthiness  certificate  for  an  automatic  landing  system 

developed  jointly  by  the  Boeing  Co.  and  the  Bendix  Corp.  It  was  the 
first  system  in  the  world  to  be  so  certified  by  FAA  for  operation  in  the 
U.S.  and  would  enable  users  to  apply  to  FAA  for  "Category  ii"  certifica- 
tion under  which  a  pilot  could  land  with  only  100  ft.  downward  visibil- 
ity and  1,300  ft.,  or  a  quarter  mile,  forward  visibility.  Most  airliners 
must  land  under  "Category  I"  conditions  under  which  the  pilot  must  be 
able  to  see  the  last  200  ft.  to  the  ground  and  must  have  at  least  a  half 
mile  forward  visibility  before  he  could  land.  First  Boeing  707  or  720 
jetliners  equipped  to  land  by  computer  would  be  available  about  Jan. 
1966.     (Appel,  NYT,  3/18/65,  1,  14) 

•  FAA  Administrator  Najeeb  E.  Halaby  announced  that  four  Government 

agencies  had  joined  forces  to  establish  a  national  data  bank  for  intera- 
gency exchange  of  information  on  civil  manpower  resources.  The 
agencies  were  Dept.  of  Labor,  Dept.  of  Health,  Education,  and  Wel- 
fare, Civil  Aeronautics  Board,  and  Federal  Aviation  Agency.  Halaby 
said  availability  of  such  a  bank  would  make  it  possible  to  obtain  more 
information  on  status  of  aviation  manpower  than  faa  maintained. 
( FAA  Release  65-20 ) 

•  Speaking  on  safety   in   the   Space   Age,   John   L.   Sloop,   NASA   Assistant 

Associate  Administrator  for  Advanced  Research  and  Technology,  told 
the  22nd  Annual  Greater  Akron  Safety  Conference  that  "for  the  past 
ten  years,  the  naca  and  NASA  have  had  a  frequency  rate  (injuries  per 
million  man  hours  work)  ranging  from  3.2  to  2.1.  The  national  in- 
dustrial frequency  average,  I  am  told,  is  6.12  for  1963  and  the  average 
for  all  of  Federal  government  is  7.9."      (Text) 

•  Dr.  Robert  H.  Goddard  was  posthumously  awarded  the  Daniel  Guggen- 

heim Medal  by  the  American  Society  of  Mechanical  Engineers.  Mrs. 
Goddard  accepted  the  medal.      ( Av.  Wk.,  3/22/65,  13 ) 

•  Brig.  Gen.  Charles  A.  Lindbergh    (usafr)    was  elected  to  the  Board  of 

Pan  American  World  Airways.  During  his  36-year  association  with 
the  airline,  he  had  helped  develop  several  aircraft  from  the  Fokker  and 
Sikorsky  to  the  Boeing  and  Douglas  jets.  Recently  he  had  worked  on 
the  supersonic  transport  and  the  fanjet  Falcon.  He  was  also  a 
member  of  the  naca  from  1931  to  1939.  (NYT,  3/18/65,  47) 
March  18:  U.S.S.R.'s  VOSKHOD  ii,  manned  by  pilot  Col.  Pavel  Belyayev 
and  co-pilot  Lt.  Col.  Aleksey  Leonov,  was  launched  from  Baikonur 
Cosmodrome  in  Kazakhstan,  Tass  reported.  The  spacecraft  set  an  al- 
titude record,  reaching  an  apogee  of  495  km.  (309  mi.) — higher  than 
any  manned  spacecraft  had  flown.  Other  orbital  data:  perigee,  173 
km.  (108  mi.)  ;  inclination,  65°;  period,  91  min. 


132  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

During  the  second  orbit,  Lt.  Col.  Leonov,  clad  in  a  spacesuit  with 
"autonomous  life  support  system."  stepped  into  space,  moved  about 
five  meters  from  the  spacecraft  I  tethered  by  a  cable ) ,  and  successfully 
carried  out  prescribed  studies  and  observations:  he  examined  the  outer 
surface  of  the  spacecraft:  turned  on  a  film  camera:  carried  out  visual 
observations  of  the  earth  and  outer  space:  took  horizontal,  vertical, 
and  somersaulting  positions:  and  returned  safely  to  the  spacecraft. 
Tass  said:  "Outside  the  ship  and  after  returning,  Leonov  feels  well." 
He  spent  about  20  min.  in  conditions  of  outer  space,  including  10  min. 
free-floating  in  space.  Entire  procedure  was  carried  out  under  control 
of  Col.  Belyayev.  with  whom  continuous  communication  was  main- 
tained. A  television  camera  fixed  to  the  side  of  VOSKHOD  ii  relayed 
pictures  of  the  maneuver  to  Soviet  ground  stations. 

Biotelemetric  data  indicated  that  both  cosmonauts  had  satisfactorily 
withstood  the  orbiting  and  the  transition  to  weightlessness:  the  pulse 
rate  of  Belyayev  and  Leonov  was  70-72  beats  a  minute  and  the  respi- 
ration rate  18-20  a  minute.  All  spacecraft  systems  were  functioning 
normally.  Tass  said  voskhod  ii  would  complete  at  least  13  orbits  of 
the  earth.  (Tass,  ap,  NYT,  3/19/65;  Komsomohkaya  Pravda,  3/19/ 
65.  1,  ATSS-T  Trans.:  Haseltine.  Wash.  Post,  3/19/65) 
March  18:  Atlas  launch  vehicle  sustainer  engine  system  had  been  success- 
fully fired  for  the  first  time  using  flox,  a  combination  of  liquid  fluorine 
and  liquid  oxygen,  as  the  oxidizer.  This  was  the  first  time  a  complete 
engine  system  had  been  fired  using  this  high-energy  oxidizer.  Ap- 
proximately 20  firings  would  be  conducted  in  the  series  using  the 
standard  concentration  of  309^  liquid  fluorine  to  70%  liquid 
oxygen.  Conditions  involving  thrust  level,  oxidant  fuel  ratio,  and 
other  engine  variables  would  be  run  to  establish  engine  performance 
limitations.  The  tests  were  being  conducted  under  LRC  contract,  by 
North  American  Aviation's  Rocketdyne  Div.,  Canoga  Park,  Calif. 
(LRC  Release  65-21) 

•  NASA  launched   a  Nike-Apache  sounding  rocket  with   a   63-lb.   payload 

from  Wallops  Station,  Va.,  to  peak  altitude  of  98  mi.  The  experiment 
was  conducted  for  the  Graduate  Research  Center  of  the  Southwest, 
Dallas,  Tex.,  and  was  designed  to  measure  ion  composition  and  neutral 
composition  of  the  upper  atmosphere  as  functions  of  altitude.  Impact 
occurred  89  mi.  downrange  in  Atlantic  Ocean;  no  recovery  was 
attempted.      (Wallops  Release  65-14) 

•  NASA  Aerobee  150  sounding  rocket  was  successfully  launched  from  White 

Sands,  N.  Mex.,  to  a  peak  altitude  of  154.5  km.  (96  mi.).  The  pri- 
mary experimental  objective  was  to  obtain  ultraviolet  spectra  of  Mars 
and  Orion  by  the  use  of  four  spectrographs.  GSFC  provided  the  pay- 
load  instrumentation.      (NASA  Rpt.  SRL) 

•  USAF  launched  Thor-Altair  booster  from  Western  Test  Range  with  uni- 

dentified satellite  payload.      {U.S.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act.,  1965,  136) 

•  NASA  bioscience  programs  were  discussed  in  testimony  before  the  House 

Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics'  Subcommittee  on  Space  Sci- 
ences and  Applications  by  NASA  Associate  Administrator  Dr.  Homer  E. 
Newell:  "Results  recently  submitted  by  the  U.S.  and  U.S.S.R.  from 
flights  up  to  five  days  in  length  indicate  that  long  term  space  flight  may 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  133 

have  several  important  and  serious  physiological  and  behavior  effects 
upon  the  performance  and  well  being  of  man  that  need  to  be  investi- 
gated further.  There  were  changes  in  the  circulation  system,  in  the 
biochemical  characteristics  of  the  blood  and  urine,  and  in  the  electro- 
encephalogram indices,  all  pointing  to  a  need  for  more  detailed  investi- 
gations. The  results  from  the  Biosatellite  studies  will  have  broad 
application  to  long  term,  manned  space  flight,  including  manned  space 
stations  and  lunar  and  planetary  bases. 

"Prolonged  manned  flights  may  involve  changes  similar  to  those 
observed  after  10  days  of  strict  bed  rest  on  the  ground.  These  are 
moderate  losses  of  bone  minerals  such  as  calcium,  particularly  in  the 
vertebrae:  loss  of  muscle  tone  and  physical  capability;  certain  cardio- 
vascular changes;  and  metabolism  in  general.  The  effect  of  continued 
sensory  deprivation  on  behavior  and  performance  is  unknown. 

"Biosatellite  experiments  are  of  both  scientific  and  practical  impor- 
tance and  extremely  profitable  to  investigate.  We  do  not  presently 
have  sound  theoretical  bases  for  making  precise  quantitative  (and  in 
some  cases  qualitative)  predictions  of  what  we  expect  to  happen.  It 
is.  therefore,  important  to  carry  out  Biosatellite  studies  of  suitable 
duration  to  critically  demonstrate  and  test  the  effects  of  weightlessness 
on  living  organisms." 

Outlining  approaches  to  the  search  for  extra-terrestrial  life  in  NASA's 
bioscience  programs.  Dr.  Newell  testified:  "(a)  An  attempt  is  being 
made  to  synthesize  models  of  primitive  single-celled  organisms  in  the 
laboratory.  .  .  . 

"(b)  The  physical  environments  of  the  planets  are  being  studied 
and  characterized  by  instruments  from  the  Earth,  from  high  altitude 
balloons  and  from  planetary  fly-bys.  .  .   . 

"(c)  Living  Earth  organisms  are  being  grown  under  simulated 
planetary  environmental  conditions.   .   .   . 

"(d)  Plans  are  being  made  for  both  unmanned  and  manned  direct 
exploration  of  planets.  .  .  ."  (Testimony;  1966  NASA  Auth.  Hear- 
ings, 806-41 1 
March  18:  NASA  Deputy  Administrator  Dr.  Hugh  L.  Dryden  told  the  annual 
meeting  of  the  American  Astronautical  Society  in  Washington,  D.C., 
that  NASA  planned  to  select  10  to  20  scientists  to  begin  astronaut  flight 
training  this  summer  from  over  900  applicants.  Dr.  Dryden  said  the 
Mercury  astronauts  had  demonstrated  man's  ability  as  a  sensor  and 
manipulator,  and  to  some  extent  as  an  evaluator,  in  orbit.  "Early 
Gemini  and  Apollo  flights  will  further  examine  these  capabilities  so 
that,  in* the  future,  man's  full  potential  can  be  exploited."  (ap,  NYT, 
3/19/65) 

•  In  an  article  in  the  San  Diego  Evening,  Tribune  deploring  the  strikes  and 

labor  unrest  at  Cape  Kennedy  and  Merritt  Island,  Victor  Riesel  said: 
"Well  over  SlOO  million  had  loeen  lost  in  strikes. 

"NASA  officials  report  To  walkouts  between  Dec.  1,  1962,  and  Feb. 
15,  1965.  Total  work  loss  has  been  63,784  man  days.  This  means 
there  has  been  an  average  of  more  than  five  vital  strikes  a  month.  At 
least  35  of  them  have  been  illegal  and  have  cost  49,596  man 
days."      (Riesel,  San  Diego  Eve.  Trib.,  3/18/65) 

•  Tokyo    Univ.    Aeronautical    Institute    announced    successful    firing    of    a 

three-stajie    Lambda    research    rocket    from    Uchinoura    in    southern 


134  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

Japan.  The  rocket  reached  an  altitude  of  680  mi.  and  landed  in  the 
Pacific  northwest  of  the  Marianas.  (  Reuters.  NYT,  3/19/65) 
March  18:  Among  the  aerospace  pioneers  selected  for  San  Diego's  new  In- 
ternational Aerospace  Hall  of  Fame  were  Scott  Crossfield,  Charles  A, 
Lindbergh.  Gen.  James  H.  Doolittle,  Astronauts  John  Glenn  and  Alan 
Shepard,  Dr.  Wernher  von  Braun.  Orville  and  Wilbur  Wright,  Robert 
H.  Goddard,  Jacqueline  Cochran,  and  Amelia  Earhart.  Representa- 
tives of  287  organizations  from  throughout  the  world  were  on  the 
nominating  committee.  Oil  paintings  of  the  honorees  were  unveiled 
at  a  dinner  given  in  conjunction  with  San  Diego's  Space  Fair  65  ob- 
servance.     (NAA  S&ID  Skywriter,  3/19/65,  1) 

•  Catholic  Univ.  was  the  first  school  in  the  Nation  to  offer  undergraduate 

study  in  space  science,  said  Dr.  C.  C.  Chang,  head  of  the  Dept.  of 
Space  Science  and  Applied  Physics  established  two  years  ago.  In  ad- 
dition to  space  science,  the  department  offered  specialization  in  aero- 
space engineering,  applied  physics,  and  fluid  mechanics  and  heat 
transfer.  ^  (Hoffman,  Wash.  Post,  3/18/65) 

•  Soviet   VOSKHOD    II    Cosmonauts    Pavel    Belyayev    and    Aleksey    Leonov 

talked  with  Cuban  Defense  Minister  Raul  Castro,  who  was  in  Moscow, 
and  told  him  they  had  seen  his  island  from  space,  Tass  reported.  "It 
was  very  beautiful,  and  her  green  colors  were  lovely,"  they  said,  (ap, 
3/18/65) 

•  Rep.  J.  Edward  Roush   (D-Ind. ).  speaking  on  the  floor  of  the  House, 

compared  the  states  in  distribution  of  Federal  research  and  develop- 
ment funds  per  scientist  employed:  "Of  the  seven  states  of  Ohio,  In- 
diana, Illinois,  Iowa,  Michigan,  Minnesota,  and  Wisconsin  only  Illinois 
exceeds  the  national  average  of  approximately  $25,000  in  research  and 
development  funds  per  scientist  employed  in  educational  institutions  in 
this  area.  Even  then  this  one  state  exceeds  the  average  distribution 
by  only  $4,600.  The  shares  of  other  states  range  from  a  high  of 
$15,000  per  scientist  in  Michigan  down  to  only  $9,000  in  my  own  state 
of  Indiana.  In  between  these  we  find  Minnesota,  $13,000;  Ohio. 
$11,000;  and  Wisconsin,  $10,900. 

"Leading  the  national  list  is  New  Mexico  with  $163,000  per  scientist 
followed  by  Nevada  with  $109,000  and  California  with  $63,000  per 
scientist.  At  the  very  bottom  of  the  list  is  Maine  with  only  $4,000  per 
scientist. 

".  .  .  this  matter  of  the  uneven  geographic  distribution  of  Federal 
research  and  development  funds  is  involving  our  national  interest." 
{CR,  3/18/65,  5186) 

•  A    spacesuit    that    would    enable    man    to    leave    his    spacecraft    was 

discussed  by  Soviet  doctor  Vladimir  Krichagin  in  a  commentary  for 
Tass  written  before  the  VOSKHOD  ii  flight:  "It  is  in  fact  a  miniature 
hermetic  cabin  which  consists  of  a  metal  helmet  with  a  transparent 
visor,  a  multi-layer  hermetic  suit,  gloves,  and  specially  designed 
footwear.  The  spacesuit  has  its  own  power  circuitry  feeding  com- 
munications, and  a  system  of  pickups  of  physiological 
functions  ...  It  is  impossible  to  create  atmospheric  pressure  within 
the  suit  because  it  would  then  inflate  as  a  football  .  .  .  and  the  man 
would  turn  into  a  statue  unable  to  bend  his  legs  and  arms  .  .  .  the  air 
pressure  inside  the  spacesuit  should  be  at  least  0.4  atmo- 
spheres ...   It  was  established  that  prolonged   (over  one  hour)   respi- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  135 

ration  in  pure  oxygen  literally  washes  nitrogen  out  of  the  tissues  of  the 
body  and  then  the  pressure  can  be  safely  reduced.  It  was  .  .  .  possi- 
ble to  free  a  man  in  the  spacesuit  from  .  .  .  the  immoblizing  effect 
of  an  'inflated  football'.   .   .   . 

"There  must  be  a  steady  supply  of  pure  oxygen  for  the  cosmonaut  in 
spacesuit  .  .  .  his  body  has  to  'breathe'  and  .  .  .  give  off  up  to  300 
kilo-calories  [every  hour]. 

".  .  .  the  spacesuit  has  a  special  airconditioning  system  through 
which  room  temperature  air  is  pumped  into  the  spacesuit.  This  air 
carries  away  excess  heat  of  the  organism  and  skin-exuded  moisture. 

"To  protect  man  in  space  from  .  .  .  heat  .  .  .  and  cold  .  .  ..  the 
spacesuit  is  covered  by  thermal  insulation  layer  and  coated  with  a  light 
color  that  deflects  heat  rays  ...  In  these  spacesuits  of  the  ventilation 
type  .   .   .   used  air  is  injected  into  the  environment. 

"[In]  spacesuits  of  the  .  .  .  regenerating  type  .  .  .  the  available 
air  and  hvdrogen  supply  circulates  from  the  spacesuit  to  a  generating 
device  and  back.  This  device  on  the  suit's  surface  removes  carbon 
dioxide  and  excess  moisture  from  the  'spent'  air  .  .  .  replenishes  oxy- 
gen supply  and  cools  off  gases  to  a  preset  temperature. 

"This  spacesuit  may  be  used  for  prolonged  work  in  space  and  for 
landing  on  the  lunar  surface."  ( UPI.  Rosenfeld.  Wash.  Post,  3/19/65, 
1,  2;  fanner.  NYT,  3/20 -65.  1,  3) 
March  18:  Soviet  Cosmonaut  Col.  Pavel  Popovich,  who  orbited  the  earth 
48  times  in  August  1962,  said  during  a  televised  news  conference  in 
Moscow:  "In  the  future,  we  shall  be  able  to  discard  the  cord  connect- 
ing the  cosmonaut  with  his  craft.  A  small  rocket  engine  will  help  the 
man  to  return  to  his  ship." 

Vasily  Seleznev.  Soviet  doctor  of  technology,  told  the  news  confer- 
ence he  thought  the  significance  for  further  space  research  of  Leonov's 
leaving  his  craft  was  that  "in  [the]  future  cosmonauts  will  take  part  in 
assembling  spaceships.  There  may  also  arise  the  need  for  repairing 
the  craft  and.  what  is  most  important,  there  is  the  prospect  of  travel  to 
other  planets."  Seleznev  said  the  Russians  hoped  to  reach  the  moon 
in  the  not  too  distant  future.  ( Rosenfeld,  Wash.  Post,  3/19/65,  1,  2 ) 
•  Vice  Adm.  Hyman  G.  Rickover  (USn)  urged  Congress  to  approve  the 
construction  of  a  new  type  of  nuclear  reactor  that  he  said  was  vital  to 
the  welfare  of  the  United  States  and  perhaps  the  whole  world.  Adm. 
Rickover  said  the  reactor — which  he  himself  conceived — was  called  a 
"seed-blanket"  reactor,  would  employ  thorium  as  the  major  fuel  and 
would  produce  more  fuel  than  it  consumed.  It  would  run  about  nine 
years  on  one  fuel  charge.  Reactors  of  this  type — costing  more  than 
S263  million  for  the  initial  one — could  extend  the  fuel  resources  of  the 
United  States  by  several  hundred  years  and  also  produce  electricity 
economically,  he  said. 

Dr.  Glenn  T.  Seaborg,  chairman  of  the  Atomic  Energy  Commission, 
testified  that  AEC  had  signed  a  memorandum  of  understanding  with  the 
state  of  California  for  the  development  and  construction  of  the  pro- 
posed $263  million  prototype,  and  that  whereas  present  "lightwater" 
reactors  tapped  only  1  to  2  per  cent  of  the  energy  available  in  either 
uranium  or  thorium,  the  proposed  reactor  "will  demonstrate  technology 
which  is  expected  to  provide  means  for  ultimately  making  available 
for  power  production   about  50  per  cent  of  the  potential  energy  in 


136  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

thorium — which  represents  an  energy  source  many  times  larger  than 
that  of  the  known  fossil-fuel  [coal  and  oil]  reserves."  Admiral  Rick- 
over  said  the  proposed  power  device  would  have  more  than  twice  the 
electrical-generating  capacity  of  any  United  States  central  power  sta- 
tion.     (AP,  NYT,  3/19/65,  12) 

March  18-19:  Scientific  research  papers  were  presented  by  high  school 
students  at  regional  Youth  Science  Congress  contests  conducted  by 
National  Science  Teachers  Association  in  cooperation  with  NASA.  Re- 
gional winners  would  compete  at  the  National  Youth  Science  Congress 
to  be  held  in  Washington,  D.C.,  later  this  year.  ( LaRC  Release;  GSFC 
Release  G-7-65 ) 

March  19:  After  26  hrs.  of  flight.  Col.  Pavel  I.  Belyayev  landed  voskhod 
II  manually  near  Perm,  Russia.  Tass  announced.  The  two-man  space- 
craft had  completed  17  orbits  of  the  earth,  one  more  orbit  than 
planned,  and  had  traveled  447,000  mi.  This  was  the  first  time  landing 
of  a  Soviet  spacecraft  had  been  described  as  manual.  Impact  of 
VOSKHOD  II  on  the  ground,  later  revealed  as  snow  bank,  was  described 
as  "soft."      (Tanner,  NYT,  3/20/65,  1,  3:  Shabad,  mT,  3/21/65,  3) 

•  NASA  plan  for  use  of  SYNCOM  ll  in  the  communications  link  between  the 

Gemini  3  spacecraft  and  Cape  Kennedy  was  successfully  tested  in  a 
GT-3  mission  simulation.  Telemetry  signals  and  voice  messages 
would  come  from  the  spacecraft  to  a  surface  ship,  the  USNS  Coastal 
Sentry,  in  the  Indian  Ocean.  The  Coastal  Sentry  would  transmit  the 
signals  to  the  Syncom  surface  station,  USNS  Kin^sport,  which  would 
then  be  a  few  miles  away.  From  there  the  signals  would  be  transmit- 
ted to  SYNCOM  II,  22,300  mi.  above  the  Indian  Ocean,  down  to  a 
ground  station  at  Clark  afb  in  the  Philippines,  and  by  cable  to  a 
Nascom  (nasa  Communications  Network)  station  near  Honolulu. 
From  Honolulu  the  transmission  would  go  by  cable  to  the  U.S.  and  then 
by  landline  to  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  and  on  down  to  Cape 
Kennedy. 

Simultaneously  the  signals  would  be  transmitted  from  the  Coastal 
Sentry  via  high  frequency  radio  to  a  Nascom  station  near  Perth, 
Australia.  Cable  would  carry  it  to  the  Nascom  station  at 
Honolulu.  There,  the  better  reception  of  the  two  transmissions  would 
be  sent  to  the  Cape.      ( NASA  Release  65-93) 

•  NASA  launched  a  scientific  payload  for  the  Univ.  of  Michigan  from  Wal- 

lops Station  using  a  two-stage  Nike-Tomahawk.  The  122-lb.  payload, 
consisting  primarily  of  a  thermosphere  probe  in  the  form  of  a  32-in. 
ejectable  cylinder,  was  boosted  to  a  peak  altitude  of  315  km.  (196 
mi.).  Purpose  of  the  experiment,  a  joint  project  of  the  Univ.  of 
Michigan  and  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center,  was  to  measure  density 
and  temperature  of  electrons  and  neutral  particles  at  75-200  mi.  alti- 
tude and  to  test  a  solar  aspect  sensor.  This  was  the  first  firing  of 
Nike-Tomahawk  configuration  from  Wallops  Island.  (NASA  Rpt.  SRL; 
Wallops  Release  65-16 ) 

•  President    Lyndon    B.    Johnson    sent    a    message    of    congratulations    to 

Australian  Prime  Minister  Sir  Robert  Menzies,  on  the  occasion  of  the 
dedication  of  a  new  NASA  lunar  and  planetary  spacecraft  tracking  sta- 
tion at  Tidbinbilla  near  Canberra.  Australia.  The  station  would  be 
operated  entirely  by  Australians,  as  are  the  two  other  NASA  facilities  in 
Australia,      (nasa  Release  65-89) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  137 

March  19:  Vice  President  Hubert  H.  Humphrey.  Chairman  of  the  National 
Aeronautics  and  Space  Council,  made  his  first  address  on  the  U.S. 
space  program  at  the  Goddard  Memorial  Dinner  sponsored  by  the 
National  Space  Club  in  Washington,  D.C.  He  said:  "I  intend  to  be 
an  advocate  of  a  dynamic  space  program — a  program  which  will 
succeed  in  reaching  to  goals  we  have  set — and  one  which  will  see  new 
goals — one  that  can  see  beyond  the  moon  and  into  fields  where  we  can 
only  speculate  about  the  knowledge  awaiting  us." 

The  Vice  President  spoke  briefly  about  the  Soviet  Union's  voskhod 
II  flight:  "It  is  well  for  us  from  time  to  time  to  take  stock — to  take  a 
careful  look — in  order  to  see  how  we  are  making  out  in  comparison 
with  our  main  competitor.  The  facts  are  that  we  do  have  very  strong 
competition  and  hence  we  have  another  big  reason  for  a  major  space 
effort — namely,  prudence.  Our  national  security  alone  would  suggest 
reason  enough  for  us  to  strive  for  absolute  leadership  in  space  explora- 
tion." 

Humphrey  pointed  out  that  the  Soviets  remained  ahead  in  propul- 
sion for  their  rockets,  while  the  U.S.  continued  to  lead  "in  the  directly 
useful  fields  of  weather  reporting,  navigation,  and  communications." 
He  continued:  "The  Soviets  clearly  have  an  advantage  in  studying  the 
effects  of  space  environment  on  human  beings.  .  .  .  We  can  salute 
the  Russian  achievements  .  .  .  but  we  would  be  foolish  if  we  did  not 
understand  the  military  implications  of  Soviet  space  science  as  well 
as  our  own. 

"Each  Russian  shock  has  produced  action  here.  But  a  mature  na- 
tion should  not  need  shock  treatment.  We  are  a  peaceful 
nation  .  .  .  but  we  would  ignore  the  real  interests  of  the  free  world  if 
we  diminished  our  miHtary  efforts  in  sp-ace." 

In  the  principal  presentation,  the  widow  of  the  scientist  presented 
the  Robert  H.  Goddard  Memorial  Trophy  to  Dr.  William  H.  Pickering, 
Director  of  the  Jet  Propulsion  Laboratory  and  leader  of  the  RANGER 
VII  team  that  obtained  the  first  close-up  pictures  of  the  moon's  sur- 
face. 

The  National  Space  Club  Press  Award  for  "an  outstanding  role  in 
adding  significantly  to  public  understanding  and  appreciation  of  as- 
tronautics" went  to  Aviation  Week  and  Space  Technology;  Nelson  P. 
Jackson  Aerospace  Award  for  "an  outstanding  contribution  to  the  mis- 
sile, aircraft,  and  space  field"  was  presented  to  Florida  Research  and 
Development  Center,  Pratt  &  Whitney  Aircraft  Div.  of  United  Air- 
craft; Robert  H.  Goddard  Historical  Essay  Award  was  made  to  John 
Tascher,  Case  Institute  of  Technology,  for  U.S.  Rocket  Society  Number 
Two:  the  Story  of  the  Cleveland  Rocket  Society;  Robert  H.  Goddard 
Scholarship  (Sl,500  to  the  university  of  the  recipient's  choice)  for 
"the  purpose  of  stimulating  the  interest  of  talented  students  in  space 
research  and  exploration"  was  awarded  Willard  M.  Cronyn,  a  graduate 
student  in  Maryland  Univ.'s  Dept.  of  Physics  and  Astronomy.  (Text; 
Program;  Carmody.  Wash.  Post,  3  20/ 65  ) 
•  "Present-day  Americans  are  thinking,  working,  and  risking  to  find  ways, 
first  to  explore,  and  then  to  use,  the  new  environment  of  outer  space," 
said  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  in  an  address  to  the  New 
Mexico  Chapter  of  the  American  Institute  of  Industrial  Engineers  in 


138  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

Albuquerque.  He  continued:  ".  .  .  the  exploration  of  space  has 
brought  a  new  force  into  the  affairs  and  life  of  this  Nation.  Once 
more  the  American  people  confront  a  new  environment — harsher, 
more  demanding,  more  inspiring  than  any  man  has  ever  tried  to  enter 
before.  .  .  .  We  cannot  yet  foresee  all  the  consequences  of  man's 
entry  into  space.  But  the  record  of  history  is  clear,  that  the  mastery 
by  one  nation  of  a  new  environment,  or  of  a  major  new  technology, 
or  the  combination  of  the  two  as  we  now  see  in  space,  has  always  in 
the  past  had  the  most  profound  effects  on  all  nations  and  on  all  the 
peoples  of  the  earth."  (Text) 
March  19:  In  an  interview  with  Izvestia,  one  of  the  two  directors  of  the 
Soviet  space  program,  the  "chief  designer,"  whose  identity  had  never 
been  revealed,  said  the  voskhod  ii  program  had  called  for  Lt.  Col. 
Leonov  to  spend  "10  minutes  outside  the  cabin"  but  that  he  could  have 
stayed  much  longer.  He  said  the  weight  and  space  saved  by  having 
two  men  aboard  voskhod  ii  instead  of  three  men,  as  on  voskhod  I, 
had  been  used  to  install  a  decompression  chamber  and  related  equip- 
ment. The  designer  said  Leonov's  spacesuit  was  equipped  with  "dup- 
licate systems"  to  ensure  a  high  degree  of  reliability  and  that  a  bellows 
had  been  installed  to  allow  bending  of  the  torso,  arms,  and  legs. 
Izvestia  said  in  another  article  that  Leonov's  spacesuit  consisted  of 
five  layers:  a  heat  reflecting  layer  outside;  material  for  strength;  air- 
tight material;  heat  insulating  material;  and  an  inside  layer  contain- 
ing a  ventilation  system. 

The  "chief  theoretician,"  joint  director  of  the  Soviet  space  program, 
told  Izvestia  that  Col.  Leonov's  venture  into  space  had  shown  that 
future  astronauts  might  find  it  easier  to  work  in  space  than  on 
earth.  He  said  that  "we  shall  yet  live  to  see  the  day  when  orbiting 
platforms  appear  in  space — resembling  scientific  research  institutes  in 
the  earth's  upper  atmosphere."  The  theoretician  was  also  quoted  as 
saying  that  Leonov's  principal  assignment  had  been  to  determine 
man's  reaction  to  "weightlessness  in  free  space."  He  told  Tass:  "We 
obtained  in  practice  what  we  had  visualized  theoretically  before." 
(Tanner,  NYT,  3/20/65,  1,  3) 

•  President  Johnson  sent  congratulations  on  the  Mar.  18  voskhod  II  space 

achievement  to  Anastas  Mikoyan,  Chairman  of  the  Praesidium  of  the 
Soviet  Union.  The  message  said:  "All  of  us  have  been  deeply  im- 
pressed by  Lt.  Col.  Aleksei  Leonov's  feat  in  becoming  the  first  man  to 
leave  a  space  ship  in  outer  space  and  return  safely.  I  take 
pleasure  ...  in  offering  on  behalf  of  the  people  of  the  United  States 
sincere  congratulations  and  best  wishes  to  the  cosmonauts  and  the 
scientists  and  all  the  others  responsible  for  this  outstanding  accomp- 
lishment."    ( NYT,  3/20/65,  3  ) 

•  Pope  Paul  VI,  speaking  to  the  "workers  of  the  world"  on  St.  Joseph's 

Day,  expressed  the  hope  that  the  "great  and  marvelous"  Soviet  space 
achievement  would  "serve  to  render  men  better,  more  united  and  intent 
to  serve  ideals  of  peace  and  common  good."      (NYT,  3/20/65,  3) 

•  Charles  A.  Wilson,  an  expert  in  management  and  development  of  space 

and  other  advanced  systems,  had  been  named  Project  Manager  for 
NASA's  Project  Biosatellite  at  the  Ames  Research  Center.  He  succeed- 
ed Carlton  Bioletti,  who  had  retired.      (  ARC  Release  65-9) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS.  1965  139 

March  19:  NASA  signed  a  five-year  S235-niillion  incentive  contract  with  the 
AC  Spark  Plug  Div.  of  General  Motors  Corp.  for  manufacture,  testing, 
and  deliverv  of  primarv  navigation  and  guidance  systems  for  Apollo's 
three-man  command  module  and  the  two-man  lunar  excursion  module 
(  Lem  ) .  The  svstems  were  beins;  desisned  by  MIT.  (  MSC  Roundup, 
3  19  65.  8) 
March  20:  President  Johnson,  asked  during  a  press  conference,  "where 
does  our  space  program  stand  in  relation  to  the  Soviets'  in  the  wake  of 
their  latest  feat?"  replied:  "The  Soviet  accomplishment  and  our  own 
scheduled  efforts  demonstrate.  I  think  dramatically  and  convincingly, 
the  important  role  that  man  himself  will  play  in  the  exploration  of  the 
space  frontier.  The  continuing  efforts  of  both  our  program  and  the 
Russian  program  will  steadily  produce  capability  and  new  space 
activity.  This  capability,  in  my  judgment,  will  help  each  nation 
achieve  broader  confidence  to  do  what  they  consider  they  ought  to  do 
in  space. 

"I  have  felt  since  the  days  when  I  introduced  the  Space  Act  and  sat 
studying  Sputnik  1  and  Sputnik  2  that  it  was  really  a  mistake  to 
regard  space  exploration  as  a  contest  which  can  be  tallied  on  any  box 
score. 

"Judgments  can  be  made  only  by  considering  all  the  objectives  of 
the  two  national  programs,  and  they  will  vary  and  they  will 
differ.  Our  own  program  is  very  broadly  based.  We  believe  very 
confidently  in  the  United  States  that  we  will  produce  contributions  that 
we  need  at  the  time  we  need  them.  For  that  reason,  I  gave  Mr.  Webb 
and  his  group  every  dollar  in  the  Budget  that  they  asked  for  a  manned 
space  flight. 

"Now  the  progress  of  our  program  is  very  satisfactory  to  me  in 
every  respect.  We  are  committed  to  peaceful  purposes  for  the  benefit 
of  all  mankind.  We  stressed  that  in  our  hearings  and  our  legislation 
when  we  passed  the  bill,  and  while  the  Soviet  is  ahead  of  us  in  some 
aspects  of  space.  U.S.  leadership  is  clear  and  decisive  and  we  are 
ahead  of  them  in  other  realms  on  which  we  have  particularly 
concentrated."      (Transcript;  Wash.  Post,  3/21/65) 

•  NASA     Aerobee     300A     sounding     rocket     was     successfully     launched 

from  Wallops  Station.  Va..  to  a  peak  altitude  of  326.2  km.  (203.6 
mi.).  Primary  objective  was  the  nighttime  measurement  of  the  den- 
sity and  temperature  of  neutral  N^  using  an  omegatron  mass  spectrom- 
eter, and  the  simultaneous  measurement  of  electron  temperature  and 
density  using  a  small  cylindrical  electrostatic  probe.  A  secondary  ob- 
jective was  the  testing  of  a  lunar  optical  sensor  especially  developed 
for  thermosphere  probe  application.  Univ.  of  Michigan  provided  the 
experiment  instrumentation.      (NASA  Rpt.  SRl) 

•  VOSKHOD  ii's  two-man  crew.  Col.  Pavel  Belyayev  and  Lt.   Col.  Aleksey 

Leonov,  rested  under  medical  supervision  at  an  undisclosed  place  in 
the  northern  Ural  mountains,  Tass  reported. 

Soviet  space  flight  headquarters  at  Baikonur  Cosmodrome  in  Ka- 
zakhstan reported  that  VOSKHOD  ll's  antennas  had  burned  away  as  the 
spacecraft  reentered  the  earth's  atmosphere.  The  descent  had  been 
tracked  by  radar  units. 

Lt.  Col.  Andrian  G.  Nikolayev,  Soviet  Cosmonaut,  said  the  order  to 
use  manual  controls  in   landing  voskhod   ii  was  given  by  a  Soviet 


140  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

ground  station.  Izvestia  reported.  It  was  not  known  whether  the  man- 
ual landing  was  part  of  the  original  program  or  was  made  necessary 
by  a  malfunction  of  the  automatic  controls.  (Shabad.  ISYT,  3/21/65, 
3) 

March  20:  Soviet  Cosmonaut  Andrian  Nikolayev  said  in  the  press  that  "all 
these  operations — the  orientation  of  Voskhod  2  and  switching  on  of  the 
braking  engine — were  performed  by  my  colleague  cosmonauts  by 
hand,  without  the  help  of  automation.  They  performed  this  task 
brilliantly.  They  carried  out  this  landing  excellently."  He  did  not 
say  if  they  had  landed  in  their  target  landing  area.  (Bait.  Sun, 
3/20/65) 

March  21:  NASA's  RANGER  IX,  equipped  with  six  television  cameras,  was 
successfully  launched  toward  the  moon  from  Cape  Kennedy  by  an 
Atlas-Agena  B.  After  the  Agena  had  carried  the  oOO-lb.  ranger  IX 
into  115-mi. -altitude  parking  orbit  with  17,500  mph  orbital  speed, 
the  Agena  engines  were  cut  off.  Second  burn  of  the  Agena  lasted 
about  90  sec,  increasing  the  velocity  to  about  24,525  mph  and  freeing 
RANGER  IX  from  the  major  pull  of  the  earth's  gravity,  ranger  ix 
then  continued  on  its  2Vo-day,  245.000-mi.  trip  to  the  moon.  About 
70  min.  after  launch,  nasa  announced  the  spacecraft  had  been  com- 
manded to  deploy  its  solar  panels  that  would  convert  solar  energy  to 
electrical  power  for  its  equipment. 

Projected  target  was  the  crater  Alphonsus,  about  12°  south  of  the 
moon's  equator,  where  gaseous  emissions  had  been  reported.  On  the 
day  of  impact,  Alphonsus  would  be  illuminated  by  slanting  sunlight, 
producing  long  shadows  and  bringing  out  subtle  surface  features. 
The  terminator — dividing  line  between  the  dark  and  sunlit  portions 
of  the  moon — would  be  only  11°   from  Alphonsus. 

Five  hours  after  lift-off,  NASA  announced  that  RANGER  ix's  course 
was  so  accurate  it  would  hit  the  moon  only  400  mi.  north  of  the  crater 
target;  an  inflight  maneuver  would  be  executed  later  to  correct  this 
small  course  error.  (NASA  Release  65-25;  Wash.  Post,  3/22/65;  Sehl- 
stedt,  Bait.  Sun,  3/22/65;  Sullivan,  NYT,  3/22/65;  WSJ,  3/22/65) 

•  Leonid  I.  Brezhnev,  Soviet  Communist  Party  First  Secretary,  talked  by 

telephone  to  Cosmonauts  Pavel  Belyayev  and  Aleksey  Leonov  and 
promised  them  a  fitting  reception  when  they  arrived  in  Moscow.  He 
thanked  them  for  the  successful  fulfillment  of  their  mission.  They 
said  they  felt  well.  Congratulations  on  the  vosKHOD  II  flight  were 
sent  to  Brezhnev  by  Mao  Tze-tung  and  other  Chinese  leaders.  Peking 
Radio  reported.  (Loory,  N.Y.  Her.  Trib.,  3/22/65;  AP,  N.Y.  Her. 
Trih.,  3/22/65 ) 

•  Soviet  Cosmonauts  Col.  Pavel  I.  Belyayev  and  Lt.  Col.  Aleksey  Leonov 

appeared  in  public  for  the  first  time  since  they  landed  VOSKHOD  II  in 
the  Perm  region  Mar.  19.  They  were  en  route  to  Baikonur  Cosmo- 
drome in  Kazakhstan  where  they  were  expected  to  undergo  detailed 
medical  checkups  and  debriefings  by  scientists  and  technicians  before 
being  welcomed  in  Moscow  in  Red  Square.  (Shabad.  NYT,  3/22/65. 
1,3) 

•  At  a  news  conference  reported  by  Soviet  press.  Col.  Pavel  Belyayev  and 

Lt.  Col.   Aleksey  Leonov,  the  two-man  crew  of  the  Soviet  spacecraft 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  141 

VOSKHOD  II,  said  they  had  sighted  an  artificial  satellite  during  their 
Mar.  18  flight:  '*We  shouted  with  surprise  when  we  saw  it  slowly 
rotating  about  800  meters  [900  yards]  from  our  ship."  Neither  the 
satellite  nor  the  orbit  in  which  it  was  traveling  was  identified. 

The  cosmonauts  related  the  part  that  each  had  played.  Col.  Be- 
lyayev  had  operated  the  controls  of  the  decompression  chamber 
through  which  his  companion  left  the  spacecraft,  recorded  Leonov's 
pulse  and  respiration  rate,  and  oriented  the  spacecraft  so  that  Leonov 
was  always  in  sunlight  during  the  televised  sequence  transmitted  to 
earth.  Col.  Leonov  said  that  when  he  opened  the  hatch  of  the  air  lock 
after  decompression,  he  was  "struck  by  a  flow  of  blindingly  bright 
sunlight  like  an  arc  of  electric  welding."  The  spacecraft  was  in  its 
second  orbit,  passing  over  Kerch  Strait.  Space  had  an  unexpected 
aspect,  he  said:  "Ahead  of  me  was  black  sky,  very  black.  The  sun 
was  not  radiant,  just  a  smooth  disc  without  an  aureole.  Below  was 
the  smooth-level  earth.  You  could  not  tell  it  was  a  sphere,  only  by  the 
fact  that  the  round  edge  showed  on  the  horizon."  The  acrobatics 
tired  Leonov.  especially  because  of  the  eifort  required  to  move.  He 
said  that  although  the  program  required  that  he  carefully  wind  the 
rope  that  had  tethered  him  to  the  craft,  he  found  it  "a  waste  of  time" 
and  simply  pulled  it  into  the  hatch.  "The  commander  quickly  closed 
the  hatch  cover  and  injected  pressure  into  the  air  lock,"  Leonov  said. 

Describing  the  manually  controlled  landing,  Col.  Belyayev  said  the 
controls  were  switched  on  in  time  and  all  systems  had  "worked  without 
a  hitch."  He  said  the  spacecraft  landed  in  the  northern  Ural  moun- 
tains between  two  big  spruce  trees  in  snow  5-10  ft.  deep.  (Shabad, 
/Vyr,  3/23/65,  1,23) 

March  21:  Over  500  contractors  shared  the  work  in  NASA's  $1.35  billion 
Gemini  manned  space  flight  project,  it  was  reported.  The  biggest 
contractors  were  aircraft  companies,  but  computer  manufacturers, 
major  airlines,  telephone  companies,  and  small  businesses,  manu- 
facturing highly  specialized  items  were  included.  ( Hines,  Wash.  Sun. 
Star,  3/21/65) 

March  22:  In  NASA  FY  1966  authorization  hearings  before  the  Senate  Com- 
mittee on  Aeronautical  and  Space  Sciences,  NASA  Administrator  James 
E.  Webb  testified:  "Among  the  hard  decisions  and  difficult  choices 
which  had  to  be  made  in  the  preparation  of  this  budget  was  the  deci- 
sion to  terminate  the  programs  to  develop  the  M-1  large  liquid  hydro- 
gen fueled  engine,  the  large  260-inch  solid  propellant  motor,  and  the 
SNAP-8  nuclear  electric  power  supply.  The  reduction  in  the  requests 
for  space  technology  activities  amounting  to  about  S48  million  when 
compared  with  fiscal  year  1965,  results  mostly  from  these 
terminations.  However,  as  this  Committee  knows,  there  is  pending 
before  it  notification  of  a  plan  to  reprogram  $16,950,000  of  1965 
funds  so  that  these  projects  can  be  carried  forward  into  1966  to  appro- 
priate developmental  points  at  which  important  segments  of  the  engi- 
neering data  for  which  the  projects  were  originally  planned  can  be 
obtained  for  incorporation  in  our  total  bank  of  technological  and  engi- 
neering knowledge." 

Mr.  Webb  was  questioned  by  Sen.  Walter  F.  Mondale  ( D-Minn. )  on 
when  the  first  U.S.  extravehicular  activity  was  planned,  and  he  replied: 
"Within  the  next  year.     We  are  not  sure  on  which  GEMINI  flight  we 


142  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

will  do  it  as  yet."  Senator  Mondale  asked:  "When  do  we  plan  our 
first  rendezvous  maneuver?"'  and  Mr.  Webb  replied:  "Within  the  next 
year,  maybe  the  latter  part  of  this  year."  (Testimony;  !\'ASA  Auth. 
Hearings,  623,  663) 
March  22:  Testifying  before  the  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astro- 
nautic's  Subcommittee  on  Space  Sciences,  NASA  Associate  Administrator 
Dr.  Homer  E.  Newell  said  that  since  success  of  any  program  was  meas- 
ured by  the  nature  of  the  data  provided.  MMBUS  I  had  more  than 
achieved  design  objectives:  ".  .  .  during  its  three  and  one-half  weeks 
of  life.  Nimbus  took  12.137  individual  frames  of  AVCS  pictures,  an 
estimated  1,930  apt  cycles,  and  over  6.880  minutes  of  hrir  data.  Hur- 
ricanes Cleo.  Dora,  Ethel,  and  Florence  were  observed  and  Typhoons 
Ruby  and  Sally  in  the  Pacific  were  located  by  this  spacecraft.  .  .  . 

"The  launch  and  successful  operation  of  Nimbus  I  has  proved  the 
success  of  the  basic  Nimbus  spacecraft  design.  It  has  also  given  NASA 
a  better  insight  as  to  what  additional  modifications  will  be  required  in 
the  system  design  for  the  next  Nimbus  flight.  As  mentioned  previous- 
ly, the  primary  limitation  of  the  first  Nimbus  flight  was  the  result  of 
the  failure  of  the  Agena  B  vehicle  to  inject  the  spacecraft  in  the  proper 
polar,  near-circular  orbit  and  the  failure  in  the  spacecraft  solar  paddle 
rotation  mechanism.  The  first  of  these  failures  resulted  in  less  than 
complete  global  cloud  coverage  and  the  second  reduced  spacecraft 
lifetime.  .  .  ."      {Testimony;  NASA  Auth.  Hearings,  928-35) 

•  Telemetry  data  from  ranger  ix  indicated  that  the  probe  was  on  such  an 

accurate  course  toward  the  moon  that  JPL  engineers  decided  to  delay 
for  one  day  a  planned  mid-course  correction.  RANGER  IX  began  its 
245,500-mi.  trip  to  the  moon  Mar.  21,  and  was  144,488  mi.  from  earth 
at  9  p.m.  EST.  ( UPI,  Wash.  Daily  Neivs,  3/22/65 ;  Hines,  Wash.  Eve. 
Star,  3/22/65;  ap,  Phil.  Eve.  Bull.,  3/22/65) 

•  More  than  900  representatives  of  news  media  had  been  accredited,  mak- 

ing the  GT-3  mission  of  Astronauts  Virgil  I.  Grissom  and  John  W. 
Young  the  most  intensely  covered  event  in  the  history  of  space  ex- 
ploration. Nearly  1,200  newsmen  had  requested  credentials  from  nasa. 
(Wash.  Eve.  Star,  3/23/65) 

•  In  an  editorial  in  Aviation  Week  and  Space  Technology,  editor  Robert 

Hotz  said:  "The  trail-blazing  mission  of  the  Soviet  Voskhod  2  still  is 
continuing  as  these  lines  are  written,  but  it  has  already  opened  a  new 
chapter  in  the  history  of  man's  conquest  of  space.  It  also  has  empha- 
sized again  that,  unless  some  drastic  changes  are  made,  this  history 
will  be  written  primarily  in  the  Russian  Cyrillic  alphabet  with  only  an 
occasional  U.S.  footnote  technically  necessary.  .  .  . 

"All  of  this  Soviet  progress  again  emphasizes  strongly  the  ultra-con- 
servatism of  the  U.S.  manned  space  flight  program  and  the  utter  inade- 
quacy of  the  tiny  step-by-step  approach  that  sounds  so  convincing 
when  defending  under-funded  programs.  This  approach  is  sounding 
more  and  more  idiotic  in  the  face  of  Soviet  space  achievements.  .  .  . 

"Each  Soviet  manned  space  flight  makes  it  clearer  that  the  Russians 
are  widening  their  lead  over  the  U.S.  in  this  vital  area.  It  also  makes 
it  clear  that  the  many  billions  the  American  people  have  poured  will- 
ingly into  our  national  space  program  for  the  purpose  of  wresting  this 
leadership  from  the  Soviets  are  not  going  to  achieve  that  goal  under 
the  present  management.  .  .  ."      {Hotz,  Av.  Wk. ,3/22/65,  1\) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  143 

March  22:  Reporting  on  public  reactions  to  the  two-man  Gemini  flight 
scheduled  for  Mar.  23,  Samuel  Lubell  said  in  an  editorial  in  the  Wash- 
ington Daily  News:  "In  recent  weeks  more  than  half  of  the  persons 
interviewed  said  funds  for  moon  trips  would  be  the  part  of  the  Federal 
budget  they  would  cut  first.  Another  third  named  space  exploration  in 
general.  This  interviewing  took  place  before  Russia's  space  exploit  of 
last  Thursday."      ( Lubell,  Wash.  Daily  Neivs,  3/22/65) 

•  NASA  Langley  Research  Center  scientists  Arthur  L.  Newcomb,  Jr.,  Nelson 

J.  Groom,  and  Norman  M.  Hatcher  reported  their  work  on  an  infrared 
sensing  instrument  to  help  a  spacecraft  determine  which  way  was  up,  at 
the  IEEE  national  convention.  The  device  described  was  sensitive  to 
the  difference  between  infrared  radiation  in  space  and  that  emitted  by 
a  planetary  or  lunar  body;  it  employed  a  mechanically-driven  system 
of  mirrors  to  scan  the  region  of  space  in  which  it  was  operating.  Ra- 
diation gathered  bv  the  mirrors  was  focused  into  four  germanium  lens- 
es, each  containing  a  thermistor  sensitive  to  infrared.  When  the  scan- 
ning mirror  crossed  the  horizon  of  a  planet,  the  increase  or  decrease 
registered  on  the  thermistor  and  generated  an  electronic  signal  that 
could  be  processed  through  a  series  of  special  circuits  to  provide  a 
stabilizing  or  control  command  to  the  spacecraft. 

The  new  sensor  concept  was  expected  to  be  useful  for  weather  and 
communications  satellites,  as  well  as  for  space  probes  and  other  types 
of  spacecraft.      (LaRC  Release) 

•  Britain's  Blue  Streak  Rocket,  first  stage  of  the  European  Launcher  De- 

velopment Organization's  (eldo)  satellite  project,  was  successfully 
launched  to  an  altitude  of  150  mi.  from  Woomera,  Australia. 
(Reuters,  Wash.  Post,  3/23/65) 

•  Reasons    for    choosing    the    moon    crater    Alphonsus    as    the    target    for 

RANGER  IX  were  given  by  David  Hoffman  in  an  article  in  the  New 
York  Herald  Tribune:  "First,  they  are  just  plain  curious.  Rangers  7 
and  8  photographed  two  lunar  seas  and  taught  scientists  that  all  such 
'maria'  are  pretty  much  the  same.  Now  scientists  want  pictorial  cov- 
erage of  the  moon's  rugged  highlands. 

"Alphonsus'  walls  rise  7,000  to  10,000  feet  above  its  crater  floor, 
and  in  the  basin  thus  formed  astronomers  have  observed  reddish  gas 
seeping  from  the  surface.  The  question,  then,  is  whether  Alphonsus  is 
really  a  lunar  equivalent  of  a  live  volcano. 

"Second,  some  space  experts  believe  Apollo  astronauts,  as  they  de- 
scend on  the  moon,  may  encounter  an  emergency.  That  emergency 
might  force  them  down  in  the  moon  mountains  instead  of  onto  a  flat 
lunar  plain.  Accordingly,  NASA  wants  to  know  surface  roughness  of 
the  smoothest  part  of  the  moon  mountains. 

"Third,  there  are  some  who  believe  the  smoothest  areas  on  the  moon 
actually  lie  within  the  great  craters  (Alphonsus'  diameter  is  70 
miles).  If  this  proves  true,  astronauts  might  select  a  crater  floor  as 
their  touchdown  point,  assuming  there  is  no  volcanic  activity."  (Hoff- 
man, A'.y.  Her.  Trib.,  3/23/65) 

•  Theo  E.  Sims,  Manager  of  nasa  Langley  Research  Center's  Project  Ram, 

reported  results  of  reentry  communications  blackout  research  before 
the  IEEE  national  convention  in  New  York.  Sims  said  significant 
progress  had  been  made  toward  understanding  the  fundamental  nature 


144  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

of  the  blackout  problem  and  suggested  that  vehicle  shape  selection, 
signal  frequency  choice,  use  of  static  magnetic  fields,  and  material 
addition  to  the  flow  field  were  all  possible  solutions. 

Flight  experiments,  he  indicated,  had  shown  the  materials  addition 
technique  to  be  useful  at  speeds  up  to  12,000  mph,  and  an  experiment 
to  be  flown  on  the  first  manned  Gemini  spacecraft  would  attempt  to 
demonstrate  the  effectiveness  of  water  addition  at  even  higher 
speeds.  (LaRC  Release) 
March  22:  nasa's  actions  in  releasing  foreign  satellite  information  were 
criticized  in  a  report  by  the  House  Committee  on  Government 
Operations,  based  on  study  by  its  Foreign  Operations  and  Government 
Information  Subcommittee.  Committee  stated  NASA  had  deleted  from 
its  biweekly  Satellite  Situation  Report  certain  Soviet  launches  because 
they  were  designated  as  secret  information  by  Norad.  "NASA  has  not 
once  challenged  these  security  classifications,  blindly  accepting  the  mil- 
itary decision.  .  .  ."  Compounding  the  problem,  NASA  had  "publi- 
cized the  facts  about  Soviet  failures  [Sept.  15,  1962,  letter  from  Ad- 
ministrator Webb  to  Senate  and  House  space  committees]  after  those 
facts  had  been  carefully  deleted  from  its  routine  report  of  satellite 
information. 

".  .  .  NASA  has  ignored  two  clear  requirements  of  law — the  require- 
ment for  civilian  control  over  nonmilitary  space  activities  and  the  re- 
quirement for  the  fullest  possible  flow  of  public  information.  By 
yielding,  automatically,  to  the  military  judgment  on  what  the  Ameri- 
can people  shall  know  about  Soviet  space  activities,  NASA  fails  to  imple- 
ment its  legal  mandate.  By  playing  an  on-again,  off-again  secrecy 
game,  NASA  tends  to  confuse  the  American  public.  .  .  . 

"Therefore,  the  committee  recommends  that,  in  every  possible  in- 
stance consistent  with  the  dictates  of  national  security,  NASA  exercise 
its  right  to  challenge  military-imposed  restrictions  by  requiring 
justification  and,  thus,  carry  out  the  mandate  to  keep  the  American 
people  informed.  .  .  ."      (House  Rpt.  197) 

•  FAA  issued   a  special   regulation   banning   unauthorized   aircraft  of  U.S. 

registry  from  the  designated  recovery  and  associated  areas  "during 
the  time  determined  to  be  necessary  for  the  safe  conduct  of  the 
Gemini  flight  and  recovery  operations."      (faa  Release  65-21) 

•  AFSc's  6595th   Aerospace   Test   Wing   assumed    responsibility    for   Atlas 

launches  into  the  Air  Force  Western  Test  Range  in  support  of  the 
Army  Nike  antimissile  program  and  the  USAF  Advanced  Ballistic 
Reentry  Systems  (Abres)  program.      (AFSC  Release  46.65) 

•  Newsweek    reported    that    plans    to    capture    world's    speed    record   with 

yf-12a  "mystery  plane"  had  been  blocked  by  Defense  Secretary 
McNamara  because  he  felt  Congress  might  press  for  mass  production 
of  the  jet — a  move  he  opposed.  Present  record  was  held  by  U.S.S.R. 
{Newsweek,  3/22/65) 

•  "[Dr.  Robert  H.]   Goddard's  dream  was  the  object  of  derision  39  years 

ago.  Who,  we  must  wonder,  is  the  dreamer  today  who  is  being 
ignored?  Where  is  he?  What  is  he  working  on  that  will  change  this 
world  so  vastly  39  years  from  now?  .  .  ."  These  were  queries  in  an 
editorial  by  William  J.  Coughlin  in  Missiles  and  Rockets.  Coughlin  la- 
mented the  fact  that  much  of  the  U.S.   technological  progress  in   the 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 


145 


missile/space  field  was  directly  keyed  to  a  race  with  the  Soviet 
Union.  He  said  that  "if  we  do  not  provide  the  atmosphere  and  sup- 
port required  for  the  acceptance  of  bold  new  challenges,  the  onward 
pace  of  U.S.  science  and  technologv  will  falter,  then  stop."  [M&R, 
3/22/65,  46) 


March  23:  gemini  hi  Astro- 
nauts John  W.  Young  (fore- 
ground) and  Virgil  I.  Grissom 
in  spacecraft  immediately 
prior  to  launch. 


March  23:  NASA's  GEMINI  ill  spacecraft  ("Molly  Brown"),  with  Astro- 
naut Virgil  I.  Grissom  (Maj.,  usaf  )  as  command  pilot  and  Astronaut 
John  W.  Young  (LCdr.,  USN )  as  pilot,  was  successfully  launched 
from  Eastern  Test  Range  on  three-orbit  GT-3  mission  by  a  two-stage 
Titan  ii. 

Within  six  minutes  after  lift-off,  GEMINI  III  and  its  two  astronauts 
were  injected  into  elliptical  orbit  with  apogee,  224  km.  (139  mi.)  ; 
perigee,  161  km.  ( 100  mi. )  ;  period,  88  min.  Speed  of  spacecraft  was 
16,600  mph.  Toward  the  end  of  the  first  orbit,  93  min.  after  launch- 
ing, the  first  maneuver  was  performed:  Grissom  fired  two  small 
thruster  rockets  that  pushed  "backward"  on  the  spacecraft,  slowing  it 
down  by  about  45  mph.  Lessened  velocity  caused  GEMINI  III  to 
drop  in  altitude  to  a  near-circular  orbit  with  apogee,  169  km.  (105 
mi.)  ;  perigee,  158  km.  (98  mi.).  Second  maneuver  occurred  during 
second  orbit:  Astronaut  Grissom  used  the  thrusters  to  turn  the  space- 
craft broadside  to  its  flight  path.  Then  he  gave  a  burst  that  pushed 
the  craft  about  l/50th  of  a  degree  from  the  original  course;  short 
bursts,  fired  rapidly,  slowed  the  craft  and  he  turned  it  into  a  course 
nearly  parallel  to  his  original  one.  Third  maneuver  came  in  the  third 
orbit:  Grissom  fired  the  spacecraft  thruster  rockets,  dropping  into  an 
orbit  with  perigee  of  82  km.  (52  mi.).  Manually  controlling  reentry, 
the  astronauts  turned  the  spacecraft's  blunt  end  forward,  ejected  the 


146  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

section  carrying  the  retrorockets.  Four  hours  and  53  min.  after 
launching,  gemim  hi  safely  landed  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean  off  Grand 
Turk  Island,  considerably  off  target  and  some  50-60  mi.  away  from 
the  recovery  ship.  Intrepid.  Navy  frogmen  from  hovering  aircraft 
fastened  a  float  around  GEMINI  iii.  Original  plans  had  called  for 
the  spacecraft,  with  the  astronauts  still  inside,  to  be  hoisted  aboard  the 
recovery  ship  and  immediate  medical  checks  made.  When  Grissom 
became  seasick  the  men  were  picked  up  by  helicopter  and  landed  on  the 
Intrepid :  the  spacecraft  was  recovered  later. 

The  astronauts  helped  perform  two  experiments.  One  was  the  irra- 
diation of  human  blood  to  test  the  combined  effects  on  it  of  weightless- 
ness and  irradiation.  The  other  was  to  squirt  small  jets  of  water  into 
the  plasma  sheath  that  surrounded  the  spacecraft  as  it  reentered  the 
earth's  atmosphere,  testing  a  theory  that  a  fluid  flowing  through  the 
ionized  layer  of  atoms  would  permit  radio  signals  to  penetrate  the 
communications  blackout  common  to  reentry. 

Gemini  officials  said  that,  so  far  as  was  known,  this  was  the  first 
time  a  manned  spacecraft  had  maneuvered  in  orbit,  changing  its  orbit- 
al path.  (NASA  Release  65-81;  NASA  Transcript;  Clark,  NYT, 
3/24/65,  1,  22;  Simons,  Wash.  Post,  3/24/65;  Bishop,  WSJ, 
3/24/65) 
March  23:  ranger  ix  underwent  a  midcourse  correction  maneuver  at  7:03 
a.m.  EST  that  would  aim  the  spacecraft  more  accurately  for  impact  on 
the  moon  crater  Alphonsus  on  Mar.  24.  The  maneuver  consisted  of  a 
series  of  radio  signals  that  changed  the  spacecraft's  attitude  and  then, 
through  a  31-sec.  burn  of  a  small  jet  engine,  speeded  up  its  flight  by 
40.6  mph.  RANGER  IX  was  then  175,416  mi.  from  earth,  traveling  at 
2.943  mph. 

Newly  estimated  impact  point  was  12.9°  south  latitude  and  2.3°  west 
longitude — only  four  miles  from  the  original  target  point  of  13°  south 
latitude  and  2.5°  west  longitude.  Before  the  correction  maneuver, 
RANGER  IX  was  headed  for  a  point  about  400  mi.  north  of  Alphonsus. 

J  PL  Director  Dr.  William  H.  Pickering  said  during  a  press  confer- 
ence that  the  landing  should  be  well  out  of  the  shadow  of  the  towering 
peak  in  the  center  of  Alphonsus — a  possibility  that  had  caused  JPL 
scientists  some  concern  since  light  was  needed  for  the  picture-taking. 
{LA.  Times,  West,  Wash.  Post,  3/24/65;  Hill,  NYT,  3/23/65,  1) 

•  President  Johnson  told  Astronauts  Virgil  I.  Grissom  and  John  W.  Young 

during  a  telephone  call:  "Your  mission  .  .  .  confirms  once  again 
the  vital  role  that  man  has  to  play  in  space  exploration,  and 
particularly  in  the  peaceful  use  of  the  frontier  of  space.  I  am  sure 
you  would  be  the  first  to  say  that  on  this  flight,  as  well  as  on  our  other 
manned  flights  in  space,  there  were  heroes  on  the  ground  as  well  as  in 
space,  and  the  record  made  by  men  like  Jim  Webb,  Dr.  Dryden,  and 
Dr.  Seamans,  as  well  as  all  of  those  at  the  Cape,  Cape  Kennedy,  and 
around  the  world,  is  a  very  proud  record  under  Project  Mercury  and 
now  on  Project  Gemini.  And  to  all  of  those  who  have  helped  to  make 
our  space  flights  safe  and  successful,  I  want  to  .  .  .  say  'Well 
done'."      (Wash.  Eve.  Star,  3/24/65) 

•  Vice   President    (and   NASC   Chairman)    Hubert   H.   Humphrey,   visiting 

Cape   Kennedy    for   the   day,   congratulated    Astronauts   Grissom   and 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  147 

Young  and  commended  all  participants  throughout  the  world  for  "this 
tremendous  flight  of  three  orbits. 

".  .  .  this  step  forward  commits  us  to  the  next  project.  Once  we 
have  completed  the  Gemini  series,  we  move  on  to  the  Apollo  Project 
and  we  move  on  even  beyond  that.  .  .  .  Let  me  say  that  the  Ameri- 
can economy  is  better  because  of  the  space  program.  American  edu- 
cation is  better  because  of  the  space  program.  American  industry  is 
better  because  of  the  space  program  and  Americans  are  better  because 
of  the  space  program.  We  are  emphasizing  here  one  great  character 
of  American  life — excellence,  performance,  achievement.  .  .  .  These 
are  efforts  well  made  and  money  well  spent.  .  .  ."  (Transcript) 
March  23:  Following  the  GT-3  space  flight,  Dr.  George  E.  Mueller,  NASA 
Associate  Administrator  for  Manned  Space  Flight,  said  at  a  press 
conference:  "This  particular  flight  is  noteworthy  for  many  reasons. 
Perhaps  most  importantly  it  is  the  first  manned  flight  of  a  Gemini  ve- 
hicle and  it  represents,  then,  the  first  step  in  the  remaining  twelve 
Gemini  flights.  In  this  flight  ...  we  did  for  the  first  time  carry  out 
an  orbital  maneuver  in  space.  Another  first  was  the  first  demonstra- 
tion of  reentry  control.  We  did  control  reentry  landing  point  on  this 
mission.  Another  first  was  the  use  of  Syncom  for  communications 
with  the  Coastal  Sentry  Quebec  during  the  course  of  the  flight."  (NASA 
Transcript) 

•  AFSC  Commander  Gen.  Bernard  A.  Schriever  said  in  the  keynote  address 

at  the  Air  Force/Industry  Planning  Seminar  in  Dayton  that  "we  need 
a  broader  perspective  and  greater  vision  in  our  conceptual 
planning  ...  we  need  to  be  more  farsighted."  He  continued:  "The 
Soviet  Union  is  making  a  major  effort  to  surpass  us  in  science  and 
technology.  The  Soviets  now  have  approximately  the  same  number  of 
scientists  and  engineers  that  we  have.  But  every  year  they  graduate 
an  average  of  200,000  scientific  and  technical  students  as  compared 
with  about  120,000  a  year  in  this  country.  It  is  also  worth  noting 
that  the  number  of  scientific  institutions  in  Russia  has  grown  from 
about  3000  in  1957  to  about  5000  in  1965. 

"Both  of  these  facts  indicate  that  the  Soviets  are  deadly  serious 
when  they  talk  about  the  importance  of  science  and  technology  to  their 
global  ambitions.  We  must  more  than  match  their  effort,  not  only  too 
maintain  our  national  security  but  also  to  keep  our  world 
markets."      (Text) 

•  World  Meteorological  Day  was  celebrated  by  the  125  member  nations 

of  the  World  Meteorological  Organization,  a  specialized  agency  of  the 
United   Nations.      (Commerce   Dept.   Release  WB) 

•  An  editorial  in  Red  Star,  the  Soviet   Defense  Ministry  newspaper,   re- 

vealed that  the  booster  that  had  launched  VOSKHOD  ii  had  developed 
1.43  million  lbs.  of  thrust.  The  article  said  Soviet  rockets  were  "un- 
matched" and  that  the  voskhod  ii  flight  "expedites  the  appearance  of 
orbital  stations  and  the  landing  of  people  in  the  heavenly 
bodies."      (Loory,  N.Y.  Her.  Trib.,  3/24/65) 

•  Cape  Kennedy  and  Moscow's  Red  Square  were  linked  in  a  British  televi- 

sion program,  "East  Meets  West,"  marking  U.S.  and  Soviet  space 
achievements.  First  part  of  the  program  showed  the  triumphant  re- 
turn to  Moscow  of  Cosmonauts  Pavel  Belyayev  and  Aleksey 
Leonov.     Then  the  scene  switched  to  Cape  Kennedy  to  show  prepara- 


148 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 


tions  for  the  GT-3  flight  of  Astronauts  Virgil  Grissom  and  John 
Young.  Both  parts  were  screened  "live"- — the  Moscow  scenes  via 
Eurovision  and  the  Cape  Kennedy  one  via  communications  satel- 
lite,    (ap,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  3/24/65) 


V 


^ 


>% 


'^w     I   ■    '"*•, 


F  -' '  '^i^k^ 


March  24:    kanger  ix  photograph  of  nioim.  38.8  seconds  befoi( 
above  lunar  surface. 


id  o8  miles 


March  24:  After  transmitting  5,814  close-up  lunar  pictures  to  earth,  RANGER 
IX,  traveling  at  5,977  mph.  impacted  the  moon  at  9:08  a.m.  est  at 
12.9°  south  latitude  and  2.4°  west  longitude  in  the  crater 
Alphonsus.  The  10-ft.,  oOO-lb.  spacecraft,  last  in  the  Ranger  series, 
was  only  four  miles  off  target.  NASA  had  made  real-time  TV  coverage 
available  and  the  three  major  networks  broadcast  "live"  pictures  dur- 
ing the  last  ten  minutes  of  ranger  ix's  flight.  First  pictures,  taken  as 
the  photographic  probe  was  1,300  mi.  from  the  moon,  had  about  the 
same  degree  of  detail  as  telescopic  views  from  earth.  Those  taken  a 
few  seconds  before  impact  defined  objects  as  small  as  10  in.  across, 
including  close-ups  of  canal-like  rilles  on  the  floor  of  the  crater  and 
dimple-like  depressions  at  points  along  the  rilles. 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  149 

Photographs  shown  on  television  were  taken  hy  the  "B"  camera,  one 
of  two  wide-angle  cameras  used.  Four  narrow-angle  cameras  took 
other  shots.  Pictures  were  received  on  o5-ft.  antennas  at  Jet  Propul- 
sion Laboratory's  Goldstone  Tracking  Station  in  the  Mojave  Desert 
and  recorded  on  both  35mm  film  and  magnetic  tape  for  detailed 
analysis.  Simultaneously  signals  were  relayed  by  microwave  to  the 
JPL  laboratory  in  Pasadena  where  an  electronic  scan  converter  "trans- 
lated" electronic  impulses  from  the  1.152-lines-per-picture  of  the 
RANGER  IX  signal  system  to  the  standard  500  lines  of  commercial 
television. 

The  Pianger  program  had  begun  inauspiciously  in  1961  with  a  series 
of  failures  and  near-misses.  Rangers  1  and  2  had  been  designed  to 
test  the  spacecraft  and  launch  vehicle  but  were  not  injected  into  the 
desired  orbit,  ranger  hi.  iv,  and  v  were  to  rough-land  a  seismo- 
meter package  on  the  moon  to  record  moon  quakes,  and  to  transmit 
closeup  photos  of  the  moon  to  earth  by  radio.  None  of  the  missions 
was  successful,  ranger  vi,  first  of  the  reworked  and  redesigned 
spacecraft,  impacted  within  17  mi.  of  its  point  of  aim — but  its  televi- 
sion system  failed.  On  July  31,  1964,  ranger  VII  successfully  re- 
layed to  earth  4.316  high-quaHty  close-up  photos  of  the  lunar 
surface,  ranger  yiii.  launched  on  Feb.  20,  1965,  transmitted  7,137 
pictures.  Total  number  of  photographs  from  ranger  vii,  viii,  and 
IX  was  17.267.  (nasa  Release  65-96;  Sullivan,  NYT,  3/22/65,  1;  ap, 
Dighton,  Wash.  Post,  3/25/65,  Al,  A12,  A16;  Hill,  NYT,  3/25/65,  1, 
23;  NASA  Proj.  Off.) 
March  24:  A  panel  of  scientists  analyzed  slides  of  the  ranger  ix  lunar 
pictures  at  a  post-impact  press  conference  and  noted  that  crater  rims — 
some  with  level  areas — and  ridges  inside  the  walls  seemed  harder  than 
the  plains  but  that  floors  of  the  craters  appeared  to  be  solidified  vol- 
canic froth  that  would  not  support  a  landing  vehicle.  Volcanic  activi- 
ty was  inferred  from  indications  that  the  moon  had  at  least  three  types 
of  craters  not  caused  by  meteorite  impact. 

Dr.  Ewan  A.  Whitaker  of  the  Lunar  and  Planetary  Laboratory  of 
the  Univ.  of  Arizona  said  parts  of  the  highlands  around  the  crater 
Alphonsus  and  ridges  within  it  seemed  harder  and  smoother  than  the 
dusty  lunar  plains.  Dr.  Gerard  P.  Kuiper  of  the  same  laboratory  said 
of  the  crater:  "It  might  well  be  better  to  make  landings  there." 

Most  significant  finding  of  ranger  ix's  photographs,  according  to 
Dr.  Eugene  Shoemaker  of  the  U.S.  Geological  Survey,  was  the  smooth- 
ness of  the  crater  walls  and  of  the  long  ridges  on  the  floor  of  the 
crater. 

Dr.  Harold  Urey  of  the  Univ.  of  California  referred  to  black  patches 
in  the  pictures  which  he  said  might  be  composed  of  graphite: 
".  .  .  these  dark  halo  craters  are  due  to  some  sort  of  plutonic  activity 
beneath  the  surface  of  the  moon.  They  do  not  look  to  me  like  ter- 
restrial volcanoes.  .  .  .  They  look  like  a  unique  lunar  type  of 
object."  Dr.  Urey  said  a  Soviet  scientist  had  reported  a  red  flare 
near  a  peak  in  Alphonsus  and  that  analysis  had  indicated  presence  of  a 
molecule  with  two  carbon  atoms.  He  said  this  was  "a  very  curious 
situation  because  this  molecule  .  .  .  does  not  escape  from  any  known 
volcano"  on  earth,      (nasa  Transcript) 


150  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

March  24:  After  watching  televised  pictures  of  the  moon's  surface  trans- 
mitted by  RANGER  IX,  President  Johnson  issued  a  congratulatory  state- 
ment that  said:  "Ranger  9  showed  the  world  further  evidence  of  the 
dramatic  accomplishments  of  the  United  States  space  team.  Coming 
so  close  after  yesterday's  Gemini  success,  this  far-out  photography  re- 
veals the  balance  of  the  United  States  space  program. 

"Steps  toward  the  manned  flight  to  the  moon  have  become  rapid  and 
coordinated  strides,  as  manned  space  maneuvers  of  one  day  are  fol- 
lowed by  detailed  pictures  of  the  moon  on  the  next. 

"I  congratulate  the  scientists,  the  engineers,  the  managers — private 
contractors  as  well  as  Government — all  who  made  this  Ranger  shot  and 
the  successes  of  its  predecessors  the  great  space  advances  that  they  have 
been."     (Text,  A^FT,  3/25/65) 

•  First  Biosatellite  nose-cone  test  was  conducted  at  White  Sands  Missile 

Range  to  evaluate  aerodynamic  and  reentry  characteristics  of  the 
spacecraft  designed  to  carry  biological  specimens  into — and  back  from 
— space,  afcrl's  balloon-launch  group  was  assisting  NASA  in  con- 
ducting the  tests,  which  involved  carrying  the  nose  cones  by  balloons 
to  88,000-100,000-ft.  altitudes,  releasing  them,  then  studying  their  be- 
havior during  descent.  Evaluated  were  the  drogue  ejection  mecha- 
nism, deployment  of  parachute  systems,  descent  rate,  and  vehicle  oscil- 
lation and  impact  velocity.  A  second  successful  test  was  conducted 
April  29.      (OAR  Research  Review,  7/65,  30) 

•  An  editorial  in  the  Baltimore  Sun  said:   "Yesterday's  Gemini  flight  is 

described  as  'historic'  and  so  it  was.  So  too  is  each  successful  new 
space  exploration,  launched  by  whatever  country,  manned  or 
unmanned.  .  .  .  What  is  happening  is  that  a  body  of  knowledge  is 
being  accumulated  through  increasingly  accurate  photographs  and  in- 
creasingly sophisticated  exercises  and  experiences  on  the  part  of  the 
adventurers  of  our  age,  the  astronauts.  .  .  ."      (Bait.  Sun,  3/24/65) 

•  XB-70A   experimental   supersonic  bomber   broke   world   aviation   weight 

and  speed  endurance  records  during  a  one-hour  40  min.  flight.  It 
took  off  weighing  500,000  lbs.,  the  heaviest  at  which  any  aircraft  had 
been  flown,  and  flew  at  continuous  supersonic  speeds  for  80  min., 
longer  than  any  other  aircraft  had.  It  cruised  at  a  top  speed  of  1,400 
mph  and  was  piloted  by  Al  White  and  Van  Shepard.  (ap.  Wash. 
Post,  3/25/65;  NYT,  3/25/65;  ap.  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  3/26/65) 

•  An    editorial    in    the   Washington    Evening    Star    said:     ".  .  .  judging 

from  Soviet  cosmonaut  Leonov's  spectacular  'walk'  in  the  high 
heavens  last  week,  the  Russians  seem  to  be  well  ahead  of  us  at  the 
moment.  Interestingly  enough,  however,  in  marked  contrast  to  the 
wide-open  American  procedure,  they  do  not  let  the  outside  world  have 
any  look  at  either  the  launching  or  the  landing  of  their 
spacemen.  This  furtiveness  makes  one  wonder  about  the  nature  of 
their  program  and  whether  they're  really  accomplishing  as  much  as 
they  claim  to  be. 

"In  any  case,  regardless  of  what  the  Russians  are  hiding,  there  can 
be  no  doubt  that  the  Grissom-Young  flight  represents  an  important 
advance  for  the  United  States  in  the  race  to  the  moon.  Technically, 
we  are  ahead  of  the  Reds  in  many  respects,  and  it  is  entirely  possible 
that  we'll  make  lunar  landings  before  them."  (Wash.  Eve.  Star, 
3/24/65) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  151 

March  24:  An  editorial  in  the  New  York  Herald  Tribune  referred  to  the 
U.S.-U.S.S.R.  race  for  the  moon:  "The  moon  remains  an  elusive  tar- 
get, but  it  gets  closer  all  the  time.  .  .  . 

"Ideally,  this  should  be  a  cooperative  venture,  enlisting  the  common 
efforts  of  the  peoples  of  all  nations;  instead,  so  far  at  least,  it  is  a  race 
between  the  United  States  and  the  Soviet  Union.  Because  it  is  a  race; 
because  space  technology  is,  in  major  part,  inseparable  from  military 
technology:  because  space  prestige  is,  however  illogically,  a  factor  in 
the  struggle  to  keep  the  earth  free,  we  have  to  compete.  NASA's 
ambitious  program  of  a  manned  Gemini  flight  every  three  months 
promises  a  vigorous  competitive  effort.  But  the  American  effort  does 
not  parallel  that  of  the  Soviets;  each  is  giving  priority  to  different 
techniques,  and  the  comparative  standings  in  the  race  are  hard  to 
measure.  What  is  clear,  however,  is  that  the  Grissom-Young  flight 
has  carried  the  American  program  a  long  way  forward — and  beyond 
that,  and  more  importantly  in  the  long  perspective  of  history,  it  has 
brought  closer  the  day  when  man,  not  American  man  or  Soviet  man, 
finally  breaks  the  terrestrial  bonds  that  hold  him  to  his  native 
planet."      (TV.  Y.  Her.  Trib.,  3/24/65 ) 

•  "The  three-orbit  flight  by  Virgil  I.  Grissom  and  John  W.  Young  was  in 

some  ways  the  most  remarkable  space  trip  yet  accomplished  by  this 
country's  astronauts,"  said  an  editorial  in  the  New  York  Times. 
"Particularly  impressive  was  the  apparent  success  of  a  series  of 
maneuvers  to  change  the  Gemini's  orbit — maneuvers  that  will  be  re- 
quired to  join  two  spacecraft  in  orbit,  notably  on  the  return  leg  of  the 
projected  manned  flight  to  the  moon."      {NYT,  3/24/65,  44) 

•  In    a    speech    before    the    National    Association     of    Broadcasters     in 

Washington,  D.C.,  Gen.  Bernard  A.  Schriever  (usaf)  remarked  that 
the  Soviet's  space  science  timetable  "always  seems  to  put  them  one  step 
ahead  of  us."  He  said:  "It  is  still  true  that  we  lead  in  some  aspects  of 
space  exploration,  such  as  the  total  number  of  space  shots,  number  of 
scientific  probes,  and  practical  applications  of  space  satellites  for  such 
purposes  as  communications  and  weather  observation.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  Soviets  lead  in  a  number  of  areas  with  both  propaganda  and 
practical  implications. 

".  .  .  Thus,  they  have  put  into  space  the  first  satellite,  the  first 
living  creature,  the  first  man,  the  first  woman,  the  first  multi-man 
space  ship  and  now  the  first  man  to  step  out  of  the  capsule  and  into 
space  itself.  They  also  hold  the  world  record  for  time  in  orbit,  orbital 
distance,  orbital  weight  lifted,  and  highest  orbital  altitude.   .  .  . 

"How  will  the  Soviets  use  their  space  capabilities?  ...  we  are  in- 
terested. .  .  ." 

Gen.  Schriever  said  ground  tests  would  begin  shortly  for  a  collapsi- 
ble and  expandable  space  laboratory  for  possible  use  as  a  space  sta- 
tion: "The  structure  can  be  compressed  into  a  small  package  and  ex- 
panded to  a  cylinder  10  ft.  in  dia.  and  25  ft.  long."      (Text) 

•  U.S.S.R.    announced    that    Cosmonaut   Valentina    Nikolayeva-Tereshkova 

would  arrive  in  Algiers  Mar.  26  at  the  invitation  of  Algerian  President 
Ahmed  Ben  Bella,      (upi.  Wash.  Post,  3/25/65,  DIO) 


152  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

March  24:  Both  U.S.  and  U.S.S.R.  space  research  were  criticized  by  a 
Vatican  Aveekly  magazine,  UOsservatore  della  Domenica,  which  said 
they  were  using  it  as  a  "political  instrument." 

In  an  editorial,  the  publication's  deputy  director,  Federico  Alessan- 
drini,  said  space  competition  was  "beneficial  because  it  widens  man's 
understanding  and  offers  new  methods  of  observations  which  tomor- 
row will  allow  man  to  attain  other  goals. 

"But,  as  one  can  see,  the  political  instrument  made  of  it  limits  its 
results  and  reveals  ...  an  obstacle  to  progress."  (ap,  NYT, 
3/25/65) 

•  Aircraft  operations  in  the  U.S.  increased  10^  for  the  second  consecutive 

year,  according  to  statistics  reported  in  FAA  Air  Traffic  Activity,  Cal- 
endar Year  1964.  Ten  percent  gains  were  made  in  each  of  three  major 
categories:  total  aircraft  operations  (takeoffs  and  landings  at  278  air- 
ports with  FAA  airport  traffic  control  towers) — 34.2  million;  instru- 
ment approaches  at  Air  Route  Traffic  Control  Center  (artcc)  areas- — 
1.005  million;  and  ifr  (Instrument  Flight  Rule)  aircraft  handled  at 
ARTCCs — 11.7  million,  (faa  Release  65-22) 
March  25:  mariner  iv  was  nearly  40  million  mi.  from  earth,  traveling 
30,000  mph  relative  to  the  sun.  It  had  covered  188  million  mi.  in  its 
orbit  around  the  sun.  The  Mars  probe  had  transmitted  to  earth  more 
than  160  million  bits  of  engineering  and  scientific  information  about 
planetary  space.      (NASA  Release  65-95) 

•  Soviet     Union     launched     COSMOS     LXiv     with     scientific     instruments 

aboard  for  investigation  of  outer  space,  Tass  announced.  Orbital  da- 
ta: apogee,  271  km.  (167  mi.);  perigee,  206  km.  (127  mi.);  period. 
89.2  min.;  inclination,  65°.  All  systems  were  functioning  normally. 
(Pravda,  3/26/65,  1,  atss-t  Trans.) 

•  USAF  launched  an  unidentified  satellite  from  Vandenberg  afb  on  a  Thor- 

Agena  D  booster.  It  also  fired  its  85th  Minuteman  icbm.  (UPI, 
Phil.  Inq.,  3/26/65) 

•  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  reported  to  President  Johnson  and 

the  Cabinet  on  both  the  two-man  GT-3  flight  and  the  RANGER  IX  pho- 
tographic mission.  Mr.  Webb  made  these  points:  "The  most 
significant  accomplishment  of  the  GT-3  flight  was  that  ...  it  provid- 
ed verification  of  the  basic  design,  development,  test  and  operations 
procedures  NASA  is  using  to  develop  manned  spacecraft,  man-rated 
launch  vehicles  and  a  world-wide  operational  network.   .   .   . 

"We  now  know  that  at  least  two  spots,  and  perhaps  three,  when  we 
look  more  carefully  at  the  ranger  ix  pictures,  are  at  least  smooth 
enough  for  the  Lem  [manned  moon  landing].  .  .  ." 

An  American  astronaut  probably  would  be  able  to  open  his  space- 
craft and  partly  emerge  from  the  cabin  during  the  GT-5  flight.  Mr. 
Webb  said  under  questioning  that  there  might  be  some  possibility  of 
achieving  this  in  the  next  Gemini  flight,  but  that  GT-5  was  more 
likely. 

He  regarded  a  Russian  cosmonaut's  leaving  a  space  vehicle  briefly 
as  spectacular  but  said  the  U.S.  was  more  intent  on  developing  a  space 
suit  that  would  enable  American  astronauts  to  work  outside  on  space 
vehicles  and  develop  or  put  together  space  centers.  (Text;  UPi,  N.Y. 
Her.    Trib.,   3/26/65) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS.  1965  153 

March  25:  At  a  press  conference.  Maj.  Virgil  I.  Grissom  (usaf)  and 
LCdr.  John  W.  Young  (USN)  described  the  three-orbit  GT-3  flight  of 
Mar.  23.  as  busy,  exhilarating,  near-perfect,  and  short  on  surprises. 
Thev  said  it  was  highly  significant  for  future  flight  in  space  since  it 
proved  that  a  spacecraft  could  be  maneuvered  precisely,  at  will,  and 
more  independently  of  the  ground  than  before.  They  said  it  also 
proved  that  man  can  eat  and  safely  dispose  of  wastes  as  they  will  need 
to  do  on  long  flights. 

Major  Grissom  suggested  two  possible  reasons  that  the  "Molly 
Brown"'  had  undershot  the  target  landing  area:  one  was  that  something 
might  have  gone  wrong  during  the  final  orbit  change  or  when  subse- 
quentlv  the  braking  rockets  were  fired  to  start  the  spacecraft's  descent; 
the  other  was  that  there  might  have  been  a  miscalculation  of  the  craft's 
center  of  gravity.      f^ASA  Transcript) 

•  Soviet    President    Anastas    Mikoyan    sent    President    Johnson    congratu- 

lations on  the  Gemini  GT-3  space  flight,  (ap.  Wash.  Eve.  Star, 
3  '25^65) 

•  Use  of  a  special  airlock  through  which  Lt.  Col.  Aleksei  I.eonov  passed 

from  the  spacecraft  cabin  into  space  and  back  again  was  a 
major  factor  in  the  success  of  the  VOSKHOD  ii  flight  Mar.  18,  it  was 
reported.  According  to  Soviet  sources,  the  preservation  of  normal 
pressure  inside  the  spacecraft  throughout  flight  had  had  an  important 
psychological  effect  on  both  Col.  Belyayev  and  Col.  Leonov.  Findings 
were  to  be  discussed  at  a  press  conference  to  be  held  by  the  cosmo- 
nauts Mar.  26.      (Shabad.  NYT.  3/26/65) 

•  Tass  reported  that  the  Soviet  Union  was  making  extensive  use  of  RANGER 

VII  photographs  presented  to  the  Pulkovo  Observatory:  "Prof.  Alex- 
ander Markov,  who  supervised  the  study  of  the  photos,  told  a  Tass 
correspondent  that  the  materials  received  from  the  United  States  would 
be  used  to  study  the  size  and  distribution  of  moon  craters,  to  ascertain 
the  origin  and  development  of  the  entire  lunary  relief.  He  empha- 
sized the  particular  topicality  of  these  problems  'in  view  of  the  landing 
of  spacecraft  on  the  lunar  surface  planned  for  near  future.'  "  (Loory, 
N.Y.  Her.  Trib..  3/26^65) 

•  Gen.  Curtis  E.  LeMay  (usAF.  Ret.)  said  in  a  speech  at  a  dinner  meeting 

of  the  National  Security  Industrial  Assn.  where  he  received  the  James 
Forrestal  Memorial  Award  that  the  "United  States  should  observe  with 
great  care  any  tendency  of  the  Soviet  Union  to  develop  space 
weapons.  Already  there  is  considerable  reason  for  concern  about  So- 
viet capabilities  in  space.  Many  of  the  techniques  the  Soviet  Union 
has  developed  so  far  point  strongly  toward  a  military  space 
effort.  The  development  of  a  capability  by  the  Soviet  Union  to  de- 
liver strategic  weapons  from  near  space  or  to  deny  to  the  United  States 
the  opportunity  to  continue  its  present  programs  in  space  would 
amount  to  a  serious  threat  and  would  negate  our  present  favorable 
balance  of  military  power."  General  LeMay  criticized  "current  con- 
servatism in  the  Department  of  Defense  growing  out  of  economic  con- 
siderations" and  said  responsible  officials  should  reappraise  existing 
military  R&D  policies.  (Sehlstedt,  Bait.  Sun,  3/26/65;  Raymond, 
NYT,  3/29/65,  36) 


154  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

March  25:  Dr.  Wolfgang  B.  Klemperer,  pioneer  in  glider  and  missile  des- 
ign, died  of  pneumonia.  A  fellow  of  the  aiaa.  the  aas,  and  the  British 
Interplanetary  Society,  Dr.  Klemperer  had  been  active  in  preparations 
for  a  NASA  project  to  photograph  a  solar  eclipse  on  May  30  from  a 
jet  airliner  over  the  South  Pacific.      (NYT,  3  '27/65,  27 ) 

•  Kenneth  Gatland,  Vice-President   of  the   British   Interplanetary   Society, 

urged  U.S.-U.S.S.R.  cooperation  in  manned  lunar  exploration 
in  New  Scientist  article.  ".  .  .  it  seems  we  are  faced  with  the  ludi- 
crous situation  of  the  world's  two  most  powerful  nations,  each  with 
massively  expensive  rival  programmes,  heading  for  a  common  objec- 
tive which  each  proclaims  is  being  pursued  in  the  highest  interests  of 
peaceful  scientific  exploration."  A  joint  venture  would  have  the  ad- 
vantage of  providing  for  contingencies  such  as  rescue  of  astronauts 
possibly  stranded  on  the  moon  or  in  lunar  orbit — a  capability  not 
included  in  Project  Apollo.  "This  situation  can  only  be  satisfactorily 
resolved  by  the  provision  in  lunar  orbit  of  a  second  soft-landing  vehi- 
cle and  back-up  crew  capable  of  mounting  an  emergency  rescue 
operation.  To  achieve  this  would  require  a  specially  adapted  version 
of  the  craft  already  designed  to  soft-land  astronauts. 

"This  is  Avhere  the  merit  of  US-Soviet  cooperation  lies  for,  as  an 
international  venture,  a  project  to  land  men  on  the  Moon  would  surely 
not  be  undertaken  as  envisaged  in  project  Apollo;  and  certainly  not 
with  such  rigid  constraints  on  time.  In  all  probability  it  would  be 
planned  as  an  operation  rather  than  a  solo  mission,  with  logistic  sup- 
port from  a  second  space  vehicle  placed  in  lunar  orbit  ahead  of  the 
main  expedition.   .   .   . 

"The  essential  requirement  in  terms  of  the  eventual  lunar  expedition 
is  that  launchings  should  be  coordinated  so  that  expedition  compo- 
nents arrive  in  lunar  orbit  together.  By  the  mid-1970's.  orbital  ren- 
dezvous techniques  should  be  well  established  Avith  the  ability  of  men 
to  move  between  orbiting  vehicles.  An  agreed  crew  could  then  de- 
scend to  the  lunar  surface  while  another  ship  remains  in  reserve 
orbiting  the  Moon  in  case  of  need.  Alternatively,  a  reserve  vehicle 
might  be  landed,  unmanned,  in  advance.   .   .   . 

"Although  at  this  stage  such  ...  [a  combined  lunar  expedition] 
would  have  little  influence  on  overall  costs,  it  could  mean  a  great  deal 
to  the  safety  of  initial  manned  missions. 

"Such  a  move  would  demand  concessions  on  both  sides.  It  would 
mean  America  abandoning  her  1970  target  date  for  placing  men  on 
the  Moon,  and  while  allowing  Russia  to  keep  her  rocket  secrets  she 
would  have  to  be  prepared  to  reveal  her  programme  for  manned 
spaceflight.  .  .  ."  ( New  Scientist.  ^  ^25  ^65.  114^76) 
March  26:  x-15  No.  1  was  flown  by  Maj.  Robert  Rush  worth  (usaf)  to 
101,900-ft.  altitude  at  a  maximum  speed  of  3,580  mph  (mach  5.2)  to 
obtain  data  using  infrared  scanner  and  to  check  the  Honeywell  inertial 
guidance  system,      (nasa  x-15  Proj.  Off..  X-15  Flipht  Lop;) 

•  NASA  postponed  indefinitely  the  launching  of  a  beacon  Explorer  satellite 

from  Wallops  Island.  The  launching  had  been  scheduled  for  March 
30.     (NYT,  3/27/65) 

•  Soviet    Cosmonaut    Pavel    Belyayev    told    a    Moscow    news    conference 

that  VOSKHOD  II  had  been  scheduled  to  land  after  16  orbits,  but 
that  there  was  an  inaccuracy  in  "the  solar  system  of  orientation"  that 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  155 

prevented  use  of  the  automatic  landing  system.  He  said  he  then  had 
to  obtain  radioed  permission  from  the  Soviet  space  center  to  land  by 
manual  control  after  the  17th  orbit.  The  landing  site  was  overshot 
"by  a  certain  distance"  Belyayev  said  without  disclosing  how  much. 

Belyayev  said  success  of  the  GT-3  flight  of  Astronauts  Virgil  I. 
Grissom  and  John  W.  Young  "was  a  national  achievement  of  the  Unit- 
ed States."  He  congratulated  "the  courageous  American  cosmonauts," 
and  said:  "May  the  flights  of  both  ours  and  American  cosmonauts  be 
dedicated  to  unraveling  the  mysteries  of  the  universe  in  the  interests  of 
science  and  for  the  good  of  all  mankind." 

Belyayev  said  voskhod  ii  was  capable  of  maneuvering  in  space  as 
did  the  U.S.  gemim  hi  but  that  this  was  not  in  the  Soviet  flight  plan. 

Leonov  described  time  outside  the  ship  saying  "it  is  too  early  to  call 
it  a  pleasant  walk.  It  could  not  have  been  done  without  hard 
training."  He  reported  his  small  push  on  voskhod  ii  to  move  away 
from  it  after  going  out  of  the  hatch  started  the  spacecraft  into  slow 
rotation.  In  pulling  himself  back  to  the  VOSKHOD  II  by  his  cable. 
Leonov  disclosed  he  had  yanked  rather  vigorously  and  had  to  put  his 
hand  out  to  avoid  collision  with  the  spacecraft. 

Belyayev  said  he  and  Leonov  were  found  by  a  helicopter  2^2  hrs. 
after  a  soft  landing  in  snowy  woods  near  Perm.  He  said  VOSKHOD  ii 
was  airlifted  back  to  the  launch  site  at  Baikonur  in  Soviet  Central  Asia 
and  could  be  used  again  if  necessary,  (ap,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  3/26/65; 
Shabad,  NYT,  3/27/65;  Flight  International,  4/8/65,  542^4) 
March  26:  Astronauts  Virgil  I.  Grissom  and  John  W.  Young  were  honored 
in  a  White  House  ceremony  where  President  Johnson  conferred  NASA 
Exceptional  Service  Medals  on  both  men  and  pinned  a  cluster  on  the 
NASA  Distinguished  Service  Medal  awarded  Major  Grisson  for  his  July 
21,  1961,  suborbital  Mercury  flight.  He  was  the  first  man  to  make 
two  space  flights. 

NASA  Associate  Administrator  Dr.  Robert  C.  Seamans  received  the 
NASA  Distinguished  Service  Medal  for  his  direction  of  space 
efforts.  Harris  M.  Schurmeier  received  an  Exceptional  Scientific 
Achievement  Medal  for  his  direction  of  the  Ranger  program. 

President  Johnson  said :  "A  sense  of  history  is  present  strongly  here 
today.  All  of  us  are  conscious  that  we  have  crossed  over  the  thresh- 
old of  man's  first  tentative  and  experimental  ventures  in  space.   .   .   . 

"Since  we  gave  our  program  direction  and  purpose  seven  years  ago, 
many  successes  have  been  achieved  through  the  efforts  of  a  great 
American  team,  which  now  numbers  400  thousand  men  and  women  in 
industry,  on  campuses,  and  in  government.  And  this  team  is  inspired 
and  stimulated  and  led  by  a  former  Marine  and  a  great  public  servant 
—Jim  Webb." 

Following  the  ceremony,  a  motorcade  bearing  Vice  President 
Humphrey,  the  astronauts,  and  their  party  took  the  Pennsylvania  Ave. 
parade  route,  where  thousands  had  gathered  to  cheer  them,  to  the 
Capitol;  a  luncheon  in  their  honor  was  jointly  sponsored  by  Sen.  Clin- 
ton Anderson  ( D-N.Mex. »  and  Rep.  George  P.  Miller  (D-Calif.), 
chairmen  of  the  Senate  and  House  space  committees. 

At  5  p.m.  the  group  returned  to  Capitol  Hill  for  a  Congressional 
reception        hosted        by        House        Speaker        John        McCormack 


156  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS.  1965 

(D-Mass.).  (NASA  Release  65-98:  Text:  Carmodv-  Wash.  Post, 
3  26  65:  A' IT,  3  27  65.  li 
March  26:  Propulsion  system  and  structure  of  the  hypersonic  Sprint  anti- 
missile missile  was  successfully  tested  by  the  Army  at  White  Sands 
Missile  Range.  Although  the  missile  was  being  designed  for  launch- 
ings  from  underground  cells,  the  Sprint  was  launched  from  an  above- 
ground  launcher  for  the  test.      (DOD  Release  137-65) 

•  Smithsonian    Institution's    National    Air    Museum    placed    on    display    a 

quarter-scale  model  of  the  GT-3  spacecraft,  a  full-scale  model  of 
RANGER  IX  along  with  some  of  the  photos  it  took,  and  a  model  of 
MARINER  IV  Mars  probe.  The  spacecraft  were  part  of  an  exhibit  de- 
picting NASA's  broad  prosram  of  space  research.  (NASA  Release 
65-100) 

•  It  was  announced  that  the  special  magnetic  actuator  which  worked  shut- 

ters on  RANGERS  VII,  VIII.  and  ix.  that  photographed  the  moon,  and 
on  all  nine  Tiros  weather  satellites  would  be  granted  a  patent.  The 
device  moved  the  shutter  at  a  constant  velocity  so  that  the  exposure 
was  uniform.  It  was  invented  by  RCA  engineers  Langdon  H.  Fulton 
and  Thomas  D.  Tilton.  I  Jones,  NYT,  3  7  65.  35  ) 
March  27:  M.  V.  Keldysh.  President  of  the  U.S.S.R.  Academy  of  Sciences, 
commented  on  the  voskhod  ii  flight  in  an  article  in  Izvestia:  "One  of 
the  most  significant  accomplishments  in  the  conquest  of  space  was  the 
experiment  dealing  with  man's  emergence  into  space.  New,  grandiose 
perspectives  are  now  open  for  the  construction  of  orbital  stations,  the 
docking  of  spacecraft  in  orbit  and  the  carrying  out  of  astronomical 
and  geophysical  investigations  in  space.  In  the  near  future  it  will  be 
possible  to  create,  in  orbit  around  the  earth,  a  Space  Scientific  Re- 
search Institute  in  which  scientists  representing  the  most  diversified 
fields  will  be  able  to  work.  The  results  obtained  as  a  result  of  the 
flight  of  'Voskhod-2'  are  most  important  steps  on  the  way  toward  car- 
rying out  flights  to  the  moon  and  on  to  other  celestial  bodies." 
{Izvestia,  3/27/65,  5,  atss-t  Trans.) 

•  Astronauts    Virgil    I.    Grissom    and    John    W.    Young    had    congratu- 

lated Soviet  Cosmonauts  Pavel  Belyayev  and  Aleksey  Leonov  on  the 
VOSKHOD  II  flight,  Izvestia  disclosed.      (UPI,  Wash.  Post,  3/28/65) 

March  28:  Robert  J.  Schwinghamer,  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center, 
received  American  Society  of  Tool  and  Manufacturing  Engineers'  Re- 
search Medal.  Schwinghamer  was  cited  for  his  research  "leading  to  a 
better  understanding  of  materials,  facilities,  principles,  and  operations, 
and  their  application  to  better  manufacturing."  ( MSEC  Release 
65-58;  Marshall  Star,  3/17/65,  1,  6) 

March  29:  Gemini  gt-3  Astronauts  Maj.  Virgil  I.  Grissoin  and  LCdr. 
John  W.  Young  were  given  traditional  heroes'  welcome  from  New 
Yorkers  at  a  parade  given  in  their  honor.  Honored  with  the  astro- 
nauts was  Dr.  Robert  C.  Seamans,  Jr.,  Associate  Administrator  of 
NASA.  They  were  met  by  Mayor  Wagner  and  the  city's  official  greeter, 
Commissioner  Richard  C.  Patterson  of  the  Department  of  Public 
Events.  Mayor  Wagner  presented  gold  keys  to  the  city  to  the  astro- 
nauts and  Dr.  Seamans  at  a  ceremony  at  City  Hall.  He  also  presented 
the  city's  Gold  Medal  of  Honor  to  Major  Grissom  and  Dr.  Seamans 
and  the  Silver  Medal  of  Honor  to  Commander  Young.  At  the  United 
Nations,  Secretary  General  U  Thant  presented  medals  and  two  auto- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  157 

Graph  sets  of  U.  N.  outer  space  commemorative  stamps  to  the  astro- 
nauts. (Sibley,  NYT,  3 '29  65,  36;  Talese,  ?JYT,  3/20/65,  1;  Orl. 
5e«/.,  3/30/65) 
March  29:  Pravda  described  Lt.  Col.  Leonov's  exit  and  return  to  VOSKHOD  II 
in  giving  the  first  detailed  description  of  the  inside  of  the 
spacecraft.  The  airlock  was  apparently  built  into  the  place  occupied 
by  a  third  astronaut  during  the  vosKHOD  I  flight  Oct.  12.  After  Col. 
Leonov  moved  into  the  airlock,  his  companion,  Col.  Belyayev  pressed  a 
button  that  closed  the  inside  door  and  created  a  vacuum  inside 
the  lock  chamber.  At  the  prescribed  moment.  Col.  Belyayev  pressed  a 
second  button  that  opened  the  hatch  between  the  airlock  and  space, 
allowing  Col.  Leonov  to  climb  out.  The  procedure  was  apparently 
reversed  for  the  astronaut's  return.      (AP,  NYT,  3/30/65) 

•  USAF  announced  successful  test  firing  of  a  simplified  rocket  engine  called 

Scorpio.  The  engine  had  eight  combusters  in  a  ring  around  a  nozzle 
and  an  injector  that  sprayed  fuel  into  the  combusters  through  several 
ports.  Scorpio  developed  200,000  lbs.  thrust  and  would  be  modified 
to  produce  greater  power,  (afsc  Release  44.65;  AP,  Bait.  Sun, 
3/30/65) 

•  Construction  work  at  Cape  Kennedy  and  Merritt  Island  Launch  Area  was 

halted  when  an  Orlando  union  local  set  up  picket  lines  to  protest  a 
contractor  use  of  non-union  labor.  USCE  estimated  that  more  than 
4,500  of  about  5,000  building  trades  workers  refused  to  cross  the 
lines.  NASA  had  advised  the  National  Labor  Relations  Board.  This 
marked  the  sixth  time  in  14  mos.  that  a  labor  dispute  had  crippled 
construction  work  on  Merritt  Island  where  launching  facilities  were 
being  built,      (ap,  Chic.  Trib.,  3/30/65) 

•  DOD    Advanced    Research    Projects    Agency    had    selected    three    con- 

tractors for  research  programs  in  the  materials  field:  Martin  Co., 
awarded  $1  million,  subcontract  with  the  Univ.  of  Denver  and  conduct 
a  three-year  program  on  the  high  energy  rate  of  forming  metals; 
Union  Carbide  Corp.,  with  $2.5  million,  would  subcontract  with  Case 
Institute  of  Technology  and  the  Bell  Aerospace  Corp.  and  conduct  a 
three-year  research  program  on  carbon  composite  materials;  Monsanto 
Research  Corp.,  awarded  approximately  $2  million,  would  subcontract 
with  Washington  Univ.  of  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  and  conduct  a  two-year 
research  program  on  high-performance  composites,  (dod  Release 
193-65) 
March  30:  A  copper-plated  46V2-lb.  "minilab,"  instrumented  to  measure 
radiation  variations  in  the  earth's  magnetic  field,  was  launched  to 
8,700-mi.  altitude  from  Cape  Kennedy  on  a  four-stage  Blue  Scout  Jr. 
rocket.  It  carried  three  sensing  devices  designed  to  produce  a  radia- 
tion profile  during  its  two-hour  climb  into  the  Van  Allen  radiation  belt 
and  the  two-hour  plunge  back  through  the  earth's  atmosphere  to  the 
Indian  Ocean.  (UPI,  NYT,  3/31/65;  U.S.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act., 
1965,  138) 

•  Emergency   landing   of  voskhod   ii   was   the   third   such   failure   in   the 

Soviet  space  program,  according  to  an  unidentified  Czechoslovak  scien- 
tist, member  of  the  Astronautic  Commission  of  the  Czechoslovak  Acad- 
emy of  Sciences,  during  a  panel  discussion  on  Radio  Prague.  He  said 
there  had  been  two  earlier  failures  in  the  unmanned  Vostoks.  The 
disclosure  was  made  in  reply  to  a  listener's  letter.      (NYT,  4/1/65,  6) 


158  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

March  30:  Gemini  gt-3  Astronauts  Grissom  and  Young  were  feted  as 
heroes  in  Chicago,  where  they  motorcaded  from  O'Hara  International 
Airport  through  the  city  to  City  Hall.  An  estimated  one  million 
thronged  the  streets  shouting  joyous  ovations  and  flinging  a  deluge  of 
tickertape  and  confetti.  At  luncheon  with  city  officials  the  astronauts 
were  given  honorary  Chicago  citizenship  medallions,  and  later  a  recep- 
tion was  given  in  their  honor.  Accompanying  the  astronauts  were 
members  of  their  families  and  NASA  Deputy  Administrator  Dr.  Hugh 
L.  Dryden  and  Mrs.  Dryden.      (Wiedrich,  Chic.  Trib.,  3/31/65) 

•  Dr.    Harold    Brown,    Director    of    Defense    Research    and    Engineering, 

appeared  before  the  House  Appropriations  Committee's  Subcom- 
mittee on  DOD  Appropriations,  in  testimony  supporting  dod's  request 
for  $6,709  billion  new  obligational  authority  for  FY  1966  research, 
development,  testing,  and  evaluation. 

He  discussed  the  Vela  nuclear  detection  satellites,  orbiting  in  nearly 
circular  orbits.  "All  four  satellites  remain  in  operation,  providing 
data  on  the  radiation  background  and  the  operation  of  detectors  in 
space."  He  outlined  the  aacb's  1964  launch  vehicle  study,  which  "was 
intended  to  identify  overall  effects  and  provide  a  data  base  for,  rather 
than  to  resolve,  individual  user  program  booster  selections  or  near- 
term  booster  improvement  questions."  The  study  "confirmed  earlier 
estimates"  of  launch  vehicle  needs  for  the  near  future.  [See  Jan.  26, 
Jan.  27]  {DOD  Appropriations  Hearings  [Part  5],  1-30) 
March  31:  Nike-Apache  sounding  rocket  was  launched  from  Wallops  Is- 
land with  NASA  Lewis  Research  Center  experiment  to  study  three  wave- 
lengths of  light  in  the  airglow:  one  in  the  red  part  of  the  spectrum, 
another  in  the  yellow,  and  a  third  in  the  green.  Altitude  of  the  air- 
glow  was  measured  with  phototubes  maunted  on  the  rocket.  A  26-jn.- 
dia.  mylar  balloon  helped  scientists  correlate  measured  light  intensity 
and  altitude  with  density  of  the  atmosphere.  (Wallops  Release 
65-19;  LRC  Release  65-26) 

•  U.S.  Army  disclosed  it  had  orbited  a  three-satellite  earth-mapping  sys- 

tem, with  two  of  the  spacecraft  circling  the  earth  from  west  to  east  and 
the  third  traveling  from  pole  to  pole.  The  satellites  were  of  the  Secor 
type.  Two  were  fired  into  orbit  earlier  this  month;  the  other  was 
launched  Jan.  11,  1964.  The  three  spacecraft,  each  with  a  radio  re- 
ceiver and  transmitter,  were  helping  pinpoint  locations  on  earth  that 
were  widely  separated  by  large  bodies  of  water,  (ap.  NYT,  4/1/65. 
11;  M&R,  4/5/6.5,  12) 

•  Studies    carried     out     under      NASA     contract     by     the     Union     Carbide 

Research  Institute  had  demonstrated  the  ability  of  many  life  forms  to 
adjust  to  at  least  partial  Martian  conditions.  It  had  also  been  demon- 
strated that  lack  of  oxygen  produced  surprising  results:  turtles  with 
little  or  no  blood;  plants  that  could  endure  lower  temperatures  than 
plants  raised  in  normal  air.  Such  temperature  resistance  would  be  an 
advantage  on  a  cold  planet  like  Mars.  Dr.  Sanford  M.  Siegel  dis- 
closed these  findings  during  a  press  tour  of  Union  Carbide  and  said 
that  if  earth  life  could  withstand  Martian  conditions  so  well,  Martian 
life,  if  there  ever  had  been  any,  must  have  been  able  to  evolve  to  cope 
with  the  situation  there.      (Sullivan,  NYT,  4/1/65) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  159 

March  31 :  Discussing  nasa  Kennedy  Space  Center's  evaluation  measure- 
ment program  for  cost-plus-avvard-fee  contracting  before  the  GE  Annual 
Method  and  Work  Measurement  Conference  in  Gainesville,  Fla.,  John  E. 
Thomas  of  KSc's  Support  Operations  listed  eight  points  designed  to 
give  a  thorough  profile  of  the  contractor:  (1)  quality  of  work;  (2) 
personnel  profile:  (3)  care  and  control  of  Government  property;  (4) 
effectiveness  of  the  contractor's  training  programs:  (5)  speed  of  com- 
pliance with  work  requests:  (6)  contractor  attitude;  (7)  cost-control 
practices:  (8)  business  management  practices.  He  said  that  from 
these  data  the  Ksc  Evaluation  Board  determined  how  much  of  the  fee 
the  contractor  had  earned.      (Text) 

•  Maj.  Virgil   I.   Grissom  and  LCdr.  John  W.  Young,  the  Gemini  astro- 

nauts, returned  home  to  Houston  and  to  an  enthusiastic  welcome  by  a 
crowd  of  some  12,000  persons.  The  astronauts  walked  by  much  of  the 
crowd,  shaking  hands.  "We've  had  a  pretty  tough  week,  then  came  a 
couple  of  days  of  debriefing,  then  three  parades,  but  today  is  the  best 
of  all — when  we  get  to  come  back  home."  Major  Grissom  said.  Com- 
mander Young  said,  "We're  sure  happy  to  see  all  you  smiling 
Texans."'      (  upl  yVlT.  42  65.  12  ) 

•  USAF    sonic    boom    series    over    Chicago,    which    had    begun    Jan.    4. 

ended.      {Chic.  Trib.,  3  31  '65  ) 

•  Senate  Armed  Services  Committee  approved  a  $15,284,000,000  military 

authorization  bill  for  dod;  an  unrequested  .S82  million  was  added  for 
development  of  a  new  manned  bomber  to  replace  the  B-52  and  B-58. 
no  longer  in  production.      ( Raymond,  NYT,  3/31/65) 

•  NASA  Administrator     James     E.     Webb     told     the     American     Society 

of  Photogrammetry  and  the  American  Congress  on  Surveying  and 
Mapping,  convening  in  Washington:  ".  .  .  since  the  dawn  of  the 
Space  Age — in  less  than  eight  years — one  of  our  most  important  tasks 
has  been  that  of  mapping — mapping  the  surface  of  the  world  and  its 
geodetic  figure;  mapping  the  world's  weather,  as  revealed  in  its  cloud 
patterns  as  seen  from  above;  mapping  the  earth's  outermost  at- 
mosphere in  three  dimensions,  and  exploring  its  interaction  with  the 
newly-discovered  solar  wind ;  seeing  and  mapping  astronomical  sources 
for  the  first  time  in  ultraviolet  and  X-radiation  from  outside  the  earth's 
atmosphere;  and  mapping  areas  of  our  moon  to  an  accuracy  2,000 
times  better  than  that  now  achievable  from  earth,  and  preparing  to 
map  areas  of  Mars  to  an  accuracy  as  much  as  100  times  better  than 
that  attainable  from  earth.  .  .  ."      (Text) 

•  All  but  six  of  the  170  pieces  into  which  Soviet  satellite  COSMOS  LVII  had 

shattered  after  being  orbited  Feb.  22  had  fallen  to  earth,  according  to 
GSFc's  Satellite  Situation  Report.  Another  disclosure  of  the  report 
was  that  a  U.S.  satellite  orbited  March  9  from  WTR  was  orbiting  in 
eight  pieces,  four  of  which  were  transmitting  signals.  fcsFC  SSR, 
3/31/65) 

•  Construction  workers  at  NASA  Kennedy  Space  Center  returned  to  work, 

ending  a  two-day  walkout  which  NASA  spokesman  said  cost  the  govern- 
ment S200.000  a  day.  Pickets  of  United  Association  of  Plumbers  and 
Pipefitters  were  withdrawn  when  Assistant  Secretary  of  Labor  James 
Reynolds  agreed  to  meet  with  union  representatives  Apr.  5.  (UPI, 
Cocoa  Trib.,  3/31/65) 


160  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

March  31:  Lt.  Gen.  James  Ferguson,  usaf  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  (R&D), 
stated  in  FY  1966  appropriations  hearings  of  House  Appropriations 
Committee's  Subcommittee  on  dod  Appropriations:  "I  cannot  help  but 
believe,  if  we  take  a  look  at  the  last  10  years  of  Russian  national 
development,  that  they  are  watching  for  an  opportunity  to  gain  a 
major  military  advantage  over  us.  I  cannot  help  but  feel  that  they 
are  examining  opportunities  in  space  very  thoroughly  for  this  par- 
ticular purpose. 

"In  order  to  be  able  to  offset  any  advantage  which  they  may  dis- 
cover, I  feel  we  must  move  as  rapidly  as  we  can  in  this  area,  and  take 
full  advantage  of  any  other  national  space  programs  such  as  the  NASA 
activity. 

"The  big  program  that  we  hope  to  get  a  go-ahead  on  here  shortly  is 
the  Manned  Orbital  Laboratory.  Here  we  think  we  will  achieve  a 
number  of  answers  in  the  next  2  or  three  years.  .  .  ."  {DOD  Appro- 
priations Hearings  [Part  5].  148) 

•  USAF    announced    a    high    vacuum    test    chamber    that    would    simulate 

space  environment  and  altitudes  up  to  990.000  ft.  was  being  con- 
structed at  Wright-Patterson  AFB.  Liquid  metal  system  components 
such  as  space  radiators,  and  expandable  structures  such  as  solar  reflec- 
tors, would  be  tested  in  the  chamber.  Chicago  Bridge  and  Iron  Co. 
was  constructing  the  facility,  which  would  be  completed  in  Sept.  1965, 
under  a  $699,780  contract  awarded  in  Nov.  1964.  (afsc  Release 
1.65) 
During  March:  Asked  in  an  interview  for  the  San  Diego  Union  if  the  U.S. 
would  succeed  in  landing  a  man  on  the  moon  in  this  decade.  Dr. 
Donald  F.  Hornig,  special  assistant  to  President  Johnson  for  science 
and  technology,  said:  "When  you  lay  down  a  schedule,  it  says  that  if 
everything  goes  as  I  see  it,  making  allowances  for  reasonable  difficul- 
ties, this  is  what  I'll  do.  It's  a  tight  schedule  and  will  take  a  lot  of 
doing.  We  also  have  to  acknowledge  that  unforeseen  problems  may 
arise.  .  .  .  When  we  started  in  1961  on  a  nine-year  program  it  was 
not  wishful  thinking  but  it  was  a  purely  paper  exercise.  We  have 
slipped  some  on  our  schedules,  but  in  a  sense  we  have  gained  ground 
in  that  we  have  not  run  into  any  serious  difficulties  yet.  We  are  now 
entering  the  hardest  period  of  all,  when  the  pieces  begin  to  come  out 
of  the  factory  and  have  to  be  put  together  and  tested." 

Answering  a  query  if  there  would  be  a  manned  expedition  to  Mars 
one  day,  he  said:  "It  would  be  harder  than  going  to  the  moon.  I 
don't  anticipate  he  will  go  soon.  But  we  have  started  the  unmanned 
exploration.  The  results  may  whet  our  appetite  or  may  prove  that 
conditions  are  so  inhospitable  that  it  isn't  worth  the  effort."  (San 
Diego  Union,  3/7/65 ) 

•  JPL  scientists  W.  L.  Sjogren  and  D.  W.  Trask  reported  that  as  a  result  of 

RANGER  VI  and  RANGER  VII  tracking  data,  DSIF  station  locations  could 
be  determined  to  within  10  meters  in  the  radial  direction  normal  to  the 
earth's  spin  axis.  Differences  in  the  longitude  between  stations  could 
be  calculated  to  within  20  meters.  The  moon's  radius  had  been  found 
to  be  3  km.  less  than  was  thought,  and  knowledge  of  its  mass  had  been 
improved  by  an  order  of  magnitude.      (M&R,  3/22/65,  23) 

•  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  analysis  showed  that  radiation  shielding 

offered  by  the  Apollo  Lunar  Excursion  Module  (Lem)  was  negUgible: 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  161 

a  particle  flux  producing  a  1-rem  dose  in  the  Apollo  command  module 
would  produce  a  17-rem  dose  in  the  Lem.  The  Apollo  space  radiation 
warning  system  would  provide  advance  indication  of  need  for  astro- 
nauts to  return  from  the  Lem  to  the  command-service  modules. 
[M&R,  ?>/Tl/(^.  23) 
During  March:  usaf  San  Bernardino  Air  Materiel  Area  reported  that  Atlas 
and  Titan  icbm's  scheduled  for  phase-out  by  summer  would  be  used  in 
antimissile  and  space  booster  research  and  development 
assignments.  Requests  had  been  received  to  use  the  silos  as  civil  de- 
fense shelters  and  for  storage  of  petroleum,  gas,  and  grain.  {M&R, 
3/22/65,  12) 

•  NASA's  Office  of  Technology  Utilization  published  a  technology  survey  on 

advanced  valve  technology  growing  out  of  space  research,  (nasa  Re- 
lease 65-92) 

•  A  land  exchange  between  the  U.S.   Government  and  New  Mexico  was 

nearing  completion,  clearing  the  way  for  construction  of  a  $20  million 
rocket  testing  complex  to  be  built  by  Bell  Aerosystems  Co.  near  the 
White  Sands  Missile  Range.      (  ap,  Houston  Chron.,  3/24/65) 

•  Republican   minority   of  the  Joint   Congressional   Economic   Committee 

said,  after  reviewing  the  President's  Annual  Economic  Report,  that  the 
U.S.  emphasis  on  defense,  space,  and  other  Federal  research  was  giv- 
ing the  other  industrial  nations  the  opportunity  to  concentrate  on  civil- 
ian-oriented research,  which  might  enable  them  to  build  superior 
economies.      (Av.  Wk.,  3/29/65,  78) 

•  The  theory  that  temperature  change  of  3.5°   C  or  more  in  5  min.  of 

horizontal  jet  flight  was  a  true  indicator  of  clear  air  turbulence  (Cat) 
had  been  disproved  by  George  McLean,  afcrl.  He  explained  that  Cat 
did  not  always  occur  near  jet  streams  and  that  when  it  did,  the  angle  at 
which  the  plane  hit  the  jet  stream  was  a  determining  factor.  (OAR 
Release  365-6) 
•British  Meteorological  Office's  Skua  solid-propellant  sounding  rocket  was 
described  by  Kenneth  Owen  in  Indian  Aviation.  The  eight-foot-long, 
five-inch-diameter  rocket  had  been  in  use  since  the  beginning  of  the 
year  as  a  tool  for  weather  observations  and  other  research.  A  series 
of  Skuas  would  be  launched  as  part  of  IQSY;  launchings  were  planned 
at  the  rate  of  three  a  week  during  the  nine  two-week  periods  of  IQSY 
known  as  "World  Geophysical  Intervals."  {Indian  Aviation,  3/65, 
73-74) 

•  Interview  of  Dr.  Boris  Yegorov,  Soviet  physician-cosmonaut  and  member 

of  the  three-man  voskhod  I  spaceflight  crew,  by  Novosti  Press,  ap- 
peared in  Space  World.  Yegorov  mentioned  nothing  about  any  ill 
effects  of  spaceflight  conditions,  but  did  say: 

"Several  times  we  tried  to  break  away  from  the  chair  and  hang  a  bit 
in  the  cabin.  I  must  tefl  you  that  it's  far  from  a  pleasant 
sensation.  It's  also  entirely  inconvenient  to  sleep  thus.  One  tries 
rather  to  lean  on  something:  either  with  his  head  against  ceiling  or 
with  his  feet  against  the  chair.  During  weightlessness  it's  much  more 
pleasant  to  be  tied  to  the  chair.  .  .  . 

"During  the  time  we  worked  none  of  us  had  any  unpleasant  sensa- 
tions because  of  weightlessness:  we  felt  fine."  {Space  World,  3/65, 
37-38) 


April    1965 

April  1:  The  s-iB-1  stage  of  the  Saturn  IB  booster  was  successfully  static- 
fired  by  Chrysler  for  the  first  time  at  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Cen- 
ter; the  test  lasted  about  30  sec.  Powered  by  8  Rocketdyne  uprated 
H-1  engines,  each  developing  200,000  lbs.  of  thrust,  S-lB-1  stage 
would  be  fired  at  least  one  more  time  before  being  returned  to 
Michoud  Operations  in  New  Orleans  for  checkout.  It  would  then  be 
shipped  to  Cape  Kennedy  for  launch  early  next  year,  (msfc  Release 
65-75) 
•  A  prototype  Tiros  weather  satellite  was  donated  to  the  Smithsonian  In- 
stitution's National  Air  Museum  by  Dr.  Hugh  L.  Dryden,  NASA  Deputy 
Administrator,  on  behalf  of  NASA,  in  commemoration  of  the  fifth  an- 
niversary of  NASA's  TIROS  I  launch. 

Dr.  Dryden  said:  ".  .  .  nine  experimental  meteorological  satellites 
of  the  Tiros  series  have  been  successfully  launched  and  operated. 

"Seldom,  if  ever,  has  a  complex  technological  effort  in  its  early 
phases  returned  such  valuable  dividends  as  this  project.  In  the  early 
stage  Tiros  was  an  Army  project.  When  the  National  Aeronautics 
and  Space  Administration  was  created  in  1958  it  took  over  the  de- 
velopment of  the  spacecraft. 

"The  United  States  Weather  Bureau  utilized  the  data  from  the  very 
first  experimental  flight.  The  first  Tiros  had  been  in  orbit  only  a  few 
hours  when  it  began  transmitting  to  NASA  ground  stations  cloud  photo- 
graphs of  good  quality.  The  Weather  Bureau  was  quickly  able  to 
apply  the  pictures  to  its  day-by-day  forecasting.  During  the  years 
since  then,  Tiros  satellites  have  literally  been  working  their  way  around 
the  world,  benefitting  men  everywhere  by  supplying  previously  unob- 
tainable weather  data.  At  this  stage,  it  is  impossible  to  estimate  how 
many  lives  have  been  saved  and  how  much  property  loss  avoided 
through  use  of  Tiros  information,  but  the  totals  must  already  be  sub- 
stantial." 

David  Arthur  Davies,  Secretary-General  of  the  World  Meteorologi- 
cal Organization,  discussed  international  reaction  to  meteorological 
satellite  developments,  listing  three  main  points:  (1)  "...  the  tre- 
mendous impact  which  this  new  means  of  observing  the  atmosphere 
has  had  upon  the  world  scientific  community.  .  .  .  [For  instance,]  it 
was  the  realization  that  the  meteorological  satellite  was  ...  a  turn- 
ing point  in  the  long  history  of  man's  endeavors  to  improve  his 
knowledge  and  understanding  of  his  environment — the  atmosphere" 
that  led  to  the  establishment  of  the  World  Weather  Watch.  (2)  The 
impact  of  the  meteorological  satellite  upon  the  United  Nations.  The 
".  .  .  impact  of  the  tiros  satellites  was  so  great  as  to  inspire  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly  of  the  United  Nations  to  take  the  very  unusual  step  of 

162 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  163 

adopting  a  resolution  on  a  scientific  question  of  this  kind  [Resolution 
1721  on  International  Cooperation  in  the  Peaceful  Uses  of  Outer 
Space]  and  to  maintain  its  interest  from  that  time."  And,  (3) 
".  .  .  the  general  feeling  of  gratitude  and  admiration  towards  the 
United  States  which  the  launching  of  tiros  I  and  which  the  decision  to 
distribute  the  data  to  all  countries  throughout  the  whole  world  en- 
gendered." 

Speaking  at  the  ceremony,  Dr.  Robert  M.  White,  Chief  of  the  U.S. 
Weather  Bureau,  praised  the  Tiros  program  and  said  that  the  NASA- 
Weather  Bureau  Tiros  Operational  Satellite  System  (Tos),  expected  to 
be  operational  early  next  year,  would  modify  a  Tiros  satellite  similar 
to  TIROS  IX  to  permit  daily  observation  of  clouds  in  the  earth's  atmos- 
phere. He  added:  "And  one  day  we  may  even  be  using  the  moon  as 
a  base  for  establishing  a  weather  station  to  monitor  and  study  ter- 
restrial weather."  Dr.  White  predicted  continued  NASA-Weather  Bureau 
cooperation:  (1)  to  further  develop  "satellite  visual  and  infrared 
sensing  devices  for  the  indirect  probing  of  the  atmosphere";  (2)  to 
"broaden  the  meteorological  satellite  system  as  a  means  of  data  col- 
lection"; and  (3)  to  "pursue  the  use  of  synchronous  satellites  for 
weather  observations." 

Dr.  Morris  Tepper,  Director  of  Meteorological  Programs  in  NASA's 
Office  of  Space  Sciences,  recalled  the  launching  of  tiros  I:  "It  was 
a  very  exciting  morning — waiting  for  my  first  countdown  .  .  .  some- 
one fixed  a  leaky  lox  line  at  the  launching  pad  by  wrapping  a  wet  rag 
around  the  leak  and  freezing  it  solid  .  .  .  The  launch  vehicle,  the 
Thor-Able,  performed  exceptionally  well.  The  spacecraft  was  placed 
into  an  exceptional  orbit.  The  next  question  was — what  would  we  see? 
.  .  .  And  finally  we  had  our  picture — this  first  picture  from  tiros  I. 
Yes,  there  were  clouds  in  it  .  .  .  The  first  three  pictures  were  .  .  . 
carried  to  Dr.  Glennan,  the  first  Administrator  of  NASA,  and  finally  we 
all  trekked  over  to  the  White  House  and  interrupted  a  Cabinet  Meeting 
to  show  President  Eisenhower  the  results  of  this  remarkable  space 
capability."  (Texts;  NASA  Release  65-102) 
April  1 :  To  date,  46  sounding  rocket  launchings  had  been  made  from  the 
USNS  Croatan  operating  at  sea  off  South  America's  west  coast,  NASA 
announced.  32  of  the  firings  were  two-stage  sounding  rockets  carry- 
ing upper  atmosphere  and  ionosphere  experiments;  14  were  single- 
stage  vehicles  to  obtain  high-altitude  meteorological  data.  Launchings 
were  part  of  NASA's  sounding  rocket  program  for  the  1964-65  Inter- 
national Quiet  Sun  Year  (iqsy)  when  solar  flare  and  sunspot  activity 
were  at  a  minimum.  Expedition  data  would  be  correlated  with  find- 
ings of  scientists  throughout  the  world  conducting  experiments  to  study 
IQSY  phenomena.      (NASA  Release  65-104) 

•  Vice  President  Hubert  H.  Humphrey  visited  NASA  Flight  Research  Center. 

(frc  X-Press,  4/9/65,  1,  2) 

•  FAA  announced  one-month  extensions,  through  April  1965,  of  design  con- 

tracts with  Boeing  Co.  and  Lockheed  Aircraft  Corp.,  airframe  con- 
tractors; and  General  Electric  Co.  and  Pratt  &  Whitney  Div.  of  United 
Aircraft  Corp.,  engine  contractors,  for  U.S.  supersonic  transport  pro- 
gram. Extensions  applied  to  design  contracts  awarded  to  four  com- 
panies for  period  Jan.  1,  through  Feb.  28,  1965,  with  provisions  for 
one-month  extensions  from  Feb.  28,  through  June  30.     Dollar  amount 


164  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

of  each  one-month  airframe  contract  extension  was  $1  million 
($750,000  Government,  S250,000  contractor);  dollar  amount  of  each 
one-month  engine  contract  extension  was  $835,000  ($626,250  Govern- 
ment, $208,750  contractor) .  (  faa  Release  65-24) 
April  1 :  NASA  awarded  a  $1,307,347  firm-price  contract  to  Space  Corp.  to 
fabricate,  test,  assemble,  install,  and  check  out  engine  servicing  plat- 
forms at  Kennedy  Space  Center's  Launch  Complex  39  on  Merritt  Is- 
land,     (ksc  Release  72-65) 

•  Members    of    Southern    Interstate    Nuclear    Board,    official    agency    of 

the  17  states  of  the  Southern  Governor's  Conference  for  service  and 
assistance  in  nuclear  energy  and  space  technology,  toured  Cape 
Kennedy  and  received  briefing  on  NASA  activities  there,  (ksc  Release 
73-65) 

•  Najeeb  Halaby,  faa  Administrator,  announced  that  he  would  ask  Con- 

gress for  enabling  legislation  authorizing  a  ten-day,  federally-spon- 
sored International  Aerospace  and  Science  Exposition,  to  be  held  the 
summer  of  1966  at  Dulles  International  Airport,  Washington,  D.C. 
The  Exposition,  approved  by  President  Johnson  March  31,  1965,  would 
attempt  to  stimulate  export  sales  of  U.S.  products  and  to  demonstrate 
U.S.  accomplishments  in  aerospace  and  related  sciences,  (faa  Release 
65-25) 

•  A  proposal  was  made  that  Great  Britain  streamline  its  space  and  scientific 

research  eiforts  by  dissolving  the  Dept.  of  Scientific  and  Industrial 
Research  and  transferring  its  activities  to  the  Ministry  of  Technology 
and  the  Science  Research  Council.  Control  of  British  scientific  at- 
taches in  embassies  abroad  would  be  transferred  to  Dept.  of  Education 
and  Science  which  would  coordinate  its  activities  with  Science  Re- 
search Council  and  the  Ministry.  (Av.  Wh,  4/12/65,  33) 
April  2:  Summary  report  of  NASA's  Future  Programs  Task  Group,  directed 
by  Francis  B.  Smith  of  LaRC,  was  sent  by  NASA  Administrator  James  E. 
Webb  to  the  chairmen  of  the  Senate  Committee  on  Aeronautical  and 
Space  Sciences  and  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics. 
Report  presented  "the  results  of  studies  made  during  1964  to  answer 
inquiries  made  by  President  Johnson  as  to  criteria  and  priorities  for 
space  missions  to  follow  those  now  approved  for  the  decade  of  the 
1960's.  .  .  ."  It  examined  (1)  conditions  and  constraints  for  future 
planning,  (2)  major  capabilities  existing  and  under  development,  (3) 
intermediate  missions,  and  (4)  long-range  aeronautical  and  space  de- 
velopments.    Report  concluded: 

",  .  .  The  details  of  these  new  missions  such  as  specific  spacecraft 
designs  and  exact  mission  plans  will,  of  course,  be  the  subject  of  con- 
tinued study.  .  .  .  Continued  space  exploration  will  be  an  evolution- 
ary process  in  which  the  next  step  is  based  largely  on  what  was  learned 
from  the  experience  of  preceding  research  and  flight  missions.  The 
pace  at  which  these  new  programs  will  be  carried  out  will  necessarily 
depend  upon  many  other  factors,  such  as  the  allocation  of  budgetary 
and  manpower  resources  and  the  changing  National  needs  of  the 
future. 

"This  study  has  not  revealed  any  single  area  of  space  development 
which  appears  to  require  an  overriding  emphasis  or  a  crash  effort. 
Rather,  it  appears  that  a  continued  balanced  program,  steadily  pursu- 
ing  continued    advancement   in    aeronautics,    space   sciences,   manned 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  165 

space  flight,  and  lunar  and  planetary  exploration,  adequately  sup- 
ported by  a  broad  basic  research  and  technology  development  program, 
still  represents  the  wisest  course.  Further,  it  is  believed  that  such  a 
balanced  program  will  not  impose  unreasonably  large  demands  upon 
the  Nation's  resources  and  that  such  a  program  will  lead  to  a  pre- 
eminent role  in  aeronautics  and  space."  (Text;  NASA  Auth.  Hear- 
ings [Part  3],  Senate  Comm.  on  Aeronautical  and  Space  Sciences, 
1015-1102) 
April  2:  Fifty  years  ago  President  Woodrow  Wilson  appointed  the  first 
members  of  the  National  Advisory  Committee  for  Aeronautics.  The 
first  meeting  of  the  naca  was  held  on  April  23,  1915,  in  the  office  of 
Secretary  of  War  Lindley  M.  Garrison.  Brig.  Gen.  George  P.  Scriven, 
Chief  Signal  Officer,  was  elected  temporary  chairman.  (Hunsaker, 
40  Years,  247;  A&A,  1915-60,  3) 

•  MARINER  iv's  star-tracking  guidance  system  was  updated  to  compensate 

for  changing  angular  relationship  between  spacecraft  and  the  star 
Canopus.      (NASA  Release  65-111) 

•  Landing  pads  that  might  be  used  on  unmanned  or  manned  vehicles  in 

NASA's  Project  Apollo  were  patented  for  NASA.  Bowl-shaped,  the  pads 
W'ould  be  attached  to  the  spacecraft's  struts  by  ball  joints  and  would 
be  braced  inside  by  collapsible  ribs  to  absorb  lateral  shock.  The 
underside  of  the  bowl  would  be  covered  by  material  similar  to  sheet 
aluminum  designed  to  shear  away  if  the  pads  should  slide.  The  in- 
ventor. Josef  F.  Blumrich  of  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center,  said 
the  pads  would  support  a  vertical  landing  on  level  terrain  and  would 
not  dig  in  or  transmit  undue  shock  if  they  should  slip  against  rocks; 
they  were  designed  to  settle  on  rock  or  dust  or  a  combination  of  the 
two.      (Jones,  ^NYT,   4/3/65,   34) 

•  USAF    designated    Textron's    Ball    Aerosystems    Co.    an    associate    prime 

contractor  to  supply  rocket  engines  for  the  Agena  space  vehicle,  it  was 
announced.  Change  would  enable  the  afsc  Space  Systems  Div.  to 
procure  Agena  rocket  engines  directly  from  Bell  Aerosystems.  Bell 
had  designed,  manufactured,  and  tested  the  Agena  rocket  engine  since 
1956  under  subcontracts  from  Lockheed  Missiles  and  Space  Co.  Agena 
had  orbited  more  than  80  percent  of  the  uSAF  and  NASA  satellites  and 
had  placed  approximately  60  per  cent  of  the  free  world's  functional 
unmanned  payloads  in  space.  The  Bell  Agena  engine,  which  had 
contributed  largely  to  that  percentage,  had  been  fired  in  space  ap- 
proximately 200  times  and  had  achieved  a  record  exceeding  99.3  per 
cent.      (Bell  Release) 

•  Canadian  Defence  Minister  Paul  Hellyer  announced  the  Mar.  31  shutdown 

of  the  S227-million  Mid-Canada  Warning  Line,  an  electronic  aircraft- 
detection  device.  Mr.  Hellyer  said  that  the  shutdown  would  save  $13 
million  annually  and  that  improvements  in  the  Pinetree  radar  system 
had  made  coverage  by  the  Mid-Canada  Line  unnecessary,  (ap,  NYT, 
4/4/65,  12) 

•  Hsinhua,  official  Chinese  Communist  press  agency,  announced  public  dis- 

play in  Peking  military  museum  of  a  pilotlegs  U.S.  reconnaissance 
plane,  shot  down  over  central  south  China,  Jan.  2,  1965,  "by  the  Air 
Force."     (NYT,  4/3/65,  2) 


166  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 


April  3:   Check   out   of  AEc's 
SNAPSHOT  satellite. 


April  3:  aec's  970-lb.  snapshot  spacecraft  carrying  Snap- 10a  nuclear  re- 
actor was  successfully  launched  from  Vandenberg  afb  by  an  Atlas- 
Agena  booster  into  nearly  circular  polar  orbit;  820-mi.  (1,320  km.) 
apogee;  788-mi.  (1,269  km.)  perigee;  112  min.  period;  90.17°  inclina- 
tion. Four  hours  after  injection  into  orbit,  radio  command  from  earth 
activated  the  250-lb.  nuclear  reactor  by  moving  internal  shielding  that 
had  kept  the  emission  of  electrons  from  the  uranium-235  fuel  element 
from  reaching  the  chain  reaction  stage.  The  reactor  would  provide 
electric  power  for  a  2.2-lb.  ion  engine.  This  was  the  first  attempt  to 
test  a  reactor-ion  system  in  orbit. 

Twelve  hours  after  launch,  radio  signals  from  the  Agena  vehicle 
carrying  the  reactor  indicated  it  was  producing  620-668  watts  of  elec- 
tricity— some  209^  over  its  designed  power.  Electricity  generated 
by  the  reactor  would  be  stored  in  a  480-lb.  bank  of  batteries  and 
released  as  the  ion  engine  was  put  through  start-stop  tests  during  a 
three-month  period.  The  engine  would  manufacture  its  own  power  by 
electrically  vaporizing  the  3'/^  oz.  of  the  metal  cesium  in  its  fuel  tank 
into  atomic  particles  and  expelling  them  at  high  speed  through  a  nozzle 
to  provide  thrust  of  two-thousandths  of  a  pound. 


ASTRONAL'TICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  167 

AEC  said  the  satellite  would  stav  aloft  more  than  3.000  yrs. — far 
beyond  the  100  yrs.  it  would  take  for  the  reactor's  radioactive  elements 
to  decay  to  a  safe  level.  The  reactor  would  be  shut  down  after  a  year, 
the  ion  engine  after  about  three  months.  If  successful,  the  test  would 
signal  the  first  operation  in  space  of  a  light,  compact,  propulsion  sys- 
tem that  would  produce  power  over  long  periods  on  small  amounts  of 
fuel  for  (1)  surveillance  and  patrol  satellites  functioning  in  orbit  for 
years,  and  ( 2 )  manned  spaceships  capable  of  speeds  of  100,000  mph 
on  trips  to  distant  planets  now  beyond  the  reach  of  conventionally- 
fuelled  rockets. 

Also  orbited  was  U.S.  Army  SECOR  IV  geodetic  satellite.  (Hill, 
NYT.  4  5  65;  ap.  Wash.  Post.  4/4/65;  UPi,  Chic.  Trib..  4/5/65;  aec 
Release  H-60;  U.S.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act.,  1965,  139;  Atomic  Energy 
Programs,  1965.  151) 
April  3:  NASA  Nike-Apache  sounding  rocket  was  launched  from  Ft.  Church- 
ill, Canada,  to  altitude  of  204.67  km.  (127.2  mi.)  with  Rice  Univer- 
sity experiment  to  make  time  resolution  measurements  of  electron 
fluxes  within  an  aurora  for  use  in  determining  transit  times  of  these 
electrons  from  their  sources.  Performance  was  satisfactory.  (NASA 
Rpt.  SRL) 

•  USAF  School  of  Aerospace  Medicine  was  conducting  experiments  on  13 

rhesus  monkeys  at  Oak  Ridge  National  Laboratory  to  discover  how 
nuclear  radiation  would  affect  auditory,  visual,  and  motor  systems. 
Studies  might  ultimately  reveal  how  man  would  be  affected  under 
similar  conditions.  Each  monkey  was  conditioned  to  respond  to  a 
visual  or  auditory  cue;  by  measuring  the  time  required  for  animal  to 
respond  before  and  after  radiation  exposure,  scientists  could  deter- 
mine the  effect  of  radiation  on  monkey's  ability  to  perform.  Pre- 
liminary results  had  confirmed  that  "animals  exposed  to  radiation 
undergo  a  period  shortly  after  irradiation  in  which  they  are  totally 
unable  to  function."      (A^ 77,  4/4/65,  68) 

•  In  Saturday  Review,  Science  Editor  John  Lear  reviewed  gsfc's  Project 

Firefly  as  "an  epic  experiment  that  will  at  least  track  the  essential  spark 
of  life  wherever  it  can  be  found  beyond  the  earth." 

He  reviewed  Dr.  William  D.  McElroy's  pioneering  research  in 
bioluminescence  [see  March  11]  and  noted  that  Norman  E.  MacLeod, 
head  of  GSFC  Bioscience  Group,  emphasized  in  interviews  the  contribu- 
tion of  the  Johns  Hopkins  scientist.  He  also  reviewed  the  flight  of 
"robot  photographer  named  Ranger  8,"  concluding  "The  Russians  tend 
to  be  more  practical  about  small  but  crucial  obstacles  than  Americans 
do.  Although  they  are  years  ahead  in  rocketry  (having  now  demon- 
strated the  ability  to  move  a  man  out  through  the  hatchway  of  a  space- 
ship in  flight  and  safely  back  again — a  preliminary  step  to  using  the 
hatchway  to  link  the  two  spaceships  that  will  travel  as  one  to  the  moon), 
they  have  not  yet  been  so  brash  as  to  announce  a  date  by  which  they 
will  make  a  manned  landing  on  the  moon.  Before  we  become  still 
more  acutely  embarrassed  by  our  lunar  braggadocio,  it  would  seem 
wise  for  Washington  to  abandon  the  virtually  impossible  1970  deadline 
for  putting  an  American  on  the  moon."      (SR,  4/3/65,  45-48) 

•  Sen.  J.  W.  Fullbright    (D-Ark. ),  speaking  at  Virginia   Polytechnic   In- 

stitute, criticized  the  U.S.  "crash  program  aimed  at  landing  on  the 
moon  by  1970  at  a  cost  of  $20-to-S30  billion."     He  said  that  ".  .  .  the 


168  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

moon  is  only  one  of  our  aspirations,  a  distant  one  at  that,  and  in  the 
meantime  we  have  children  to  educate  and  cities  to  rebuild."  Ful- 
bright  cited  education  as  the  nation's  paramount  deficit  and  advocated 
orienting  "our  space  program  to  our  own  needs  instead  of  letting  the 
Russians  determine  for  us  what  we  will  do  and  how  much  we  will 
spend."  (UPI,  Boston  Sun.  Globe,  4/4/65) 
April  3:  "Our  military  space  program  is  a  wall  decoration,"  said  James  J. 
Hagerty,  Jr.,  in  an  editorial  in  the  Journal  of  the  Armed  Forces.  He 
continued :  "The  technology  is  there,  but  we  are  not  exploiting  it.  Our 
DOD  civilian  leadership  is  content  to  drift  along  with  the  idea  that 
someday  we'll  get  around  to  it  if  we  need  it.  This  attitude  seems  to 
be  based  on  the  theory  often  advanced  by  Secretary  McNamara  and 
echoed  by  [nasa  Administrator]  Mr.  Webb  in  his  Hill  testimony,  that 
there  is  'little  chance  that  the  Russians  can  develop  a  surprise  military 
[space]  capability'  .  .  .  H  there  is  any  chance  at  all,  we  should  be 
doing  something  more  than  we're  doing."  (Haggerty,  J /Armed 
Forces,  4/3/65,  8) 

•  Walter  Henry  Barling,  Sr.,  who  built  the  Barling  bomber  in   1923  for 

Gen.  Billy  Mitchell,  died  at  75.  Mr.  Barling  was  one  of  aviation's 
first  test  pilots  and  his  Barling  bomber  was  the  world's  largest  airplane 
at  the  time,  (ap,  NYT,  4/5/65,  31) 
April  4:  Gemini  spacecraft,  scheduled  for  a  four-day  manned  flight  this 
summer,  was  delivered  to  Cape  Kennedy.  It  was  flown  by  cargo  plane 
from  McDonnell  Aircraft  Corp.,  prime  contractor  for  manufacture  of 
the  craft,  where  it  had  undergone  simulated  flights.  Astronauts  James 
A.  McDivitt  and  Edward  H.  White  ii,  who  would  pilot  the  Gemini  4, 
also  had  made  simulated  flights  at  McDonnell,  (ap,  Wash.  Post, 
4/5/65) 

•  Dr.  Edmund  Klein  of  Roswell  Park  Memorial  Institute  for  Cancer  Re- 

search and  Dr.  Samuel  Fine,  Northeastern  Univ.  professor,  in  a  report 
prepared  for  the  149th  national  meeting  of  the  American  Chemical 
Society,  disclosed  that  laser  beams  may  cause  damage  to  the  eyes,  brain, 
and  other  organs  in  a  way  that  may  not  be  immediately  apparent. 
Klein  recommended  that  researchers  "err  on  the  side  of  safety  in 
precautionary  measures." 

Lasers  are  devices  for  concentrating  light  into  extremely  powerful 
beams;  researchers  were  exploring  their  usage  in  fields  of  communica- 
tions, eye  surgery,  cancer  treatment,  and  in  chemical  and  other  in- 
dustrial applications,      (ap,  Houston  Post,  4/5/65) 

•  Dr.  Krister  Stendahl,  Harvard  Divinity  School,  replying  to  the  question 

of  how  the  discovery  of  intelligent  creatures  on  other  planets  would 
affect  religions  on  earth,  said:  ".  .  .  it  would  be  a  refreshing  shock 
to  our  faith  if  there  were  something  like  intelligent  life  elsewhere  in 
the  Universe.  It  would  force  us  to  enlarge  our  image  of  God  and 
find  our  more  humble  and  proper  place  within  his  creation."  (Boston 
Sun.  Globe,  4/4/65) 
April  5:  One  of  tiros  ix's  two  cameras  had  stopped  returning  useful  photo- 
graphs, NASA  announced,  possibly  because  of  malfunction  of  a  diode. 
Second  camera  was  taking  about  250  pictures  daily  of  the  earth's  cover. 
Project  engineers  at  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  had  begun  a 
"turnabout"    maneuver   to    prevent   the    meteorological    satellite    from 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  169 

overheating  and  to  ensure  continued  solar  power.  Maneuver  would  not 
affect  satellite's  picture-taking  ability. 

Launched  into  polar  orbit  Jan.  22.  1965,  tiros  IX  had  apogee  of 
1,605  mi.  and  perigee  of  435  mi.  The  "cartwheel  satellite,"  so  called 
because  it  was  moving  through  space  like  a  rolling  wheel  with  the 
cameras  mounted  opposite  each  other  on  the  perimeter,  had  taken  more 
than  32.000  pictures,  92'(  of  them  useful  to  weather  forecasters. 
(NASA  Release  65-120) 
April  5:  The  White  House  announced  scientists  appointed  by  President 
Johnson  to  his  Science  Advisory  Committee:  Dr.  Lewis  Branscomb, 
chairman  of  the  joint  Institute  for  Laboratory  Astrophysics  of  the 
National  Bureau  of  Standards;  Marvin  L.  Goldberger,  professor  at 
Princeton  Univ.:  Kenneth  Pitzer.  president  of  Rice  Univ.;  Dr.  George 
Pake,  professor  at  Washington  Univ.:  and  Dr.  Gordon  McDonald,  Univ. 
of  California  at  Los  Angeles'  Institute  of  Geophysics  and  Planetary 
Physics.  Also  announced  was  the  nomination  of  Frederick  G.  Donner, 
chief  executive  officer  of  General  Motors  Corp.,  for  reappointment  to 
ComSatCorp's  board  of  directors.      {Wash.  Post,  4/5/65) 

•  NASA  selected  three  aerospace  firms  to  develop   a  concept  and  prepare 

preliminary  designs  for  hypersonic  ramjet  research  engine:  Garrett 
Corp.,  General  Electric  Co.,  and  Marquardt  Corp.  Total  value  of 
first  phase  of  contract  would  be  about  S1.5  million.  During  9-mo. 
parallel  studies,  opening  phase  of  NASA's  Hypersonic  Ramjet  Experiment 
Project,  the  companies  would  prepare  engine  development  plans  that 
would  serve  as  technical  proposals  for  the  second  phase  of  the  pro- 
gram. The  ramjet  engine,  because  of  its  relative  fuel  economy  at 
hypersonic  speeds,  was  expected  to  be  useful  for  hypersonic  transport 
aircraft,  boosters,  and  spacecraft  flying  within  the  atmosphere.  Flight 
research  with  the  engine  mounted  on  the  X-15  aircraft  was  planned. 
Hypersonic  Ramjet  Experiment  Project  would  be  under  the  technical 
direction  of  NASA  Langley  Research  Center,  with  the  assistance  of  NASA 
Ames,  Lewis,  and  Flight  Research  Centers.      (NASA  Release  65-110) 

•  NASA  Nike-Apache  sounding  rocket  was  successfully  launched  from  USNS 

Croatan  carrying  an  instrumented  payload  to  provide  data  on  the 
neutron  intensity,  solar  x-ray  flux.  Lyman-alpha  radiation,  and 
ionosphere  electron  density  at  different  latitudes.  Experiment  was 
conducted  for  the  Univ.  of  New  Hampshire,      (nasa  Rpt.  srl) 

•  NASA    Administrator    James    E.    Webb    appeared    before    House    Com- 

mittee on  Appropriations'  Subcommittee  on  Independent  Offices,  in 
support  of  the  S5.26  billion  NASA  appropriation  requested  by  President 
Johnson  for  FY  1966.  He  said:  'The  budget  submitted  to  the 
Congress  by  the  President  provides  for  activities  that  are  essential  to 
continuing  the  progress  that  we  have  made  towards  our  goal  of  pre- 
eminence in  space  sciences,  application  satellites,  manned  space  flight, 
and  advanced  research  and  technological  development  necessary  for 
aircraft  improvements  and  for  future  space  activities.  It  does  not 
provide  for  everything  that  we  could  do  or  would  like  to  do.  In  fact, 
it  has  been  necessary  within  the  strict  budget  requirements  imposed  by 
the  President  that  certain  desirable  project  activities  started  in  previous 
years  be  omitted  from  the  1966  budget.  .  .   . 

"Within  the  confines  of  this  limited  budget,  the  President  has  pro- 
vided the  funds  necessary  to   preserve  the  opportunity   that   we   still 


170  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS.  1965 

believe  we  have  to  accomplish  a  manned  lunar  landing  and  exploration 
within  this  decade.  The  margin  for  insurance  that  had  been  built 
into  our  original  program  plan  has  largely  disappeared.  However,  we 
now  estimate  this  may  be  possible  if  we  can  maintain  our  current 
successful  development  efforts  and  make  the  all-up  systems  testing  pro- 
cedure work  on  the  very  large  Saturn  V-Apollo  combination  to  launch 
men  toward  the  Moon  on  earlier  flights  than  we  had  originally 
planned.  There  is.  therefore,  still  an  opportunity  to  accomplish  this 
national  space  objective  within  the  time  specified.  Our  work  to  date 
gives  us  somewhat  more  confidence  than  we  had  a  year  ago  that  we 
can  still  achieve  the  objectives  that  were  planned  in  1961  in  spite  of 
a  limit  on  resources  that  will  not  fund  all  the  flights  planned  at  that 
time.  It  is  important,  however,  to  keep  in  mind  that  in  Gemini  we 
are  just  now  in  a  position  to  find  out  by  flight  experiments  how  men 
can  live,  work,  remain  efficient,  and  make  important  contributions  in 
space  for  extended  periods.  .  .  ."  (Testimony;  Ind.  Off.  Approp. 
Hearings  [Part  2],  84^96) 
April  5:  Announcement  was  made  at  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  that 
Astronauts  Walter  M.  Schirra.  Jr.  (Cdr..  USN »  and  Thomas  P.  Stafford 
(Maj.,  usaf)  had  been  selected  for  the  first  Gemini  docking  and  ren- 
dezvous mission,  scheduled  for  launch  "the  first  quarter  of  1966." 
Virgil  1.  Grissom  (Maj.,  usaf)  and  John  Young  (Cdr..  USN )  would 
be  the  backup  crew.      (Transcript) 

•  An  equipment  modification  to  permit  opening  of  the  hatch  on  Gemini  4 

had  been  successfully  tested,  William  Normyle  reported  in  Avia- 
tion Week  &  Space  Technology.  Hoses  connecting  the  spacesuits 
to  the  spacecraft's  environmental  control  system  were  lengthened  to 
permit  the  astronaut  to  stand  and  partially  emerge  through  the  hatch. 
NASA  had  not  yet  approved  a  spacecraft-depressurization  and  hatch- 
opening  exercise  for  the  two-man  spaceflight.  (Normyle,  Av.  Wk., 
4/5/65,  27) 

•  NASA   had   published    110-page   illustrated    report    containing   ten    papers 

on  diversified  utilization  of  space-research  knowledge  delivered 
at  NASA  and  Univ.  of  California-sponsored  workshop  held  in  Los 
Angeles,  June  2,  1964.      (nasa  Release  65-109:  NASA  sp-5018) 

•  Danish  satellite  tracking  station  official  reported  what  he  believed  to  have 

been  the  explosion  of  a  U.S.  satellite  launched  by  USAF  Mar.  25. 
About  ten  brilliantly  lighted  objects  crossing  the  sky  were  at  first  as- 
sumed to  have  been  meteors.      {M&R,  4/26/65,  11) 

•  Antoine  Senni  emerged  from  a  cave  333  ft.  below  ground  near  Cannes, 

France.  Senni  had  entered  the  cave  Nov.  30,  1964.  to  test  effects  of 
isolation  on  human  system.      (Reuters.  Wash.  Post,  4/6/65) 

•  Gen.  Bernard  A.  Schriever.  afsc  Commander,  spoke  in  a  luncheon  address 

on  military  technology  at  the  World  Aff'airs  Council  in  Los  Angeles: 
".  .  .  we  can  expect  substantial  improvements  in  materials  with  re- 
spect to  their  strength,  stiffness,  and  ability  to  operate  at  high  tem- 
peratures. 

"One  such  material,  a  composite  formed  from  boron  fibers  in  a 
plastic  binder,  has  been  demonstrated  in  the  laboratory  to  have  approxi- 
mately five  times  the  specific  strength  of  today's  aircraft  alloys.  .  .  . 
This  .  .  .  will  give  increased  strength  at  greatly  reduced  weight. 
Another  material  is  oxide  dispersed  nickel,  which  can  make  possible 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  171 

an  increase  of  several  hundred  degrees  in  turbine  operating  tempera- 
tures, enough  to  double  the  thrust  of  today's  jet  engines,  with  no 
increase  in  weight.  .  .  . 

"In  propulsion,  these  advances  in  materials  and  component  tech- 
nology can  make  available  engines  for  vertical  takeoff  and  landing 
aircraft  with  more  than  double  our  present  thrust-to-weight  ratios  and 
transport  engines  with  half  of  today's  fuel  consumption.  The  use  of 
hydrogen  would  make  feasible  engines  for  long  range  hypersonic  craft 
flying  at  7,000  miles  per  hour — almost  four  times  as  fast  as  the  most 
sophisticated  supersonic  transport  now  proposed.  And  the  aircraft 
will  be  of  smaller  size  to  do  the  same  job. 

"New  technologies  in  flight  dynamics,  such  as  laminar  flow  control, 
can  materially  increase  the  ranges  of  transport  aircraft.  If  laboratory 
boron  composite  structures  pan  out,  we  could  build  aircraft  that  could 
carry  twice  the  payload  at  the  same  weight  and  range  of  present  models. 
With  further  understanding  of  variable  geometry  wings  we  can  alleviate 
the  difficulties  of  operating  at  a  variety  of  combinations  of  speed  and 
altitude."  (Text) 
April  5:  "Within  a  decade  .  .  .  space  could  be  as  vital  to  defense  as  nu- 
clear weapons  are  todav,"  postulated  an  article  in  U.S.  Neivs  and  World 
Report.  It  continued:  "The  deep  conviction  of  top  U.S.  Air  Force 
leaders  is  that  Russia  is  directing  its  main  energies  and  resources  not 
to  the  moon,  but  to  mastery  of  space  nearer  earth.  Some  are  convinced 
that  Russia,  far  behind  in  the  missile  race,  is  now  striving  to  leapfrog 
the  U.S.  and  move  ahead  with  manned  satellite  weapons."  {U.S.  News, 
4/5/65) 
April  5-7:  The  Second  Space  Congress  of  the  Canaveral  Council  of  Tech- 
nical Societies  was  held  in  Cocoa  Beach,  Fla.  Rep.  Olin  Teague 
(D— Tex.)  reportedly  said  in  a  speech  that  the  House  Committee  on 
Science  and  Astronautics  supported  a  military  man-in-space  effort  and 
"almost  unanimously"  favored  restoring  $30  million  to  the  Apollo  pro- 
gram. Rep.  Teague  revealed  that  the  Committee  had  written  to 
President  Johnson  to  stress  the  need  for  a  decision  on  the  proposed 
USAF  Manned  Orbiting  Laboratory  program  and  to  urge  him  to  "take 
a  careful  look  as  soon  as  possible  and  make  a  decision"  as  to  whether 
or  not  the  Gemini  spacecraft  would  be  used  in  the  Mol  program. 
(M&R,  4/12/65,  16) 

In  answer  to  the  question  of  what  man  could  do  in  space  to  con- 
tribute to  the  military  mission,  Maj.  Gen.  Don  R.  Ostrander,  Com- 
mander of  USAF  Office  of  Aerospace  Research,  said  at  the  Space  Con- 
gress: "I  believe  that  the  mol  will  enable  us  to  come  up  with  some 
of  the  answers."      (Text) 

Dr.  George  E.  Mueller,  nasa  Associate  Administrator  for  Manned 
Space  Flight,  speaking  before  the  Space  Congress,  said:  ".  .  .  ex- 
travehicular activity,  as  accomplished  by  the  Soviets,  and  orbital 
changes,  as  accomplished  by  Gus  Grissom  and  John  Young  .  .  .  are 
essential  to  future  progress  in  space  exploration.  Both  are  objectives 
of  our  Gemini  Program  and  both  are  techniques  that  we  must  learn 
in  order  to  carry  out  the  Apollo  Program.  We  have  long  assumed  that 
both  were  objectives  of  the  Soviet  Program. 

"Given  these  assumptions,  the  difference  between  the  scheduling  of 
these  experiments  in  the  Soviet  program  and  ours  is  a  detail  of  rel- 
atively minor  importance.     It  has  been  our  judgment  that  maneuver- 


172  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

ing  and  changing  orbits  are  more  important  than  extravehicular  activity 
for  the  progress  of  our  program.  For  this  reason,  we  scheduled  the 
conduct  of  such  maneuvers  for  the  first  manned  flight  in  the  Gemini 
Program.  We  must  assume  that  the  Soviets  had  their  good  reason  for 
scheduling  extravehicular  activity  on  an  earlier  flight  in  their  pro- 
gram."     (Text) 

E.  Z.  Gray,  also  of  NASA's  Office  of  Manned  Space  Flight,  discussed 
future  programs.  He  stressed  that  one  of  the  cardinal  rules  guiding 
the  planning  was  that  maximum  use  must  be  made  of  hardware  either 
already  developed  or  currently  in  development.  (M&R,  4/12/65,  16) 
April  6:  ComSatCorp's  85-lb.  early  bird  I,  the  first  commercial  communica- 
tions satellite,  was  successfully  launched  from  Cape  Kennedy  with  a 
three-stage  Thrust-Augmented  Delta  (Tad)  booster.  An  hour  after 
launching,  flight  control  center  confirmed  that  the  satellite  had  entered 
an  elliptical  transfer  orbit  with  apogee,  22,677  mi.  (36,510  km.)  ; 
perigee,  908  mi.  (1,463  km.)  ;  period,  11  hrs.  10  min.,  and  was  sending 
clear  radio  signals.  NASA  handled  the  launching  under  a  contract  with 
ComSatCorp. 

About  40  hrs.  after  launching,  a  kick  motor  aboard  early  bird  I 
would  be  fired  to  adjust  the  path  of  the  satellite  to  a  synchronous 
circular  orbit  at  22,300  mi.  altitude  above  the  Atlantic,  early  bird  I 
would  become  the  first  link  in  ComSatCorp's  proposed  worldwide 
satellite  communications  system  and  would  relay  radio,  television, 
teletype,  and  telephone  messages  between  North  America  and  Europe. 
(Clark,  NYT,  4/7/65;  ap,  Bak.  Sun,  4/7/65;  ComSatCorp) 

•  Subcommittee  Chairman   Albert  Thomas    (D-Tex.)    and  the   House   In- 

dependent Offices  Appropriations  Subcommittee  were  highly  critical  of 
Astronaut  Virgil  Grissom's  deviation  from  flight  plan  instructions  dur- 
ing the  GEMINI  III  flight  and  eating  a  sandwich  instead  of  fasting. 
According  to  published  reports,  one  Subcommittee  member  referred  to 
a  "$30  million  corned  beef  sandwich."  and  another  asked  NASA 
Administrator  James  E.  Webb  how  he  could  control  a  multi-million 
dollar  budget  if  he  could  not  control  two  astronauts.  (Av.  Wk.,  4/12/ 
65,  25;  Hines,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  4/15/65) 

•  Defense  Secretary  Robert  S.  McNamara  confirmed  that  the  U.S.  had  given 

Great  Britain  option  to  purchase  F-111  aircraft  and  spare  parts  total- 
ing more  than  $1  billion  for  its  Royal  Air  Force.  Delivery  orders  for 
the  F-111  were  expected  to  be  placed  after  completion  of  the  British 
defense  review,  (dod  Release  210-65) 
April  7:  ComSatCorp's  EARLY  bird  i  communications  satellite  successfully 
received,  amplified,  and  returned  a  television  signal  to  Andover,  Me., 
ground  station  in  an  unscheduled  communications  test.  ComSatCorp 
Vice  President  Siegfried  H.  Reiger  said  that  "the  picture  quality  of 
the  test  pattern  was  excellent."  (Clark,  NYT.  4/8/65;  AP,  Bait.  Sun, 
4/8/65) 

•  USAF  announced  that  data  from  AEC's  Snap-lOA  satellite  indicated  "an 

extremely  high  noise  factor"  when  the  ion  engine  was  turned  on,  mak- 
ing it  impossible  to  determine  whether  it  was  operating  properly. 
Scientists  said  the  engine,  which  on  Apr.  2  had  operated  normally  for 
an  hour,  would  not  be  tested  further  until  additional  analyses  were 
made.  The  difficulty  had  not  interfered  with  the  major  experiment — 
operation  of  the  Snap-lOA  nuclear  reactor.      (UF'i,  NYT,  4/8/65) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  173 

April  7:  Four  airmen  emerged  with  high  voices  and  a  hunger  for  meat  after 
five  weeks  of  confinement  in  a  simulated  space  cabin  at  the  usaf  School 
of  Aerospace  Medicine.  Scientists  w^ere  studying  a  helium-oxygen 
atmosphere  for  possible  future  space  cabin  work  because  it  did  not 
produce  decompression  sickness  in  astronauts  and  was  less  hazardous 
in  terms  of  spacecraft  fires.      (Chic.  Trib.,  4/8/65;  M&R,  4/12  ^65,  10) 

•  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  awarded  IBM  a  5-yr.  $175,125,000 

contract  for  integration  and  checkout  of  instrument  units  for  Saturn  IB 
and  Saturn  V  programs.  Initially  announced  in  1964,  the  contract 
would  give  IBM  the  additional  responsibility  for  structural  and  environ- 
mental control  systems  and  integration  of  all  systems,  (msfc  Release 
65-79) 

•  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  was  asked  by  Rep.  Charles  R.  Jonas 

(R-N.C.)  in  NASA  appropriations  hearing  of  the  Subcommittee  on  In- 
dependent Offices.  House  Committee  on  Appropriations,  to  "set  to  rest" 
the  rumor  that  NASA  was  planning  to  phase  out  MSFC  in  Huntsville,  Ala. 
Mr.  Webb  explained  that  during  his  recent  visit  to  Alabama  leading 
Alabama  businessmen  had  asked  "questions  about  the  future  and 
whether  the  budget  was  going  to  be  larger,  and  whether  more  would 
come  to  Alabama.  Perhaps  injudiciously,  I  said,  'Unless  we  can  recruit 
better  and  more  able  people  for  the  new  phase  of  our  program,  you  are 
not  going  to  keep  what  you  have.'  .  .  . 

"We  have  a  real  problem  in  recruiting  the  kind  of  people  needed 
to  manage  these  contracts  with  American  industry  to  go  and  live  in 
Alabama,  and  the  image  of  the  State  has  been  one  of  the  problems  that 
we  have  had.  I  pointed  this  out  to  the  businessmen,  and  pointed  out  to 
them  also  that  not  only  the  problem  of  our  recruitment  was  involved, 
that  the  State  itself,  in  my  opinion,  was  missing  a  valuable  oppor- 
tunity to  use  these  kinds  of  people  to  build  up  its  own  economy, 
because  the  very  existence  of  them  there  in  the  various  areas  could  be 
of  great  benefit  to  the  State.  .  .  ."  {Ind.  Off.  Approp.  Hearings 
[Part  2],  1264^65) 

•  Soviet    cosmonaut    commander    Air    Force    Lt.    Gen.    Nikolai    Kaminin 

denied  foreign  newspaper  reports  that  some  of  his  men  had  died  in 
unannounced  space  shots.  Kaminin,  writing  in  Krasnaya  Zvezda, 
said:  "The  names  of  people  who  have  allegedly  died  listed  in  foreign 
papers  are  mostly  names  of  nonexistent  cosmonauts."  He  said  the 
aim  of  the  reports  "is  to  weaken  the  tremendous  impressions  made 
by  the  achievements  of  Soviet  science  and  technology  in  space."  (ap, 
Huntsville  Times,  4/7/65) 

•  New  York  World's  Fair  opened  for  its  second  season.     It  featured  nasa- 

DOD  U.S.  Space  Park,  containing  two  and  one  half  acres  of  full-scale 
rockets  and  spacecraft.  Among  the  exhibits  were  a  full-scale  Gemini 
model,  an  x-15  model,  full-scale  reproductions  of  Tiros,  Nimbus,  Relay, 
Telstar,  and  Syncom  satellites,  and  AURORA  7  Mercury  spacecraft. 

An  honorary  astronaut  card  signed  by  Astronaut  Alan  B.  Shepard,  Jr. 
fCdr.,  usn),  the  first  American  in  space,  and  Astronaut  Virgil  I. 
Grissom  (Maj.,  usaf).  the  first  astronaut  to  make  two  trips  into  space, 
was  available  at  the  U.S.  Space  Park  to  young  visitors  taking  a  ride  in 
the  full-scale  animated  Mercury  spacecraft  on  display  there.  (Press 
Release) 


174  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

April  7:  Dr.  Franklin  P.  Dixon,  nasa  Director  of  Manned  Lunar  and  Plane- 
tary Mission  Studies,  told  T\\  in  Cities  aiaa  Chapter  in  Minneapolis  that 
NASA  was  "investigating;  and  planning  manned  missions  and  experi- 
ments beyond  the  presently  appro\  ed  Gemini  and  Apollo  pro- 
grams.  .   .   . 

"A  logical  sequence  for  future  NASA  manned  space  flight  programs 
.  .  .  begins  with  the  Gemini  and  Apollo  program  base.  The  next 
logical  development  is  the  Apollo  Extension  System  ( AES )  which  is  a 
stepping  stone  to  advanced  Earth-orbital  operations,  to  lunar-orbital 
surveys,  and  to  lunar  surface  exploration.  The  AES  Earth-orbital  ac- 
tivities are  a  development  phase  for  an  orbital  research  laboratory  or 
early  space  station  as  well  as  a  lunar  exploration  station.  Based  on  the 
Apollo  Command  and  Service  module  technology,  we  can  also  develop 
advanced  logistic  systems  for  larger  orbiting  space  stations  of  in- 
definite life  or  for  greater  expansion  of  lunar  exploration  if  desired. 
The  advanced  orbiting  space  station  can  likewise  lead  to  an  orbiting 
launch  complex  for  planetary  missions  such  as  Martian  flyby  and 
exploration  shelters  or  a  lunar  base  for  potential  exploitation  of  the 
lunar  environment.  ...  In  Earth  orbit,  the  AES  can  provide  for 
experimental  operations  in  the  three  major  fundamental  areas  .  .  .  : 
(1)  flights  to  conduct  scientific  research  in  space  requiring  man's  pres- 
ence; (2)  Earth-oriented  applications  to  increase  the  nation's  strength, 
and  (3)  development  of  advanced  technology  for  support  of  both 
manned  and  unmanned  space  operations.  ...  In  the  field  of  Earth- 
oriented  applications  of  manned  space  operations,  NASA  has  been 
conducting  studies  and  investigations  jointly  with  the  Departments  of 
Commerce.  Agriculture,  Interior  and  Defense  to  determine  how  we 
might  apply  Apollo's  unique  capabilities  to  improve  our  ability  to 
forecast  weather,  to  communicate  globally  at  high  data  rates,  to  make 
an  up-to-date  inventory  of  the  world's  resources,  to  monitor  air  and 
sea  traffic  on  a  global  scale,  to  support  a  world-wide  air-sea  rescue 
service,  to  make  better  forecasts  of  food  production  and  to  provide  a 
data-gathering  system  on  a  global  scale.  Experiments  are  also  being 
evaluated  to  enhance  over-all  development  of  space  operations. 
Biomedical,  behavioral  and  other  medical  studies  would  be  conducted 
as  well  as  the  development  of  advanced  subsystems  and  technology  for 
spacecraft.  .  .  ."      (Text) 

•  National    Science    Foundation    reported    that    three    New    Mexico    State 

Univ.  engineers  were  studying  satellites'  radio  signals  in  an  attempt  to 
determine  exact  shape  of  the  earth.  Under  an  NSF  grant,  the  engineers 
had  set  up  and  were  manning  a  special  tracking  unit  at  U.S.  McMurdo 
Station  in  Antarctica  and  were  tuned  in  on  three  spacecraft  in  polar 
orbit  that  passed  near  McMurdo  42  times  daily.  Stanford  Univ. 
scientists  had  established  a  unit  at  Byrd  Station  to  receive  information 
from  NASA's  Pogo,  to  be  launched  later  this  year.  ( UPI,  A^Fr,  4/11/65, 
2)  ^ 

April  8:  mariner  iv,  49,373,799  mi.  from  earth  and  traveling  34,738  mph 
relative  to  earth,  had  covered  206,868,340  mi.  in  its  journey  toward 
Mars  at  9:00  a.m.  est.      (nasa  Release  65-111) 

•  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  awarded  RCA  a  $4.6-million  contract 

to  provide  a  real-time  deep  space  tracking  and  data  acquisition  system 
for  support  of  Project  Apollo  missions.     Contract  called  for  installation, 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  175 

checkout,  and  documentation  of  rca's  long-range  (32,000  mi.)  fpq 
radar  on  land  made  available  near  a  NASA  site  on  Cooper's  Island, 
Bermuda,  through  a  land-lease  agreement  with  DOD.  The  "Q-6"  radar 
would  have  a  flexible  capability  to  support  NASA  programs  other  than 
manned  flight.  (GSFC  Release  G-9-65;  GSFC  Release  G-10-65) 
April  8:  Army  Corps  of  Engineers  awarded  Fisher  Construction  Co.  a 
NASA-funded  Sl,497,728  fixed-price  contract  for  construction  of  Lunar 
Mission  and  Space  Exploration  Facility  at  Manned  Spacecraft  Center. 
(DOD  Release  220-651 

•  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  said  at  the  U.S.  Naval  Academy: 

".  .  .  we  are  on  the  verge  of  another  major  breakthrough — the  capa- 
bility to  forecast  weather  at  least  five  days  in  advance  with  better  ac- 
curacy than  we  can  now  predict  24  to  36  hours  ahead.  Atmospheric 
systems  such  as  weather  balloons  and  ground  and  seabased  instru- 
ments which  are  alreadv  developed,  together  with  satellite  systems  and 
high  speed  computers,  should  make  it  practicable  in  the  next  few  years 
to  establish  a  global  observation  system.  As  distinguished  from  the 
satellites  whose  main  mission  is  cloud  cover  photographs,  the  more 
advanced  future  system  will  be  able  to  map  the  structure  of  the  earth's 
atmosphere  in  terms  of  wind,  temperature,  and  pressure  at  various 
altitudes." 

He  continued:  "We  foresee  the  possibility  of  carrying  sensors  in 
satellites  that  will  give  us  the  thermal  patterns  of  the  ocean's  surface 
which,  when  compared  with  the  atmospheric  conditions  in  any  area, 
may  give  us  the  ability  to  predict  the  formation  of  fog.  Similarly, 
ocean  currents  can  be  mapped  and  studied  to  advance  the  science  of 
oceanography.  We  can  even  measure  sea  state — roughness  of  the  sea 
— from  a  satellite."      ( Text ) 

•  Dr.  Eugene  Shoemaker,  head  of  the  astrogeological  branch  of  the  U.S. 

Geological  Survey,  said  in  an  interview  with  the  Houston  Post  while  at 
Rice  Univ.  as  a  speaker  in  the  President's  Lecture  Series  that  the 
Ranger  program  had  cost  a  total  of  about  $200  million.  He  estimated 
that  each  Ranger  shot  had  cost  just  under  $30  million  and  said  that 
although  four  of  the  seven  Ranger  missions  had  failed,  it  would  have 
been  foolish  to  settle  for  one  success:  "Just  imagine  that  the  Martians 
sent  a  Ranger-like  camera  to  take  pictures  of  the  earth.  With  just 
one  shot,  they'd  end  up  with  pictures  of  a  space  no  bigger  than  the 
size  of  an  urban  lot,  or  of  the  peak  of  the  Alps,  or  of  the  sand  dunes 
in  Arabia.  Could  they  tell  anything  about  the  earth  from  pictures  of 
just  one  of  these?''  The  Ranger  program,  just  concluded  with  the 
success  of  RANGER  IX,  gave  L'.S.  scientists  good  pictures  of  three  dif- 
ferent areas  of  the  moon.  Shoemaker  said.  "A  Ranger  picture  is  worth 
a  million  computer  words."      I  Perez.  Houston  Post,  4/8/65) 

•  Panel    on    Science    and    Technology    of    the    House    Committee    on    Sci- 

ence and  Technology  reported  on  its  sixth  meeting  (aeronautics),  Jan. 
26-27.  Report  was  a  comprehensive  summary  of  views  by  the  Com- 
mittee and  Panel  members  and  the  more  than  150  scientists  and  engi- 
neers attending  as  representatives  of  Government,  industry,  and  the 
scientific  and  academic  communities.  In  its  general  conclusion,  report 
stated  three  objectives  for  future  improvement  of  U.S.  civil  aeronau- 
tics: "Insure  that  our  economy  continued  to  have  the  best  air  trans- 
portation system  to  give  it  a  continuing  advantage  in  world  competi- 


176  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

tion";  "Insure  that  U.S.  aeronautical  development  is  immediately 
responsive  to  the  demand,  and  sufficiently  great  to  continue  leadership 
in  the  domestic  and  world  markets" ;  and  "Maintain  recognized  world 
leadership  in  technical  matters  to  insure  a  favorable  image  and  stature 
of  the  U.S.  technological  competence  in  aeronautical  development." 

Some  of  its  general  observations  on  the  future  of  aeronautics: 

"There  is  a  need  for  more  centralized  direction,  control,  and  pro- 
cedure ...  [of  the]  widely  dispersed  .  ,  .  technical  competence  and 
expertise  behind  aeronautical  development  in  the  United  States.  .   .   . 

"The  aircraft  industry  in  general  is  willing  to  contribute  to  any 
program  designed  to  further  aviation  advancement,  but  the  degree  of 
their  contribution  will  depend  upon  the  extent  of  Government  support, 
and  the  availability  of  a  market.  The  extent  is  also  dictated  by  the 
extent  of  their  earnings  on  marketable  products  for  which  the  Govern- 
ment is  usually  the  principal  customer. 

"There  are  indications  that  an  insufficient  amount  of  research  effort 
is  being  put  forth  in  the  hypersonic  regime  of  the  flight  spectrum,  par- 
ticularly in  the  field  of  propulsion. 

"The  aeronautical  research  and  development  capability  of  NASA  is 
not  being  used  to  its  maximum  capacity."  (House  Rpt.  227,  32-34) 
April  8:  In  address  on  "The  Early  History  of  the  Space  Age"  at  the  Univ. 
of  Wisconsin,  Eugene  M.  Emme,  the  nasa  Historian,  said:  "The  Space 
Age  clocks  on.  Never  before  have  basic  alterations  in  fundamental 
knowledge,  in  practical  engineering,  and  for  an  universal  perspective 
been  thrust  so  quickly  upon  mankind.   .   .   . 

"Few  serious  thoughts,  whether  associated  with  the  physical  or  so- 
cial sciences,  or  humanities,  can  ignore  some  aspect  of  the  space  ven- 
ture.    Like  it  or  not,  man's  time  for  space  mobility  is  here."      (Text) 

•  The  Flight  Safety  Foundation,  under  FAA  contract,  conducted  day   and 

night  tests  in  the  purposely-wrecked  Constellation  aircraft  at  Deer 
Valley,  Ariz.,  to  obtain  data  on  emergency  evacuation  of  passengers 
in  survivable  accidents.  "Passengers"  were  local  volunteers;  airline 
stewardesses  were  provided  by  several  air  carriers.  Evacuation  dupli- 
cated obstacles  passengers  would  face  in  real  situations.  Passenger 
reactions  were  recorded  with  remotely-controlled  motion  picture  cam- 
eras; certain  phases  of  the  operation  were  timed  with  precision  clocks. 
Test  results  would  aid  in  planning  advanced  studies  which  would  ex- 
plore seat  spacing,  aisle  widths,  and  other  related  factors,  (faa  Re- 
lease 65-27 ) 
April  9:  ComSatCorp's  early  bird  i  communications  satellite,  launched 
April  6  by  nasa,  was  placed  into  a  "near  letter  perfect"  synchronous 
orbit,  with  apogee.  36,637.1  km.  (22,765  mi.);  perigee,  35,041.9  km. 
(21,774  mi.)  The  five-day-early  maneuver  was  accomplished  by  fir- 
ing small  retrorocket  onboard  satellite  10.7  sec.  The  satellite  would 
be  allowed  to  drift  about  5° — over  300  mi. — to  the  exact  point  over 
the  Atlantic  where  it  would  remain  for  its  expected  three  to  five  year 
lifetime.      (/VYr,  4/10/65 ) 

•  USAF  launched  Blue  Scout  Jr.  space  probe  from  P^astern  Test  Range  with 

instrumented  payload  to  measure  sjjace  environment  effects  on  biologi- 
cal samples.  The  probe  reached  altitude  of  about  18.000  mi.,  re- 
entered over  the  South  Atlantic  Ocean.  Telemetrv  was  received  for 
only  15  min.      iU.S.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act.,  1065,  140) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  177 

April  9:  Dr.  George  E.  Mueller.  NASA  Associate  Administrator  for  Manned 
Space  Flight,  announced  change  of  primary  control  of  manned  flight 
missions  from  Cape  Kennedy  to  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  Mission 
Control  Center.  Christopher  Kraft,  mission  flight  director  for  GT-3 
flight,  completed  Mar.  28.  would  serve  as  mission  director  for  GT-4. 
flight  scheduled  for  later  this  year.  MSC  Mission  Control  Center  would 
provide  centralized  control  of  manned  spaceflight  programs  from 
launch  through  recovery;  computer-driven  time  and  data  displays 
would  report  instantly  the  status  of  astronauts,  spacecraft,  and  support- 
ing operations  to  mission  'flight  director.  Most  information  would 
travel  over  land  lines.      (Transcript:  NASA  Release  65-119) 

•  NASA  awarded  MIT  separate  cost  reimbursement  contract,  with  no  fee,  to 

cover  further  work  on  guidance  and  navigation  of  Apollo  command 
and  lunar  excursion  modules.  The  new  contract,  running  from  March 
1  through  November  4.  1965.  totaled  $15,529,000,  including  $1.4  mil- 
lion to  support  research  activities  in  the  guidance  and  navigation  field. 
(NASA  Release  65-116) 

•  NASA  was  negotiating  with  Grumman  Aircraft  Engineering  Corp.,  prime 

contractor  to  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  for  Oao  pro- 
gram, to  convert  prototype  Oao  into  flight-ready  spacecraft.  The  con- 
tract was  expected  to  exceed  $8  million.  The  converted  prototype,  to 
be  designated  Oao  A-2,  would  be  the  third  spacecraft  scheduled  for 
launch  in  Oao  program.  First  planned  launch  in  the  series  was 
scheduled  for  late  this  year  or  early  next  year  at  Cape  Kennedy. 
(NASA  Release  65-115) 

•  The  Christian  Science  Monitor  asked  Dr.  Homer  E.  Newell,  NASA  Asso- 

ciate Administrator  for  Space  Science  and  Applications,  and  Dr.  Philip 
H.  Abelson.  Director  of  the  Geophysical  Laboratory  of  the  Carnegie 
Institution  of  Washington  and  editor  of  Science  magazine,  to  present 
elements  of  the  debate  on  the  question  "Man  in  space:  is  it  worth  $40 
billion?" 

Dr.  Newell  presented  the  case  for  manned  space  flight:  "The  manned 
space  flight  effort  serves  to  round  out  the  total  program.  Its  primary 
aim  is  to  develop  a  broad  space  capability  that  will  secure  to  this  na- 
tion strength,  security,  flexibility,  and  freedom  of  choice  in  space. 
Landing  men  on  the  moon  and  returning  them  to  earth  has  been 
chosen  as  the  means  to  this  broader,  more  substantive  end,  and  it  is 
not  to  be  considered  as  the  only  justification  for  our  manned  space 
effort." 

Dr.  Abelson,  speaking  for  the  critics,  said:  "The  unmanned  program 
has  been  a  substantial  contributor  to  our  international  prestige. 
Moreover,  prestige  based  on  science  and  technology  tends  to  be  endur- 
ing. ... 

"Our  Apollo  program  was  launched  for  reasons  of  international 
prestige.  The  yield  has  not  been  very  good  or  very  lasting.  How 
many  citizens  can  now  recall  the  names  of  the  astronauts  and  of  their 
capsules?  We  can  expect  much  the  same  reaction  when  we  finally 
accomplish  a  moon  landing."      iCSM,  4/9/65) 

•  NASA  announced  publication  of  a  summary  of  research  results  of  the  joint 

NASA-USAF-USN,  10-yr.  x-15  flight  program.  (NASA  Release  65-114; 
NASA  SP-60,  X-15  Research  Results  ) 


178  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

April  9:  After  two  days  of  discussion  with  West  Germany's  Minister  of  De- 
fense Kai  Uwe  von  Hassel,  Britain's  Minister  of  Defence  Denis  Healey 
told  a  news  conference  in  Bonn,  Germany,  that  the  two  countries  had 
agreed  to  develop  by  the  1970's  a  light  combat  Vtol  fighter  and  possi- 
bly a  heavy  aircraft  to  succeed  the  F-104  Starfighter.  Healey  added 
that  studies  were  being  conducted  on  other  weapon  projects,  including 
tanks  and  tank  equipment.      (AT^,  4/10/65,  46) 

•  Editorial  in  Life  put  into  perspective  the  "break-throughs"  and  spectacular 

"firsts"  recently  achieved  in  space  exploration — U.S.S.R.'s  VOSKHOD  II, 
U.S.'s  GEMINI  III,  RANGER  IX,  ComSatCorp's  EARLY  BIRD.  "The  first 
Sputnik  was  less  than  eight  years  ago.  but  already  the  space  age 
has  reached  what  President  Johnson  calls  an  'early  maturity.'  Each 
technical  advance  is  a  planned  and  measured  consequence  of  the 
previous  one;  Mercury  fed  Gemini  and  Gemini  feeds  Apollo;  each 
hero  stands  on  the  shoulders  of  predecessors  who  are  also  his  con- 
temporaries. .  .  . 

"Our  space  program  is,  as  Johnson  puts  it,  'a  national  asset  of 
proven  worth  and  incalculable  potential.'  Its  cost  is  leveling  off  at 
about  $7  billion  a  year.  One  hopes  this  includes  enough  to  land  us  on 
the  moon  before  the  Russians — and  what's  wrong  with  wanting  to  be 
first?   ... 

"Our  program,  which  may  or  may  not  be  overtaking  the  Russian,  is 
well  past  its  own  first  period  of  jumpy  desperation.  We  can  stick  to  it 
in  confidence."      (Life,  4/9/65) 

•  U.S.S.R.   was   building   a   spaceship   designed    not    for   space   flight,   but 

for  exhibition  in  a  new  space  museum  to  be  built  at  the  site  of  Moscow's 
Space  Monument.  Inside  the  model  cabin,  which  would  have  a  seating 
capacity  of  100,  a  movie  shov/ing  the  earth  as  it  appeared  from  space 
would  be  shown  to  visitors,      (ap,  San  Diego  Eve.  Trih.,  4/9/65,  22) 

•  Communist  China's  failure  to  conduct  a  scheduled   second   nuclear  test 

in  March  was  reported  by  an  unidentified  U.S.  researcher  in  an  inter- 
view with  AP.  He  said  reasons  for  the  delav  might  be  technical  or 
political,  (ap,  NYT,  4/11/65,  94) 
April  10:  One  of  the  five  F-1  engines  on  the  Saturn  V  booster  was  success- 
fully static  fired  at  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  for  16-yi  sec. 
{Marshall  Star,  4/14/65,  1) 

•  In   a   speech   to   the   Interact   Conference   of   First   Rotary    District   696 

in  Orlando,  Fla.,  Ksc's  Richard  E.  Dutton.  said:  ".  .  .  .NASA's 
major  launch  facility  for  space  vehicles  and  unmanned  and  manned 
spacecraft  [is]  the  John  F.  Kennedy  Space  Center  and  its  new  Merritt 
Island  Spaceport.  I  hope  you  noticed  that  I  used  the  term  Spaceport, 
instead  of  Moonport,  as  it  is  often  referred  to  in  the  news  media.  We 
call  it  a  Spaceport  because  its  basic  concept  is  not  to  exist  as  a  research 
and  development  facility  for  any  one  mission  only;  it  is  being  created 
to  function  as  an  actual  port,  with  a  space  vehicle  launch  rate  that  may 
be  some  day  as  high  as  one  manned  launch  per  month. 

"However,  just  as  important  to  consider  is  the  spaceport's  capacity 
for  growth.  It  can  accommodate  launch  vehicles  with  up  to  40  million 
pounds  of  thrust,  32.5  million  pounds  more  than  the  Saturn  V  here  can 
deliver.  Because  of  this,  the  United  States  has  not  invested  three 
quarters  of  a  billion  dollars  in  a  facility  which  will  serve  only  to 
launch  a  manned  lunar  mission.     It  has  acquired  a  permanent  installa- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  179 

tion  which  will  serve  the  requirements  of  the  National  Space  Program 
for  years  to  come. 

"But  these  facilities,  like  the  lunar  landing  mission,  are  themselves 
only  a  manifestation  of  a  greater  entity — people.  At  present,  2,500 
NASA  and  6,300  contractor  employees  work  at  the  Center.  By  1967, 
when  the  spaceport  becomes  operational,  3,000  government  employees 
and  10,000  contractor  employees  will  be  employed."  (Text) 
April  10:  First  General  Dynamics  f-111a  developmental  aircraft,  in  its 
13th  flight,  reached  40.000  ft.,  its  highest  altitude  so  far,  USAF  an- 
nounced.     {Av.  Wk.,  4/19/65,  27) 

•  17-yr.-old  John  J.  Breaux,  who  exhibited  a  "soundovac"  that  could  "solve 

any  mathematical  problem  when  a  formula  was  available,"  and  17-yr.- 
old  Douglas  A.  Whithaus,  who  based  his  exhibit  on  development  of  a 
liquid-gaseous-propellant  rocket  engine,  were  entrants  in  the  Greater 
St.  Louis  Science  Fair  selected  to  compete  in  the  National  Science  Fair, 
May  6-8.     (St.  Louis  Post  Dispatch,  4/10/65). 

•  Fred  Callahan,  16,  of  Ft.  Benning,  Ga.,  prepared  to  launch  Zeus  2,  pos- 

sibly the  largest  rocket  built  by  an  amateur.  Zeus  2,  nine  ft.  long  with 
2,0604b.  thrust,  could  reach  peak  altitude  of  64  mi.  Zeus  1  was 
launched  by  Callahan  three  years  ago.  {Wash.  Daily  News,  4/10/65) 
April  11:  nasa  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  had  awarded  a  ten-month, 
$10,934,377.  cost-plus-award  fee  contract  to  Mason-Rust  Co.  to  continue 
support  services  at  Michoud  Operations,  New  Orleans,  and  at  its  Com- 
puter Operations  Office  in  Slidell,  La.      (msfc  Release  65-84) 

•  The  case  of  Thiokol's  260-in.-dia.   solid  motor   ruptured  during  initial 

hydrotest  of  the  Newport  News  Shipbuilding  &  Drydock  Co., 
builders  of  the  case.  Cause  of  the  failure  had  not  been  determined. 
(M&R,  4/19/65,  14;  Av.  Wk,  4/19/65,  29) 

•  Commenting  that  contributions  to  science  made  by  the  space  probes  and 

satellites  had  been  "interesting,  all  of  it  useful,  none  of  it  genuinely,  eye- 
poppingly  unexpected,"  an  editorial  in  the  San  Francisco  Sunday 
Chronicle  continued:  "Surprisingly  enough,  space  research  has  pro- 
duced several  by-products  with  a  practical  end. 

"The  most  significant  to  the  world  as  a  whole  are  the  reconnaissance 
satellites  with  which  Russia  and  the  U.S.  are  now  mutually  inspecting 
each  other's  and  everyone  else's  military  installations  with  the  kind 
of  accuracy  that  has  given  Washington  excellent  pictures  of  the  tower 
on  top  of  which  the  Chinese  atom  bomb  was  exploded.  They  can 
prevent  any  significant  military  move  from  going  undetected;  a  by- 
product of  them  are  the  weather  satellites. 

"Less  is  heard  about  the  progress  of  early  warning  satellites  designed 
to  pick  up  the  flaming  tails  of  enemy  missiles;  this  could  be  either 
because  they  have  run  into  trouble  or,  like  the  satellites  the  Polaris 
submarines  steer  by,  they  are  too  successful  to  be  mentioned.  The 
possibility  of  putting  H-bombs  into  satellites  is  not  mentioned  either  in 
these  days,  but  this  time  because  the  Russians  and  the  Americans  seem 
to  have  decided  by  mutual  consent  to  forget  it:  the  risks  of  an  un- 
manned satellite  going  wrong  were  too  great,  and  the  risk  of  a  manned 
one  going  berserk  was  even  greater."  (S.  F.  Sun.  Chron.,  4^11/65) 
April  12:  Aerobee  150  sounding  rocket  launched  from  White  Sands,  N. 
Mex.,  carried  instrumented  payload  to  125  mi.  (200  km.)  altitude. 
Payload  was  a  spectroheliograph  to  obtain  a  monochromatic  picture  of 


180  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

the  sun.  Experiment  was  conducted  by  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight 
Center,  (nasa  Rpt.  SRL) 
April  12:  ComSatCorp  announced  that  clear  test  signals  transmitted  via 
EARLY  BIRD  between  Andover,  Me.,  and  stations  in  Goonhilly  Downs, 
England;  Pleumeur  Bodou,  France:  and  Raisting.  W.  Germany,  had 
demonstrated  that  communications  satellite's  equipment  to  receive  mes- 
sages from  the  European  stations  was  functioning  properly,  as  was  its 
receiver  tuned  to  the  Andover  station,      (ap,  Chic.  Trib.,  4/13/65) 

•  AEC  granted  a  full-term,  ten-year  operating  license  to  NASA's  Plum  Brook 

Reactor  Facility,  NASA  announced.  The  Plum  Brook  reactor,  which 
produced  60,000  kw.  of  thermal  power  at  peak  operation,  was  being 
used  in  basic  research  relating  to  development  of  a  nuclear  rocket  and 
of  systems  and  components  for  space  nuclear  auxiliary  power.  The 
Facility  is  part  of  NASA  Lewis  Research  Center.      ( LRC  Release  65-27) 

•  USAF  had  awarded  to  General  Dynamics  a  fixed-price-incentive-fee  con- 

tract covering  initial  procurement  of  431  F-111  aircraft.  DOD  an- 
nounced. The  contract  was  expected  to  exceed  $1.5  billion,  (dod 
Release  228-65) 

•  Tass    announced:    "Scientists    of   the    Sternberg    Astronomical    Institute 

believe  they  have  received  perhaps  the  first  evidence  that  we  are  not 
alone  in  the  universe."  The  report  referred  to  a  strange  pattern  in 
signals  emanating  from  a  radio  source  believed  being  beamed  at  earth 
from  another  civilization. 

During  the  past  year,  the  Soviet  announcement  continued.  Soviet 
scientific  listeners  have  noted  that  the  signals  come  and  go  like  the 
radio  equivalent  of  a  revolving  beacon.  Every  hundred  days  the 
signals  get  strong  and  then  fade  out  again. 

The  Tass  announcement  quoted  Dr.  Nikolai  Kardashev  as  saying: 
"A  super  civilization  has  been  discovered." 

Dr.  Kardashev  had  first  announced  a  year  ago  that  he  thought  the 
radio  signals  from  a  source  known  as  CTA-102  came  from  intelligent 
beings.  Tass  -indicated  that  radio  astronomers  at  Britain's  Jodrell 
Bank  station  had  also  observed  CTA-102.  (Loory,  N.Y.  Her.  Trib., 
4/13/65;  Simons,  Wash.  Post,  4/13/65) 

•  A  spokesman   for  Britain's  Jodrell  Bank  Radio  Telescope   Observatory 

said  concerning  the  Tass  report  that  radio  signals  from  CTA-102  might 
come  from  intelligent  beings  in  outer  space:  "We  have  made  meas- 
urements on  these  sources  and  confirmed  that  they  are  very  weak  and 
very  small.  But  there  is  no  observational  evidence  at  Jodrell  Bank  to 
show  any  variation  in  the  signal  strength  received.  We  would  have 
to  scrutinize  carefully  the  Russian  evidence  before  making  any  further 
statements."     (ap,  Bait.  Sun,  4/13/65) 

•  Fourth  flight  of  General   Dynamics'  second  USAF  f-111a  developmental 

aircraft  lasted  1  hr.  40  min.  Speeds  ranged  from  138  to  354  kt..  with 
wings  swept  at  16°,  26°,  and  70°.  Landing  gear  and  flaps  were 
worked  up  and  down  during  the  flight. 

Fifth  flight  of  the  aircraft  lasted  2  hr.  10  min.  and  attained  a  speed 
of  mach  0.8  and  an  altitude  of  27,000  ft.  Wings  were  swept  at  16°. 
26°,  and  70°.  (Av.  Wk.,  4/19/65,  27) 
•  In  a  Missiles  and  Rockets  editorial.  William  J.  Coughlin  questioned 
NASA's  wisdom  in  drawing  up  mission  requirements  for  lunar 
exploration.     The  article  said:     "Dr.  Homer  E.  Newell,  NASA  associate 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  181 

administrator,  told  Congress  last  year:     'Ranger  will  play  an  important 
role  in  the  support  of  Project  Apollo.'  .  .  . 

"Not  a  single  change  has  been  made  in  any  part  of  the  Apollo 
system  or  in  the  program's  operational  plan  as  a  result  of  the  Ranger 
findings.  None  is  contemplated.  The  reason  for  this  is  simple. 
The  Block  lll  Rangers  were  incapable  of  producing  any  such  data.  .  .  . 

"The  case  for  Surveyor  and  Lunar  Orbiter  as  supports  for  the  Apollo 
program  ...  is  not  a  very  strong  one.  .   .  . 

"Dr.  Newell  sees  them  as  part  of  what  he  calls  the  'total  program  for 
exploring  the  Moon.'  ...  [He  said]  in  the  following  statement  to 
Congress:  'You  will  have  a  lunar  landing.  That  lunar  landing  will 
involve  a  few  hours  of  stay  on  the  Moon,  a  look  that  the  astronauts 
can  make,  a  few  collections  of  samples,  maybe  some  simple  tests,  and 
maybe  the  implacement  by  the  astronauts  of  monitors  to  be  left  on 
the  lunar  surface.' 

"After  their  departure.  Dr.  Newell  sees  the  instruments  carrying 
on.  Lunar  Orbiter  wheels  overhead.  Surveyor  explores  areas  on  the 
moon  which  Man  would  have  difficulty  in  reaching.  .   .  . 

"We  suggest  that  if  anyone  proposed  exploring  the  Antarctic  in 
such  a  manner,  he  would  be  clapped  in  the  pokey  as  a  nut.  Man  is 
going  to  the  Moon  and  he  is  going  to  explore  it.  Expenditure  of 
billions  of  dollars  on  instruments  remotely  controlled  from  Earth  to 
do  the  same  job  is  folly."  {M&R,  4/12/65,  46) 
April  12:  Chickens  exposed  to  one  half  to  three  times  the  earth's  gravity 
had  contracted  chronic  acceleration  sickness  in  tests  conducted  at  the 
Univ.  of  California.  Dr.  Russell  R.  Burton,  a  veterinarian  at  the  Uni- 
versity conducting  the  experiments  as  part  of  a  program  supported  by 
NASA  and  the  Office  of  Naval  Research,  said  there  was  great  variation 
among  the  chickens  in  susceptibility  to  the  sickness:  "Some  chickens 
will  show  svmptoms  after  a  few  days  at  L5g.  but  others  not  until  many 
months  at  3g.  and.  of  course,  some  never  exhibit  any  of  the  symptoms. 
However,  once  the  sickness  develops,  symptoms  are  the  same."  Sick 
fowl  developed  enlarged  adrenal  glands  and  their  digestive  functions 
became  abnormal.  Some  chickens'  legs  were  paralyzed  as  a  result  of 
increased  gravity  forces. 

Objective  of  the  tests  was  to  determine  effects  of  artificially  altering 
body  weight.  Interest  in  increased  gravity  fields  stemmed  from 
greater  fields  present  on  other  planets  such  as  Jupiter,  which  has 
gravity  2V2  times  that  on  earth.  (Av.  Wk.,  4/12/65,  79) 
•  Robert  Hotz.  editorializing  in  Aviation  Week  and  Space  Technology, 
said  that  it  could  be  a  "dangerous  mistake"  to  defer  develop- 
ment of  earth-orbital  operational  capabilities  until  financial  and 
technical  peak  loads  of  Apollo  had  been  passed:  "The  Soviets  ob- 
viously have  chosen  the  earth-orbital  approach  to  their  lunar  landing 
mission.  Therefore,  they  necessarily  must  develop  rather  fully  their 
hardware  and  operational  techniques  in  this  area  as  a  vital  prelude  to 
their  lunar  landing  attempts  and  not  as  a  postlude,  in  the  manner  of 
current  U.S.  planning.  They  also  have  made  little  attempt  to  conceal 
their  primary  military  interest  in  the  development  of  manned  spacecraft 
operations  in  the  earth-orbital  area. 

"Thus,  it  is  entirely  possible  that  unless  U.S.  policy  is  drastically 
changed  soon,  the  Soviets  may  have  an  opportunity  to   achieve  the 


182  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

technical  surprise  in  space  that  they  so  narrowly  missed  in  the  race  to 
an  intercontinental  ballistic  missile."      (Av.  Wk.,  4/12/65,  21) 

April  12:  Pravda  announced  the  birth  of  Russia's  third  "space  baby":  a  son 
to  Cosmonaut  Valery  F.  Bykovskv  and  his  wife  Valentina.  ( UPl,  Wash. 
Daily  News,  4/13/65) 

Week  of  April  12:  European  Space  Research  Organization  (esro)  selected 
Laboratoire  Central  de  Telecommunications  (lct),  a  wholly-owned 
French  subsidiary  of  International  Telephone  and  Telegraph  Corp.,  as 
prime  contractor  for  development  of  Esro  1  polar  ionosphere  satellite. 
The  $3-million  contract  awarded  called  for  development  and  produc- 
tion of  one  prototype  and  two  flying  satellites — one  a  backup — to  gather 
information  on  ionospheric  and  particle  conditions  in  the  northern 
polar  region.      {Av.  Wk.,  4/12/65,  37;  Av.  Wk.,  4/19/65,  30) 

April  13:  Establishment  of  a  Joint  Meteorological  Satellite  Program  Office 
(jMSPo),  to  identify,  compile,  and  coordinate  requirements  from  the 
military  services  and  the  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff  for  use  of  meteorological 
satellites,  was  announced  by  dod.  JMSPO  would  continually  review  the 
NASA  meteorological  satellite  program  and  would  define  military  ap- 
plications of  the  national  system  and  the  dod  technical  efforts  to  support 
the  national  program,      (dod  Release  229-65) 

•  At  a  news  conference,  astronomers  at  Moscow's  Sternberg  Institute  of 

Astronomy  repudiated  the  Tass  report  that  radio  signals  had  been 
received  from  a  "super  civilization"  in  outer  space.  The  astronomers 
explained  that  their  studies  had  been  based  on  a  radio  signal  from  a 
point  in  space  called  CTA-102 — a  designation  of  the  California  Institute 
of  Technology  for  a  quasi-stellar  radio  source.  Signals  had  been  picked 
up  from  CTA-102  systematically  in  fluctuating  strength  that  followed 
a  regular  100-day  pattern.  They  said  that  although  no  other  radio 
emission  from  outer  space  had  the  same  periodicity,  it  was  too  early 
to  tell  whether  the  radio  signals  were  artificially  made  by  intelligent 
beings  or  whether  they  came  from  a  natural  source. 

The  Soviet  astronomers  appealed  to  their  Western  counterparts  to 
help  study  CTA-102  to  determine  whether  the  signals  were  artificially 
or  naturally  made,  (ap,  Bait.  Sun,  4/14/65;  Post  News  Service, 
Houston  Post,  4/14/65) 

•  NASA  had  awarded   Douglas  Aircraft  Co.   .'$2,697,546  contract  modifica- 

tion to  test  Saturn  V  instrument  unit  and  S-IVB  stage  instru- 
mentation in  a  space  environment.  The  test  program  would  be  con- 
ducted in  Douglas'  39-ft.-dia.  space  simulator  at  Huntington  Beach. 
Calif.,  and  would  simulate  a  typical  Saturn  V  flight  from  launch  to  earth 
orbit  and  injection  into  lunar  path.  Tests  would  begin  in  early  1966. 
(msfc  Release  65-88) 

•  Reported    that    Dr.    William    I.    Donn    of    Columbia    Univ.'s    Lamont 

Geological  Observatory,  Dr.  Wilbur  G.  Valentine  of  Brooklyn  College, 
and  Dr.  Bertram  D.  Donn  of  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  had 
challenged  presently  accepted  ages  of  the  earth  (4.5  billion  yrs.)  and 
the  sun  (5  billion  yrs.).  They  had  asserted  that  the  oldest  of  con- 
tinental rocks  were  so  very  ancient  that  the  sun's  and  the  earth's  ages 
allowed  too  little  time  for  continent  formation  by  earthly  processes 
and  from  earthly  materials.  Two  alternative  explanations  were  pro- 
posed: (1)  either  the  sun  and  the  earth  must  be  much  older,  perhaps 
by  a  half-billion  years  or  more;  or,   (2)   the  original  continents  were 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  183 

thrown  down  upon  the  planet's  surface  when  objects  from  space — 
hundreds  of  miles  across  in  size — crashed  into  the  earth.  Research 
results  had  been  published  in  the  Bulletin  of  the  Geological  Society  of 
America.  (Abraham,  Phil.  Eve.  Bull.,  4/13/65) 
April  13:  Brig.  Gen.  Joseph  S.  Bleymaier  (usaf),  Deputy  Commander  for 
Manned  Space  Systems  of  afsc's  Space  Systems  Div.,  announced  at  a 
Washington,  D.C.,  luncheon  for  Aviation '^Space  Writers  that  two  used 
Gemini  spacecraft  would  be  flown  by  USAF  in  tests  for  a  Manned 
Orbiting  Laboratory  (Mol).  This  would  be  the  first  time  that  a 
Mercury  or  Gemini  spacecraft  had  been  flown  twice.  Both  Air  Force 
flights  would  be  unmanned  and  would  test  the  effect  of  cutting  a  hatch 
into  the  heat  shield  on  the  capsule's  blunt  end.      [NYT,  4/15/65,  8) 

•  Second  General  Dynamics-USAF  f-111a  developmental  aircraft  made  its 

sixth  flight,  lasting  1  hr.  30  min.  Wings  were  swept  at  16°,  26°.  and 
70°.     {Av.  Wk.,  4/19/65,  27) 

•  Soviet    astronomers    were     seeking     increased     research     funds.     At     a 

meeting  of  the  Presidium  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences,  physicist  Lev  A. 
Artsimovich  reportedly  assailed  what  he  called  the  inadequacy  of  the 
observational  equipment  available  to  Soviet  astronomers  and  noted  that 
the  U.S.  had  more  large  telescopes  than  did  the  U.S.S.R.  He  accused 
those  charged  with  making  appropriations  of  underestimating  the 
importance  of  astronomy,  while  overestimating  the  importance  of  and 
being  overly  generous  to  nuclear  physics:  "At  the  present  time,  ex- 
penditures on  astronomical  work  in  our  country  are  no  more  than  a 
few  percent  of  the  investments  in  elementary  particle  physics.  Our 
progeny  will  probably  be  surprised  that  we  divided  in  such  strange 
proportions  the  efforts  directed  to  investigate  the  great  world  of  stars 
and  the  artificial  world  of  elementary  interactions  [of  nuclear 
particles]."      (A^FI.  4/13/65 ) 

•  "Award   of  the    [S40  milHonl    contract    [for  28  Atlas   SLV-3s]    reflects 

plans  by  the  Air  Force  and  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Ad- 
ministration to  use  the  Atlas  in  a  variety  of  future  space  missions," 
Robert  Zimmerman  said  in  an  article  in  the  San  Diego  Union.  He 
continued:  "Its  versatility  as  a  launching  vehicle  lies  in  the  'plug-in' 
concept  which  allows  electronic  instruments  for  various  missions  to  be 
instaUed  on  the  basic  booster  as  requirements  for  the  mission  may 
dictate. 

"Before  the  Atlas  was  standardized  into  the  SLV-3  it  would  take  a 
year  to  18  months  to  equip  one  booster  for  a  particular  mission.  Now, 
an  SLV-3  can  be  outfitted  for  any  mission  in  three  to  four  months." 
(Zimmerman.  San  Diego  Union,  4/13/65) 

•  According  to  official  sources,  both  the  U.S.  and  U.S.S.R.  had  exploded 

certain  of  their  own  satellites  in  orbit  to  prevent  their  fallina  into 
other  hands,  but  neither  nation  was  known  to  have  attempted  to  knock 
down  a  spacecraft  belonging  to  the  other.      (Clark,  NYT,  4/4/65,  1) 

•  Commenting  on  blockade  to  prevent  Negroes  from  using  North  Merritt 

Island  ocean  beach — federally-owned  property  released  for  public  use 
by  NASA — Dr.  Kurt  H.  Debus.  KSC  Director,  said:  "If  difficulty  should 
continue  to  arise  in  implementing  a  basic  public  policy  of  non-dis- 
crimination, the  Kennedy  Space  Center  would  be  obligated  to  with- 
draw the  beach  from  public  use."      {Miami  Her.,  4/13/65) 


184  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

April  14:  mariner  iv  set  a  distance  record  for  communications  from 
American  spacecraft.  The  Mars  probe  transmitted  data  from  54 
million  miles  out,  exceeding  the  record  of  53.9  million  miles  set  by 
MARINER  II  in  1963.  (ap,  San  Diego  Eve.  Trib.,  4/14/65;  NASA 
Releases  65-111.  65-117) 

•  ComSatCorp's     early     bird     i     communications     satellite     reached     its 

permanent  station  over  the  Atlantic  Ocean:  apogee,  22.243  mi. 
(35,811  km.) ;  perigee,  22.224  mi.  (35,780  km.) ;  period,  23  hrs.  56 
min.  57  sec:  inclination.  .085°:  location.  28.0°  west  longitude. 
(ComSatCorp) 

•  In    a    "topping    out"    ceremony,    signifying    that    the    Vehicle    Assembly 

Building  at  nasa's  Merritt  Island  Launch  Area  had  reached  its 
maximum  height  of  525  ft.,  a  38-ft..  four-ton  steel  beam  inscribed 
with  emblems  of  the  companies  and  Government  agencies  participating 
in  the  building's  construction  and  autographed  by  contractor  and  Gov- 
ernment personnel,  was  hoisted  into  place  in  the  upper  reaches  of  Vab's 
steel  skeleton.  Scheduled  for  completion  in  1966  as  an  integral  part 
of  Launch  Complex  39.  vab  would  have  7.5  acres  of  floor  area,  would 
be  525  ft.  tall,  518  ft.  wide,  and  716  ft.  long.  Within  the  129  million 
cu.  ft.  of  the  structure,  Apollo-Saturn  V  launch  vehicles  would  be  as- 
sembled in  an  upright  position  in  a  controlled  environment,  (ksc 
Release  86-65) 

•  NASA  launched  from  Wallops  Island  a  four-stage  Journeyman   (Argo  D- 

8)  sounding  rocket  with  130-lb.  Univ.  of  Minnesota  payload.  Firing 
was  timed  to  correspond  closely  with  passage  of  the  OGO  I  satellite  in 
an  unsuccessful  attempt  to  compare  and  correlate  radiation  belt  elec- 
tron and  proton  measurements.  Sounding  rocket  reached  peak  altitude 
of  1,031  mi.;  experiment  package  impacted  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean  about 
1,200  mi.  downrange. 

Telemetry  indicated  proper  functioning  of  instrumentation  during 
the  26-min.  flight,  but  no  useful  data  were  returned  because  the  nose 
cone  covering  the  payload  failed  to  eject  and  the  experiment  package 
was  not  exposed  to  energetic  particles  in  the  radiation  belt.  (Wallops 
Release  65-21;  NASA  Rpt.  srl) 

•  First  of  four  Stellar  Acquisition  Flight  Feasibility  (Staff)  flights  planned 

by  USAF  failed  73  sec.  after  launch  of  the  experiment  aboard  a 
Polaris  A-1  booster.  The  experiment's  Stellar  Inertial  Guidance 
System  (Stings)  was  operating  open-loop  and  was  not  guiding  the 
missile,  which  had  to  be  destroyed  when  it  veered  ofi^  course.  Stings 
had  been  locked  onto  the  star  Polaris  and  had  tracked  properly  through 
the  first  .54  sec.  of  flight  until  time  of  second-stage  ignition,  when  the 
trouble  with  the  launch  vehicle  apparently  developed.  Period  during 
which  the  Stings  operated  was  time  of  highest  dynamic  pressure;  data 
received  were  termed  excellent. 

Main  purpose  of  the  Staff  flight  was  to  test  a  telescope-like  device 
intended  to  allow  a  Stings  to  take  a  reading  from  Polaris  after  piercing 
the  earth's  cloud  cover  and  to  plot  an  exact  trajectory  to  a  target  area. 
{M&R,  4/19/65,  9) 

•  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  told  the  Harvard  Business  School 

Club  of  New  York:  "The  impact  of  the  space  program  cannot 
be  described  just  by  a  recital  of  the  flow  of  technology  to  industry. 
The  NASA  system  of  management,  for  example,  has  efficiently  mobilized 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  185 

for  research  and  development  in  aeronautics  and  space  some  400,000 
men  and  women  and  is  utilizing  some  20,000  industrial  companies 
under  prime  and  subcontract  arrangements.  We  are  handling  about 
250,000  procurement  actions  a  year,  and  over  150  universities  are 
involved  in  the  scientific,  engineering,  and  training  programs  required 
for  the  rapid  solutions  and  high  standards  the  program  requires." 

He  continued:  "It  should  be  emphasized  that  our  space  program  is 
not  a  crash  effort.  Tt  is  a  planned,  deliberate  development  over  a 
ten-year  period. 

"Through  our  programs  at  NASA,  we  are  proving  out  important  new 
mechanisms  through  which  investments  made  in  science  and  tech- 
nology can  pay  substantial  dividends.  The  social,  economic,  and 
political  forces  at  work  in  our  society  today  are  dependent,  as  never 
before,  on  developments  in  science  and  technology."  (Text) 
April  14:  nasa  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  said  at  the  Boy  Scout  Launch- 
0-Ree  in  New  York  City  that  the  "future  will  be  determined  in  large 
measure  by  the  kind  of  talented  and  dedicated  youth  found  in  the  Boy 
Scouts.  Science  and  technology,  which  form  the  basis  for  the  national 
space  program,  are  pioneering  areas  within  which  many  of  you  can  find 
opportunities  for  satisfaction  and  service."      (Text) 

•  Dr.   Frederick   Seitz.    President   of  the   National   Academy    of   Sciences, 

speaking  at  the  end  of  Purdue  Univ.'s  three-day  symposium  on  "Science 
and  Public  Policy — Evolving  Institutions,"  warned  that  the  present 
system  of  Federal  grants  might  be  "disastrous"  to  some  areas  of 
science  if  not  modified.  "The  man  with  the  big,  obvious  project  tends 
to  get  his  Federal  grant  today,  but  the  lonely  individual  with  an 
off-beat  idea  does  not  fare  so  well,"  he  said.  Dr.  Seitz  favored  a 
large-scale,  supplementary  system  of  Federal  grants  for  research  in 
science  and  the  humanities  that  would  permit  the  individual  university 
to  determine  how  the  grant  would  be  disposed.  "Block  grants  would 
enable  a  university  administration  to  draw  upon  talents  of  its  faculty 
and  administrators  in  deciding  how  funds  for  a  certain  area  of  research 
are  allocated."  he  argued.  Dr.  Seitz  said  that  such  a  Federal  grant- 
giving  agency  would  be  patterned  after  the  National  Science  Founda- 
tion and  might  fulfill  the  role  envisioned  for  the  National  Humanities 
Foundations  proposed  in  bills  currently  before  Congress.  (Sullivan, 
NYT,  4/15/65,  30) 

•  Dr.  Joseph  F.  Shea,  Apollo  Program  manager  at  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft 

Center,  announced  at  a  press  conference  at  North  American  Aviation's 
Tulsa  facilities  that  the  Tulsa  plant  would  build  16  Apollo  service 
modules.  Apollo  contract  work  there  totaled  more  than  $61  million. 
(Leslie,  Tulsa  Daily  World,  4/15/65) 

•  "Positive  action  must  soon   replace  delay   and   procrastination"  on   the 

development  of  an  American  supersonic  airliner.  Sen.  A.  S.  (Mike) 
Monroney  (D-Okla.),  Chairman  of  the  Senate  Aviation  Subcommittee, 
told  a  Washington,  D.C.,  meeting  of  the  Society  of  Automotive  Engi- 
neers. Monroney  said  that  U.S.  failure  to  build  the  plane  could  "choke 
off"  375,000  jobs  within  several  years.  Sen.  Monroney  added  that 
if  U.S.  carriers  did  not  fly  supersonic  planes  as  early  as  foreign  air- 
lines, it  could  mean  a  loss  of  $1  billion  a  year  in  passenger  revenues. 
"If  we  capitulate,  it  would  mean  the  eventual  loss  of  technical  super- 


186  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

iority  and  a  second  class  airline  industry,"  he  said.  (NYT.  4/15/65, 
15) 
April  14:  Supreme  Court  Justice  William  0.  Douglas  told  Philadelphia 
Rotary  Club  members  that  money  being  spent  to  put  a  man  on  the 
moon  could  be  better  spent  ending  water  pollution  in  the  United  States. 
He  claimed  that  costs  for  equipping  the  Nation  with  adequate  sewage 
disposal  was  about  equal  to  that  of  sending  a  man  to  the  moon  in  the 
Apollo  project,      (ap,  Galveston  News-Tribune,  4/15/65) 

•  Arthur  E.  Jenks,  retired  faa  official,  received  the  Laura  Taber  Barbour 

Air  Safety  Award  for  1965  at  a  luncheon  in  Washington,  D.C.,  given  by 
the  Society  of  Automotive  Engineers  in  conjunction  with  its  annual 
meeting.  The  award,  sponsored  by  the  Flight  Safety  Foundation,  was 
presented  to  Jenks  because  of  his  "contributions  to  improving  the 
techniques  for  flight  checking  the  accuracy  of  air  navigational  aids 
and  improvement  of  landing  aids  on  and  around  airports."  (faa 
Release  65-30) 
April  15:  Lunar  Excursion  Module  (Lem)  ascent  engine  underwent  a  5-sec. 
test  firing  under  ground  level  conditions  at  White  Sands  Missile  Range. 
Initial  indications  were  that  the  test  had  been  successful.  The  3,500-lb.- 
thrust  hypergolic  engine  was  built  by  Bell  Aerosystems  and  used  a 
50-50  mixture  of  Udmh  and  hydrazine  for  fuel  and  nitrogen  tetroxide 
for  the  oxidizer,      (msc  Roundup,  4/30/65,  1) 

•  Vice   President   Hubert   Humphrey   wrote   to   Cape   Kennedy   technician 

Richard  Tennis:  "I  understand  that  you  are  the  gentleman  who  cor- 
rected the  problem  of  the  oxidizer  leak  on  the  Gemini-Titan  [GT-3]. 

"I  simply  wanted  to  express  to  you  the  thanks  of  all  of  us  here  in 
Washington  who  have  watched  so  carefully  the  success  of  this  program. 
It  is  the  excellent  and  quick  efforts  of  people  like  yourself  that  have 
made  this  program  so  successful."      ( KSC  Spaceport  News,  4/15/65,  2) 

•  Federal  Urban  Renewal  Administration  would   approve  location  of  the 

NASA  Electronics  Research  Center  in  the  Kendall  Sq.  area  of  Cam- 
bridge by  declaring  the  area  eligible  for  an  urban  renewal  project, 
the  Boston  Globe  reported.  According  to  an  unidentified  Federal  offi- 
cial, an  eligibility  report  prepared  by  the  Cambridge  Redevelopment 
Authority  had  been  approved  by  the  New  York  regional  office  and 
approval  from  Washington,  D.C.,  was  expected  soon.  {Boston  Globe, 
4/15/65) 

•  The  Associated  Press  applied  to  FCC  for  recognition  as  "an  authorized 

entity  for  the  purpose  of  buying  service  from  the  Communications 
Satellite  Corporation."  AP  was  the  first  organization  to  take  advantage 
formally  of  the  clause  in  the  Communications  Satellite  Act  of  1962  that 
authorized  ComSatCorp  to  furnish  circuits  "to  the  carriers  and  to  other 
authorized  entities,  foreign  and  domestic."  The  law,  however,  did  not 
define  an  authorized  entity,  also  known  as  "authorized  user"  (in  con- 
trast to  an  "authorized  carrier").      (Gould,  NYT,  4/27/(35,  1,  25) 

•  A.  J.  Hayes,  president  of  the  International  Association  of  Machinists,  said 

at  a  Dallas  briefing  of  industry  sponsored  by  DOD  and  the  National  Se- 
curity Industrial  Association  that  Federal  procurement  officers  were 
meddling  in  negotiations  of  labor  and  the  aerospace  industry  to  the 
extent  that  free  collective  bargaining  was  being  eroded  away.  He  said 
the  affected  unions  would  not  settle  this  year  for  less  than  the  57-cent 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  187 

package  in  wage  increases  and  fringe  benefits  recently  worked  out  for 
the  United  Auto  Workers,  (ap,  Denver  Post,  4/15/65) 
April  15:  Battelle  Memorial  Institute  reported  reasons  the  sweet  potato 
would  be  the  best  vegetable  for  a  space  garden :  (1)  it  would  yield  a 
large  number  of  calories  per  pound  and  would  have  a  high  count  of 
vitamin  A;  (2)  its  leaves  are  edible,  either  cooked  or  raw;  (3)  under 
simulated  space  conditions,  it  would  grow  in  90  to  120  days;  (4)  it 
would  give  off  oxygen  and  absorb  carbon  dioxide,  aiding  air  conditions 
inside  a  spacecraft.  The  plan.  Battelle  said,  would  be  to  grow  the 
sweet  potato  in  a  spacecraft  in  a  soilless  culture  to  provide  fresh  vege- 
tables for  astronauts,  (ap.  Wash.  Post,  4/16/65) 
•  A  Cairo  newspaper  revealed  that  the  United  Arab  Republic  was  training 
men  for  space  flight.  No  date  for  a  possible  launching  was  given. 
(UPI,  Milwaukee  J.,  4/16  65) 
April  15-16:  World  scientists  met  in  a  special  conference  on  the  lunar 
surface  sponsored  by  the  International  Astronomical  Union  and  NASA 
Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  at  Greenbelt,  Md. 

Noting  areas  of  disagreement  among  scientists,  theoretical  astro- 
physicist Thomas  Gold  of  Cornell  Univ.  tried  to  explain  why  the 
Ranger  pictures  resolved  so  little:  "The  Ranger  pictures  are  like  a 
mirror.  Everyone  sees  his  own  theories  reflected  in  them."  Prof. 
Gold  saw  a  moon  covered  with  dust;  young  craters  composed  of  solid 
rock  while  older  craters  had  somehow  gone  soft:  and  vast  sheets  of  ice 
locked  under  compacted  sediment  beneath  much  of  the  lunar  surface. 

Dr.  Harold  C.  Urey,  Nobel  prize-winning  chemist  from  the  Univ.  of 
California,  referred  to  evidence  of  widespread  collapse  of  the  lunar 
surface,  probably  due  to  underground  movement:  "The  ranger  ix's 
pictures  scared  me  more  than  anything.  There's  all  sorts  of  evidence 
that  some  of  these  craters  are  sinking." 

Dr.  Eugene  Shoemaker  of  the  U.S.  Geological  Survey  said  that 
chances  that  the  moon's  surface  was  too  soft  for  the  15-ton  Lem  were 
"almost  vanishingly  remote."  (Simons,  Wash.  Post,  4/16/65;  Clark, 
NYT,  4/16/65) 

Dr.  Ewan  A.  Whitaker  agreed  with  findings  in  the  paper  he  presented 
for  his  colleague.  Dr.  Gerald  P.  Kuiper  of  the  Univ.  of  Arizona's  Lunar 
and  Planetary  Laboratory.  Dr.  Kuiper  concluded  that  the  lunar  sur- 
face had  a  bearing  strength  of  between  one  and  two  tons  per  square 
foot.  His  calculations,  made  from  data  extracted  from  ranger  ix 
photographs,  was  based  on  the  size  of  rocks  ejected  from  a  given  impact 
crater  and  the  distance  they  traveled.  Other  tentative  findings  were 
that  the  dark  portions  of  the  maria  were  due  to  some  unknown  fluid 
flows  and  not  lava  or  ash  flows;  that  the  maria  were  not  completely 
covered  with  lunar  dust:  and  that  the  moon's  surface  exhibited  a  re- 
markable series  of  fracture  patterns  which  could  be  due  to  polar  con- 
traction, tidal  effects,  or  some  other  force.  (Clark,  NYT,  4/16/65; 
Simons,  Wash.  Post,  4^6/65:  Av.  Wk.,  4/26/65,  34) 

Boris  J.  Levin,  section  chief  of  the  Institute  of  Earth  Physics, 
U.S.S.R.  Academy  of  Sciences,  said  studies  based  on  radioactive  emis- 
sions from  meteorites  and  on  lunar  data  indicated  that  the  interior  of 
the  moon  partially  melted  some  two  million  years  after  the  formation 
of  that  body  began:  "If  you  assume  the  moon  is  of  the  same  material 


188  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS.  1965 

as  meteorites,  it  is  necessary  to  assume  that  the  interior  at  one  time  was 
partly  molten."  Prof.  Levin  said  the  moon  was  formed  simultaneously 
with  the  earth  and  was  not  originally  part  of  it.  It  was  about  10  earth- 
radii  distant  and  later  shifted  to  the  present  position.  He  added:  "We 
believe  that  there  is  a  lava  flow  not  covered  by  dust."  ( Wash.  Post, 
4/17/65:  Milwaukee  /..  4  17  65:  CSM,  4/26 '65:  Av.  WL,  4/26/65, 
34) 

Dr.  John  Clark.  NASA  Director  of  Space  Sciences,  said  that  a  year 
ago  NASA  officials  had  hoped  that  Ranger  would  tell  something  about 
the  topography  of  the  moon:  "That  in  turn  would  tell  something  about 
the  geometry  needed  for  the  landing  vehicle.  Ranger  has  done  this 
and  now  we  look  to  the  Surveyor  spacecraft  to  tell  us  the  bearing 
strength  of  the  moon's  surface."  (AP,  Houston  Post,  4/17/65;  Clark. 
A^yr,  4/17/65) 

Dr.  Fred  Whipple  of  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory  said 
the  moon's  surface  might  be  lower  than  had  been  calculated:  "The  data 
indicates  that  RANGER  vil  and  Vlll,  and  maybe  RANGER  IX,  landed  one 
second  late  because  the  moon  was  one  mile  small.  The  moon's  surface 
at  the  point  of  landing  was  lower  by  two  kilometers  (a  mile  and  a 
quarter)  than  the  average  lunar  radius."  (ap,  Houston  Post,  4/17/65; 
Milwaukee  /.,  4  17/65) 
April  16:  Saturn  V  launch  vehicle  (s-ic  stage)  was  static-fired  for  the  first 
time,  at  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center.  The  five  F-1  engines  were 
ignited  in  a  test  which  lasted  6^  •.>  sec.  during  which  they  generated  a 
thrust  of  7.5  million  lbs.  (160.000.000  hp.)'  This  was  the  first  full 
cluster  test  and  was  made  on  a  recently  completed  400-ft.-tall  test  stand. 
The  s-ic  was  the  first  stage  of  364-ft.-tall  Saturn  V-Apollo  combination 
that  would  ultimately  take  astronauts  and  equipment  to  the  moon. 
Associate  Administrator  for  Manned  Space  Flight  Dr.  George  E. 
Mueller  congratulated  MSFC  personnel  on  the  successful  test:  ".  .  .  As 
this  was  one  of  the  key  milestones  in  the  whole  lunar  landing  program, 
its  successful  performance.  12  weeks  ahead  of  schedule,  has  a  great 
bearing  on  our  program."  (mfsc  Release  65-92;  Marshall  Star, 
5/5/65,  5) 

•  NASA  had  signed  a  $Q.6-million  contract  with  Ball  Brothers  Research  Corp. 

to  build,  integrate,  and  test  two  Orbiting  Solar  Observatories.  The 
spacecraft,  designated  Oso-D  and  Oso-E.  would  contain  experiments 
designed  to  advance  understanding  of  the  sun's  structure  and  behavior 
and  the  physical  processes  by  which  the  sun  influenced  the  near-earth 
environment  and  interplanetary  space.  The  amount  included  $800,000 
obligated  by  letter  contract  signed  Feb.  17,  1964.  (NASA  Release  65- 
129) 

•  Following  a  six-hour  visit  to  Cape  Kennedy  and  the  Merritt  Island  space- 

port, Mayor  Willie  Brandt  of  West  Berlin  said:  "The  space  challenge  is 
not  only  the  responsibility  of  young  Americans  and  Russians,  but  also 
that  of  young  Europeans."  Mayor  Brandt  said  the  European  space 
effort  should  be  a  combined  effort  and  that  Germany  would  welcome 
any  cooperation,  (ap,  Orlando  Star.  4/17/65;  \P,  Miami  Her.,  4/17/ 
65) 

•  FAA   approved   the   British-built   BAG    111,   a   new   short-haul   jet   airliner, 

for    passenger-carrying    operations    in    the    U.S.     faa's    airworthiness 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  189 

certificate  was  awarded  after  a  SVo-yr.  evaluation  program.  (UPI, 
NYT,  4/18/65,  49) 
April  17:  U.S.S.R.  launched  cosmos  lxv  from  the  Baikonur  launch  com- 
plex 200  mi.  northeast  of  Tyuratam,  Tass  announced.  The  satellite 
carried  scientific  instruments  for  continuing  the  Soviet  space  explora- 
tion program.  Orbital  data:  apogee,  342  km.  (212.4  mi.);  perigee, 
210  km.  (130.4  mi.)  ;  period,  89.8  min.;  inclination,  65°.  All  systems 
were  functionins  normally.  (Tass,  Krasnaya  Zvezda,  4/18/65,  1, 
ATSS-T  Trans.;  SBD,  4/22''65,  290) 

•  In  an  article  discussing  major  American  testing  sites,  Howard  Simons  and 

Chalmers  M.  Roberts  of  the  Washington  Post  said:  "Indeed  it  is  from 
Vandenberg  and  not  Cape  Kennedy.  Fla.,  that  the  majority  of  American 
satellites  are  launched.  Between  Jan.  1,  1964,  and  Oct.  31,  1964,  for 
example,  33  or  three  times  as  many  satellites  were  successfully  put  into 
space  from  Vandenberg  as  from  Cape  Kennedy. 

"The  great  majority" of  the  satellites  launched  from  Vandenberg,  the 
hub  of  what  is  officially  called  the  Air  Force  Western  Test  Range,  are 
military  satellites  with  secret  payloads  or  reconnaissance  cameras  capa- 
ble of  peering  down  on  Russia  and  China."  (Simons  and  Roberts, 
Wash.  Post,  4/17/65) 
April  18:  United  Airlines  and  Eastern  AirHnes  had  placed  the  first  orders 
for  Douglas  Aircraft  Co.'s  new  DC-8-61  jetliner,  seating  251.  The 
aircraft  would  be  the  largest  commercial  jet  in  existence,  having  a  total 
length  of  187  ft.  4  in.,  and  would  cost  about  $8  million.  United 
would  buy  five  of  the  Model  6rs  and  take  options  on  two  more;  Eastern 
had  ordered  four  aircraft  for  delivery  late  next  year.  {NYT,  4/18/65, 
84) 

•  Soviet  Union  announced  that  pilot  A.  V.  Fedotov  had  established  a  new 

world  speed  record  for  l,()00-km.  closed  route.  He  flew  an  E-266 
aircraft  with  2,000-kg.  (4.409  lbs.)  cargo  at  average  speed  of  2,320 
kph.  This  exceeded  by  253  kph  the  world  speed  record  for  that  class 
held  by  U.S.  pilot  Harold  E.  Confer  in  a  B-58  Hustler  aircraft. 
(Krasnaya  Zvezda,  4/18  65,  1,  atss-t  Trans.) 

•  A  shipment  of  American   Hawk  missiles  was  unloaded  recently  at  the 

Israeli   port   of  Haifa.    Israel    announced.      (UPi,    Wash.   Daily   News, 
4/19/65) 
April  19:  A  detailed  report  on  the  progress  of  the  Mars-bound  MARINER  iv 
spacecraft  was  presented  at  annual  meeting  of  the  American  Geophysi- 
cal Union  in  Washington,  D.C.: 

MARINER  IV,  launched  Nov.  28,  1964,  was  on  course  to  fly  by  Mars 
shortly  after  9  p.m.  edt  on  July  14.  Four  of  mariner  iv's  six  experi- 
ments were  still  working  well.  The  ionization  experiment  had  ceased 
to  function  and  data  from  the  solar  plasma  probe  were  only  partially 
interpretable.  At  3  p.m..  mariner  iv  was  58,176,037  mi.  from  the 
earth.  It  had  traveled  221.330,000  mi.  on  its  journey  of  325  miUion 
miles. 

mariner  IV  had  returned  a  considerable  amount  of  scientific  data. 
A  cosmic  ray  telescope  aboard  the  575-lb.  spacecraft  had,  for  example, 
"observed"  more  solar  protons  than  alpha  particles  from  the  sun. 
John  A.  Simpson  of  Univ.  of  Chicago  said  this  indicated  there  was  a 
"different  kind  of  mechanism  operating  on  the  sun  for  accelerating 
these  particles  in  space." 


190  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

A  report  from  a  team  of  scientists  from  NASA  GSFC  and  Temple  Univ. 
indicated  that  mariner  iv  was  encountering  increasing  amounts  of 
cosmic  dust  as  it  moved  further  away  from  the  sun.  MARINER  iv's 
cosmic  dust  detector  had  been  hit  95  times. 

Dr.  James  A.  Van  Allen  predicted  that  if  Mars  had  a  magnetic  field 
no  stronger  than  Y^oth  the  intensity  of  the  earth's,  mariner  iv  would 
detect  it  in  July. 

Richard  Sloan  of  jpl  said  he  and  his  colleagues  planned  to  try  to 
establish  a  radio  lock  with  mariner  iv  in  September  1967  after  it  had 
journeyed  through  space  and  come  back  to  within  40-50  million  miles 
of  earth,  (nasa  Releases  65-117,  65-1 17-A,  65-1 17-B,  65-1 17-C, 
65-1 17-D,  65-1 17-E,  65-1 17-F;  Transcript) 
April  19:  Six  Navy  and  Marine  flyers  emerged  from  a  cylindrical  chamber 
at  Philadelphia's  naval  air  engineering  center  where  they  had  spent  34 
days  in  a  simulated  journey  into  space  in  an  experiment  sponsored  by 
NASA.  The  project  was  designed  to  collect  and  analyze  information 
on  long  confinement  in  a  space  atmosphere,  specifically,  how  pure 
oxygen  would  affect  the  blood,  the  lungs,  thinking,  and  eating.  Cdr. 
Kenneth  R.  Coburn,  project  manager,  called  it  "a  major  success," 
noting  that  "we  find  that  man  can  live  for  long  periods  of  time — for  a 
month  anyway — without  any  bad  effects."      (ap,  Chic.  Trib.,  4/20/65) 

•  DOD  announced  award  to  Lockheed  Missiles  and  Space  Co.  of  $3,000,000 

increment  to  existing  contract  for  engineering  support  for  Agena  sys- 
tem,     (dod  Release  246-65) 

•  Edward  L.  Hays,  chief  of  crew  systems  at  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Cen- 

ter, announced  that  the  crew  of  the  Gemini  gt^  flight  would  wear  the 
qualified  Extravehicular  Activity  (Eva)  spacesuit  during  their  flight. 
(ap,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  4/19/65;  M&R,  4/26/65,  7) 

•  Excerpts  from  comments  on  management  of  research   and  development 

activity  by  Dr.  L.  R.  Hafstad,  director  of  General  Motors  Research  and 
Defense  Research  Laboratories,  appeared  in  Aviation  Week  and  Space 
Technology:  "In  the  modern  laboratory  the  basic  research  activity  is 
essentially  an  information-gathering  intelligence  operation.  The  opera- 
tives must  be  trained  to  speak,  and  allowed  to  speak,  the  language  of 
the  area  on  which  they  are  expected  to  keep  informed,  and  to  interact 
with  other  researchers  in  the  same  area.  It  is  this  apparently  excessive 
freedom  of  action  on  the  part  of  employees  which  makes  for  the  concern 
of  students  of  administration  about  the  management  of  research,  or  the 
lack  thereof.  My  conclusion  is  that  most  of  this  problem  evaporates 
once  it  is  realized  that  a  director  of  research  directs  the  research  pro- 
gram— but  certainly  not  the  individual  researchers. 

"The  partnership  of  science,  engineering  and  industry  is  really  a 
rather  new  concept  developed  since  the  turn  of  the  century  and  only 
now  reaching  maturity.  An  even  newer  concept  is  the  partnership  of 
science,  engineering,  and  government.  A  problem  we  must  face  up  to 
— whether  we  represent  industry,  government  or  science — is  the  effec- 
tive use  of  research  in  creating  a  better  future  for  everyone. 

"There  is  never  a  dearth  of  projects — the  difficulty  is  to  pick  worth- 
while projects.  It  is  here  that  I  feel  that  the  discipline  of  the  profit 
and  loss  statement  is  essential.  .  .   ."      (Av  Wk.,  4/19/65,  21) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  191 

April  19:  Two  teams  of  scientists  collecting  dust  from  Greenland  and 
Antarctic  icecaps  presented  their  findings  to  the  American  Geophysical 
Union,  meeting  in  Washington.  The  scientists  were  collecting  particles 
by  "core  sampling" — boring  through  the  ice  with  a  thermal  drill  and 
analyzing  particles  to  determine  their  origin.  Team  studying  Greenland 
samples — E.  L.  Fireman.  J.  Defelice.  and  C.  C.  Langway,  Jr.,  of  the 
Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory  and  the  U.S.  Army — believed 
their  dust  samples  to  be  nonterrestrial  in  origin.  Team  studying 
Antarctic  samples — M.  B.  Giovinetto  of  the  Univ.  of  Wisconsin  and 
R.  A.  Schmidt  of  nasa — was  not  certain  of  the  origin  of  these  particles. 
They  reported  a  high  concentration  of  spherucles  in  the  core  samplings; 
the  amount  of  these  particles,  which  closely  matched  those  found  in 
volcanic  eruptions,  made  identification  of  dust  origin  more  difficult. 
They  had  collected  dust  from  165-ft.  core  of  ice.  representing  400  yrs. 
accumulation.  Greenland  team  had  drilled  to  depth  of  1,800  ft.  and 
expected  to  continue  to  5.000  ft.  National  Science  Foundation  would 
use  the  same  thermal  drill — beginning  in  summer  of  1967  or  1968 — to 
drill  to  8.000-ft.  depth  through  the  south  polar  ice.  (Simons,  Wash. 
Post,  4/20. /65.  1 ) 

Week  of  April  19:  Cryogenic  propellants  were  loaded  for  the  first  time  into 
a  ground  test  model  of  the  NASA  Saturn  S-IVB  upper  stage  to  verify  the 
design  of  the  stage  and  fabrication  techniques,  and  to  demonstrate 
operational  procedures.  The  S-IVB.  58  ft.  long  and  21.5  ft.  in  diam- 
eter, was  being  built  for  Saturn  IB  and  Saturn  V  by  Douglas  Missile 
and  Space  Systems  Div.  for  NASA  msfc.      (  msfc  Release  65-98) 

April  20:  NASA  had  awarded  a  S3,135,977  contract  modification  to  the 
Boeing  Co.  for  preparatory  work  leading  to  dynamic  testing  of  the 
Saturn  V  moon  rocket  at  NASA  msfc.  Boeing  would  perform  engineer- 
ing services  for  the  Saturn  V  dynamic  testing  program  and  would  sup- 
ply instrumentation  equipment  for  the  test  stand,  (msfc  Release 
65-94) 

•  NASA  Ames  Research  Center  had  let  a  SI, 382.000  contract  to  the  American 

Machine  and  Foundry  Co.  for  fabrication  of  an  advanced  flight  sim- 
ulator which  could  simulate  nearly  all  flight  situations  for  aircraft  and 
spacecraft  except  cases  involving  either  high  acceleration  forces  on  the 
pilot  or  aerobatics. 

Designed  by  the  Research  Facilities  and  Equipment  Div.  at  Ames,  the 
simulator  would  have  "six  degrees  of  freedom,"  the  capability  to  move 
in  all  possible  axes  of  motion:  fore  and  aft,  vertical,  and  side-to-side; 
also  pitch,  roll,  and  yaw.  It  would  be  unique  in  having  100  ft.  of 
lateral  motion.  This  would  be  needed  to  simulate  supersonic  transport 
(Sst)  flight  since  the  crew  would  be  far  forward  of  the  center  of  rota- 
tion of  the  aircraft.      (ARC  Release  65-12) 

•  North   American   Aviation   Co.'s   xb-70a  experimental   bomber   reached 

altitude  of  59,000  ft.  and  speed  of  1,500  mph  on  its  tenth  flight 
from  Edwards  afb.  Duration  of  flight  was  1  hr.  39  min.,  of  which  1 
hr.  14  min.  was  at  supersonic  speed,  boosting  its  total  supersonic  flight 
time  to  5  hrs.  5  min.      (ap,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  4/21/65,  A7) 

•  The  x-15  research  aircraft  was  praised  by  William  Hines  in  an  article  in 

the  Washington  Evening  Star:  "The  United  States  spent  nearly  a 
quarter-billion  dollars  to  produce  three  copies  of  the  x-15,  unro- 
manticallv   known   as   'No.    1,'   'No.   2,'   and   'No.   3.'     Modifications, 


192  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

maintenance  and  operation  charges  have  by  now  pushed  the  bill  close 
to  a  third  of  a  billion. 

"By  any  rational  standard,  the  x-15  has  been  worth  every  penny. 
It  has  given  the  United  States  far  more  than  mere  supremacy  in  the 
flight  record  books;  it  has  provided  a  foundation  for  advanced  aero- 
nautical technology  that  could  have  been  obtained  in  no  other  way." 
(Hines,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  4/20/65) 
April  20:  Dr.  Werner  R.  Kirchner,  vice  president  and  manager  of  Aerojet- 
General  Corp.'s  solid  rocket  operations,  announced  that  a  new  solid 
fuel  multipulse  rocket  engine  containing  several  charges  of  propellant 
that  could  be  separately  fired  by  electrical  signal  had  successfully  com- 
pleted its  first  series  of  test  firings.  The  rocket  could  zip.  glide,  and 
dart  about  much  like  a  bird,  he  said,  or  could  lie  dormant  in  space  a 
year  and  then  be  restarted  on  command.  Key  to  multipulse  firings 
was  described  as  a  lightweight  thermal  barrier  separating  each  charge. 
Aerojet  had  conducted  demonstration  firings  of  six  flight-weight  con- 
figurations in  the  company-funded  program,  (ap,  Denver  Post,  4/21/ 
65;Av.Wk.,^/19/65,S0) 
•  Donald  E.  Crabhill  of  the  Bureau  of  the  Budget  discussed  "Space 
Programs  and  the  Federal  Budget"  before  the  National  Space  Club: 
"What  are  some  of  the  significant  factors  to  be  pointed  out  in  the  re- 
lationship between  the  space  program  and  the  budget? 

"The  first  is,  of  course,  the  matter  of  growth  in  the  funding  for  space 
and  the  current  absolute  amount  of  funds  allocated  to  space  programs, 
including  not  only  NASA,  but  also  DOD,  AEC,  and  activities  in  this  area  by 
other  agencies.  In  FY  1957.  approximately  $150  million  was  expended 
by  the  Federal  Government  on  space  programs.  In  FY  1960,  the  total 
was  still  below  $900  million.  In  FY  1966,  the  tenth  year  of  the  space 
age,  the  President's  budget  provides  for  space  expenditures  of  $6.9 
billion. 

"Where  does  this  amount  stand  in  relation  to  amounts  in  the  admin- 
istrative budget  for  other  programs?  It  is  less  than  the  total  amounts 
to  be  spent  in  1966  on  national  defense:  on  health,  labor,  and  welfare 
programs;  and  on  interest  on  the  national  debt.  But  it  is  greater  than 
that  to  be  spent  for  any  other  function  of  Government.  Space  expendi- 
tures of  all  agencies  will  be  greater  in  1966  than  those  for  international 
affairs  and  finance,  for  agriculture,  for  natural  resources,  for  commerce 
and  transportation,  for  housing  and  community  development,  for  vet- 
erans benefits  and  services,  or  for  other  general  Government. 

"The  space  program  has  not  been,  since  it  was  initiated,  and  is  not 
today,  a  budgetary  underdog. 

"The  second  specific  point  to  be  made  is  that  the  budget  process  by 
its  very  nature  is  an  exercise  in  priorities.  ...  A  great  many  merely 
desirable  projects  get  deferred  throughout  the  Government  every  year 
under  the  press  of  the  budgetary  process. 

"In  the  past,  this  pressure  has  not  been  felt  as  severely  in  the  space 
area  as  it  has  in  most  others  because  of  the  emphasis  that  has  been 
given  to  creating  in  a  hurry  a  vast  capability  to  operate  in  space.  The 
space  program  has  been  very  successful  in  meeting  this  aim.  In  fact, 
it  has  been  so  successful  that  space  is  now  coming  of  age  with  other 
Government  programs.     We  will  soon  have  a  technical  capability  to  do 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  193 

a  great  many  more  space  missions  than  we  as  a  nation  will  probably 
want  to  pay  for.   .  .  . 

"There  is  one  other  point  that,  as  a  budget  examiner,  I  feel  I  must 
mention.  Funding  and  schedule  estimates  for  space  programs  have 
been  historically  quite  unreliable.  Cost  estimates  have  tended  not  so 
much  merely  to  groiv,  but  to  multiply!  At  the  same  time,  schedules 
have  tended  to  slip,  slip,  slip. 

"This  was  an  understandable  situation  while  the  space  program  was 
new,  but  we  have  had  enough  experience  that  there  will  be  considerable 
resistance  from  now  on  to  escalation  in  price  and  radical  slips  in  sched- 
ule of  the  next  generation  of  space  projects.  The  more  detailed  plan- 
ning we  are  doing  now,  the  phased  project  procurement  processes,  and 
the  experience  we  have  gained  in  the  technology  and  the  techniques  of 
space  operations  must  be  expected  to  show  returns  in  better  ability 
to  make  good  cost  and  schedule  estimates  in  the  first  place,  and  then  to 
meet  the  cost  and  schedule  targets  that  are  approved."     (Text) 

April  20:  Three  American  scientists  were  honored  by  the  American  Geo- 
physical Union  during  an  honors  meeting  at  the  National  Academy  of 
Sciences  in  Washington,  D.C.:  Norman  F.  Ness  of  nasa  Goddard 
Space  Flight  Center  received  the  John  Adam  Fleming  Award  for 
research  done  by  means  of  instruments  aboard  nasa's  explorer  xviii 
satellite;  Gordon  J.  F.  MacDonald  of  the  Univ.  of  California  at  Los 
Angeles  was  given  the  James  B.  Macelwane  Award  for  work  on  a 
variety  of  subjects  ranging  from  the  center  of  the  earth  to  the  solar 
corona;  Hugo  Benioff,  professor  emeritus  at  the  California  Institute 
of  Technology,  was  awarded  the  William  Bowie  Medal  for  "unselfish 
cooperation  in  research."      (Wash.  Eve.  Star,  4/21/65) 

April  21:  Pegasus  B,  second  of  the  "winged"  micrometeoroid  detection 
satellites,  arrived  at  Cape  Kennedy  to  be  readied  for  launch  during 
the  next  two  months.  Similar  to  pegasus  I,  Pegasus  B  would  occupy 
a  simulated  Apollo  service  module  aboard  the  SA-8  vehicle.  A  boiler- 
plate model  of  the  Apollo  command  module  would  be  placed  above  the 
Pegasus;  in  orbit,  the  Apollo  modules  would  be  jettisoned  and  the 
satellite  exposed.  Preliminary  data  from  PEGASUS  I  indicated  it  was 
confirming  current  theory  on  micrometeoroid  density,  (msec  Release 
65^5;  Marshall  Star,  4/21/65,  1,  2) 

•  NASA  absolved  Astronaut  Virgil  I.  Grissom  (Maj..  usaf)  of  any  blame  in 

the  58-mi.-oflF-target  landing  of  the  GEMINI  ill  spacecraft  following 
the  three-orbit  flight  Mar.  23,  according  to  MSC  spokesman.  The 
mishap  was  attributed  to  the  fact  that  the  spacecraft  did  not  develop 
as  much  lift  as  expected.  The  possibility  that  Major  Grissom  might 
have  banked  GEMINI  in  improperly  as  a  result  of  misunderstanding 
instructions  from  ground  stations  had  been  investigated.  (UPI,  NYT, 
4/21/65,  11,  MSC  GEMINI  III  Fact  Sheet) 

•  EARLY  BIRD  communications  satellite  would  relay  a  sampling  of  scientific, 

cultural,  and  entertainment  events  televised  live  at  35  sites  in  North 
America  and  Europe  during  an  hour-long  inaugural  program,  "This  is 
Early  Bird."  scheduled  for  1  p.m.  est,  May  2,  ComSatCorp  announced. 
(ComSatCorp  Release:  Adams,  NYT,  4/21/65,  91) 

•  Thomas  W.  Thompson  of  Cornell  Univ.  said  in  a  paper  presented  at  the 

meeting  of  the  American  Geophysical  Union  that  half  the  moon's  sur- 
face had  been  mapped  in  a  lunar  mapping  program  using  the  radio- 


194  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

radar  telescope  at  Cornell's  Arecibo  Observatory,  Puerto  Rico.  From 
the  radar  signal  returns,  the  hardest  areas  of  the  moon  were  the  rim 
and  floor  of  the  relatively  new  craters.  The  floors  of  the  older  craters 
and  the  surface  of  the  maria  were  covered  by  a  three-to-four-meter- 
thick  layer  of  highly  porous  material  often  referred  to  as  "lunar  dust." 
(Simons,  Wash.  Post,  4/22/65;  NYT,  4/22/65) 
April  21 :  Dr.  Gordon  H.  Pettingill,  Dr.  Rolf  H.  Dyce,  and  Dr.  Thomas  Gold 
of  Cornell  Univ.,  reported  to  the  meeting  of  the  American  Geophysical 
Union  that  through  radar  studies  with  Cornell's  1,000-ft. -diameter 
radiotelescope  at  Arecibo,  Puerto  Rico,  they  had  found  an  apparent 
"flat  spot"  on  the  planet  Mars  that  seemed  to  correspond  to  markings 
seen  there  through  telescopes.  They  also  reported  that  radar  observa- 
tions indicated  the  planet  Mercury  rotated  on  its  own  axis  once  each 
54  to  64  days,  exposing  all  sides  to  the  sun  in  a  year.  Its  full  day. 
corresponding  to  a  24-hr.  earth  cycle,  would  be  about  180  earth  days 
long.  It  was  inconclusive  whether  Mercury  rotated  in  the  opposite 
direction  from  its  orbit — a  retrograde  rotation — or  in  the  same  direc- 
tion as  its  orbit — a  direct  rotation. 

Dr.  Gold  also  speculated  that  Mercury  could  not  have  been  in  its 
present  orbit  for  much  longer  than  400  million  years.  Otherwise,  he 
postulated,  the  sun  would  have  held  the  planet  over  a  long  enough 
period  of  time  to  force  it  into  a  synchronous  or  88-day  rotation. 
This  suggested  to  Gold  that  Mercury  might  once  have  been  a  moon 
of  Venus  but  broke  away  or  was  tugged  away  to  establish  its  own  orbit 
around  the  sun.  (Hines.  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  4/21/65;  Clark.  NYT. 
4/21/65,  17;  Simons,  Wash.  Post,  4/21/65) 

•  In  a  statement  of  faa  policy  outlined  by  faa  Administrator  Najeeb  E. 

Halaby,  faa's  obligation  was  affirmed  to  regulate  private  conduct  of 
pilots  but  only  to  the  extent  required  in  the  public  interest;  to 
recognize  the  right  of  the  general  public  to  be  informed  and  to  be 
heard;  to  apply  the  regulatory  hand  evenly  in  similar  situations, 
while  also  recognizing  the  different  rights,  duties,  and  operational 
requirements  of  the  various  segments  of  the  aviation  community;  and 
to  manage  the  airspace  as  a  national  resource  in  a  manner  best  serving 
the  requirements  of  all  users  while  also  recognizing  the  interests  of 
people  on  the  ground.      (Text) 

•  Dr.  Homer  E.  Newell,  NASA  Associate  Administrator  for  Space  Science  and 

Applications,  was  among  the  ten  outstanding  Federal  Government  em- 
ployees chosen  by  the  National  Civil  Service  League  to  receive  Career 
Service  Awards  May  19.  (Wash.  Post,  4/22/65) 
April  21-23:  A  Technology  Status  and  Trends  Symposium  was  held  at  NASA 
Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  for  industry  and  university  officials  and 
invited  guests.  Purpose  of  the  conference  was  to  make  available  for 
general  use  in  everyday  life  the  results  of  research  and  engineering 
carried  out  in  connection  with  the  U.S.  space  program.  (Marshall 
Star,  4/21/65,  1,  5;  nasa  sp-5030) 

•  At   AIAa/aflc/asd   Support   for   Manned    Flight    Conference   in    Dayton. 

Ohio,  Temple  W.  Neumann  of  Philco  Corp.  reviewed  studies  of 
manned  Mars  missions  and  discussed  the  importance  of  "early  bio- 
logical precursor  missions"  to  Mars.     He  concluded: 

"It  has  been  shown  that  the  lack  of  biological,  as  well  as  critical 
environmental,  data  about  Mars  can  have  important  ramifications  in 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  195 

not  only  the  cost,  but  possibly  even  in  the  feasibility  of  performing 
early  manned  missions  to  Mars.  The  importance  of  preliminary 
knowledge  about  the  interaction  of  possible  Martian  organisms  with 
man  and  his  equipment  has  been  shown  to  significantly  affect  surface 
operations,  decontamination  requirements,  and  equipment  reliability. 
Further,  the  need  for  some  preliminary  data  about  the  nature  of 
Martian  organisms  is  necessary  in  order  to  intelligently  design  an 
experimental  program  for  use  by  the  first  manned  landing  expedition. 
The  conclusion  can  therefore  be  supported  that  a  precursor  biological 
mission,  such  as  that  represented  by  the  current  abl  studies,  is  manda- 
tory in  the  early  1970  time  period  if  manned  missions  are  to  make 
effective  use  of  the  mid-1980  launch  opportunities."  (Text,  AIAA  Paper 
65-249) 
April  22:  With  arrival  of  the  sea-going  launch  platform  USNS  Croatan  at 
Valparaiso,  Chile,  nasa  completed  a  successful  expedition  of  launching 
scientific  experiments  off  the  west  coast  of  South  America.  A  total 
of  77  sounding  rockets  were  fired,  45  of  them  Nike-Cajun  and  Nike- 
Apaches,  and  32  of  them  single-stage  meteorological  rockets.  Firings 
occurred  at  various  position  from  5°  north  to  60°  south  of  the  equator. 
Five  experiments  were  conducted  at  or  near  the  60th  parallel  at  about 
78°  west  longitude.  The  project  was  part  of  the  NASA  sounding  rocket 
program  being  conducted  during  the  1964-65  International  Quiet  Sun 
Year.  Expedition  data  would  be  correlated  with  findings  of  scientists 
throughout  the  world  conducting  experiments  on  IQSY  phenomena. 
(Wallops  Release  65-22) 

•  Two   NASA   sounding   rockets,    a   Nike-Cajun    and    a    Nike- Apache,   were 

launched  at  Wallops  Station  after  dark  and  about  one  hour  apart. 
Both  rockets  released  chemiluminescent  gas  clouds,  which  observers  on 
the  ground  used  to  measure  atmospheric  winds,  shears,  turbulence,  and 
vertical  motions.  Nike-Cajun  reached  altitude  of  128  km.  (79.5  mi.) 
and  the  Nike- Apache,  145  km.  (90.1  mi.)    (nasa  Rpt.  SRl) 

•  NASA  selected  Ling-Temco-Vought  and  Lockheed  Electronics  Co.  for  com- 

petitive negotiation  of  contract  covering  operational  support  services 
for  laboratories  and  test  facilities  at  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center. 
TTie  support  contract  would  be  cost-plus-award-fee  for  one  year  with 
options  to  extend  for  four  additional  one-year  periods.  First  year 
costs  were  expected  to  exceed  $2  million,      (nasa  Release  65-133) 

•  NASA  selected  three  industrial  firms  with  which  to  negotiate  similar  pre- 

liminary design  contracts  for  a  Voyager  spacecraft  to  undertake  un- 
manned scientific  exploration  of  the  planets:  the  Boeing  Co.,  General 
Electric  Co.,  and  TRW  Space  Technology  Labs.  The  three-month, 
fixed-price  contracts  would  each  be  worth  about  $500,000.  (NASA 
Release  65-135) 

•  At  Purdue  Univ.,  Dr.  George  E.  Mueller,  NASA  Associate  Administrator 

for  Manned  Space  Flight,  discussed  in  a  speech  NASA's  emphasis  on 
man's  part  in  future  planned  space  experiments:  "The  role  of  man  in 
space  is  basic  to  any  discussion  of  our  planned  space  experiments.  .  .  . 
We  have  always  recognized  his  inherent  characteristics  as  a  sensor, 
manipulator,  evaluator  and  investigator. 

"As  a  sensor,  man  adds  little  to  automatic  equipment  in  space — 
sometimes  nothing  at  all.  .  .  .  instruments  can  measure  .  .  .  phe- 
nomena that  man  cannot  perceive  at  all. 


196  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

"But  instruments  are  limited  by  the  knowledge  we  now  have  on 
earth;  they  cannot  cope  with  the  unexpected  or  the  unknown.  Man,  on 
the  other  hand,  can  operate  in  any  unprogrammed  situation  and  reap 
full  benefits  of  the  true  objective  of  manned  operations.  He  can  ex- 
plore the  unknown. 

"The  second  function  of  man  in  space  is  manipulation.  Gus  Grissom 
demonstrated  superbly  last  month  that  a  man  can  operate  the  space- 
craft controls  for  delicate  maneuvering.  .  .  . 

"In  the  conduct  of  space  research  also,  man  as  a  manipulator  can 
probe  into  his  environment.  He  can  make  use  of  motor  responses  and 
verbal  skills  to  carry  out  procedures  and  to  assemble,  operate  and 
repair  equipment.  .  .  . 

"With  the  capacity  to  evaluate,  man  achieves  a  substantial  degree 
of  self-reliance  in  controlling  what  he  perceives  and  how  he  reacts. 
When  a  man  remembers,  analyzes,  compares,  and  induces — using  a 
solid  foundation  of  knowledge — he  has  improved  the  degree  to  which 
meaningful  data  can  be  translated  into  useful  knowledge.   .   .   . 

"The  most  advanced  role  of  man  in  space  is  that  of  an  investigator 
who  responds  creatively  to  unexpected  situations.  He  is  able  to 
postulate  theories  and  hypotheses,  and  to  devise  and  use  systematic 
measurements.  In  this  role,  the  astronaut  is  a  full-fledged  scientist." 
(Text) 
April  22:  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center's  Public  Affairs  Officer,  Paul 
Haney,  announced  that  daily  newspapers  might  have  Vi2-hr.  interviews 
with  the  crew  of  the  GT-4  flight  on  the  same  basis  as  television  net- 
works and  wire  news  services.  Astronauts  James  A.  McDivitt  (Maj., 
USAf)  and  Edward  H.  White  (Maj.,  usaf)  would  spend  two  full  days  in 
personal  interviews  at  MSC  early  in  May.  There  would  be  a  mass  press 
conference  for  all  news  media  in  Washington,  D.C.,  on  April  30. 
Without  such  an  arrangement,  the  only  newspapers  that  would  have  had 
personal  interviews  would  be  those  that  subscribed  to  the  service  that 
paid  astronauts  for  their  stories.      (Houston  Post,  4/23/65) 

•  New  sunspots  heralding  the  start  of  a  new  11-yr.  cycle  were  discussed  at 

sessions  on  the  International  Years  of  the  Quiet  Sun  held  in  Wash- 
ington. D.C.,  under  auspices  of  the  American  Geophysical  Union  and 
the  International  Scientific  Radio  Union.  Scientists  said  the  asym- 
metrical birth  of  the  new  cycle  suggested  it  might  not  reach  as  intense 
a  maximum  as  usual. 

The  cycle  was  of  vital  interest  to  planners  of  a  manned  moon  land- 
ing since  it  had  been  discovered  that  some  solar  eruptions  shoot  out 
protons  at  so  close  to  the  speed  of  light  they  could  kifl  an  astronaut. 
While  astronauts  were  on  the  moon,  or  inside  the  Lem,  they  would 
be  poorly  protected  against  such  a  proton  shower.  Dr.  Herbert 
Friedman,  of  the  Naval  Research  Laboratory,  said  during  the  sym- 
posium they  would  be  comparatively  safe  if  they  could  return  to  their 
orbiting  command  capsule.  The  goal,  therefore,  he  said,  was  to  learn 
enough  about  these  events  so  that  astronauts  could  have  sufficient  warn- 
ing to  take  refuge  in  their  spacecraft.      (Sullivan,  NYT,  4/23/65) 

•  A  two-day  conference  began  at  NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  on  inter- 

national participation  in  space  biomedical  experiments  on  U.S.  manned 
spaceflights.  About  50  doctors  from  17  countries  attended.  (Houston 
Chron.,  4-/21/65;  NASA  Release  65-31) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  197 

April  22:  First  of  four  Canadian  Stol  cv-7a  transport  planes  was  accepted 
by  the  USA.  The  aircraft  would  undergo  extensive  service,  engineering, 
and  climatic  tests  in  the  next  year,      (dod  Release  253-65) 

•  DOD  announced  award  to  Thiokol  Chemical  Corp.  of  $2,300,000  increment 

to  existing  contract  for  production  of  Minuteman  Stage  I  operational 
and  flight  test  rocket  motors,  (dod  Release  255-65) 
April  23:  U.S.S.R.  launched  its  first  communications  satellite  molniya  I 
into  orbit:  apogee.  39,380  km.  (24,459  mi.);  perigee,  497  km. 
(309  mi.);  period,  11  hrs.  48  min.;  inclination,  65°.  Krasnaya 
Zvezda  reported  that  the  "basic  purpose  of  launching  the  Molniya-1 
communications  satellite  is  to  accomplish  the  transmission  of  TV 
programs  and  to  perform  two-way  multichannel  telephone,  phototele- 
graphic  and  telegraphic  communication.  All  the  onboard  equipment 
on  the  satellite  and  the  ground  radio  network  are  operating  normally, 
and  the  first  transmission  of  TV  programs  between  Vladivostok  and 
Moscow  were  successfully  completed."  (Tass.  Krasnaya  Zvezda,  4/ 
24/65.  1.  ATSS-T  Trans.) 

•  Successful    simultaneous    two-way    transmission    of    television    tests    via 

EARLY  BIRD  communications  satellite  between  the  U.S.  ground  station 
at  Andover,  Me.,  and  European  ground  stations  at  Pleumeur-Bodou, 
France:  Goonhilly  Downs,  England;  and  Raisting,  W.  Germany,  was 
announced  by  ComSatCorp.  The  pictures  were  of  good  quality. 
(ComSatCorp  Release) 

•  X-15  No.  3  was  flown  by  Capt.  Joe  Engle  (usaf)   79,700  ft.  altitude  at 

a  maximum  speed  of  3,657  mph  (mach  5.48)  to  obtain  data  for  heat 
transfer  experiment  with  surface  distortion  panel  ablative  test,  (nasa 
X-15  Proj.  Off.;  frc  Release;  X-15  Flight  Log) 

•  Successful  completion  of  formal  flight  qualification  tests  of  the  uprated 

H-1  rocket  engine  for  use  in  the  Saturn  IB  space  vehicle  was  announced 
jointly  by  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center,  under  whose  technical 
direction  the  engine  was  being  developed,  and  by  Rocketdyne  Div.  of 
North  American  Aviation,  Inc.,  its  manufacturer.  Two  engines  were 
used  for  the  qualification  program.  In  51  firings  they  operated  suc- 
cessfully for  4.581  seconds — more  than  75  min. — and  produced 
200.000  lbs.  of  thrust  (188.000  lbs.  was  previous  power  rating). 
(msfc  Release  65-96) 

•  NRX-a3,  experimental  Nerva  nuclear  reactor  engine  fueled  with  liquid 

hvdrogen.  was  successfully  hotfired  for  about  8  min.,  including  3V2 
min.  at  full  power.  A  loose  circuit  connection  caused  the  engine  to 
shut  off  prematurely  after  the  SVs  min.  of  full  power.  (Nerva  Proj. 
Off.:  Wash.  Post.  4/25/65:  Rover  Chron.) 

•  Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge  had  proposed  to  NAS\  a  design  for  a  Deep 

Space  Planetary  Probe  System  to  be  used  in  a  flyby  of  Jupiter.  Saturn, 
or  Pluto.  The  spacecraft  would  consist  of  a  larse  dish  antenna,  pos- 
sibly as  large  as  16  ft.  in  diameter,  which  would  telemeter  data  back 
to  earth.  Power  would  be  supplied  by  10-watt  Snap-19  generator. 
The  spacecraft  could  be  boosted  by  either  Atlas-Centaur  or  Saturn  IB- 
Centaur  with  upper-stage  assist  from  available  solid  rockets  or  from 
the  Poodle,  a  low-thrust  radioisotope  rocket  engine.  Flyby  missions 
for  the  probe  could  be  made  in  1970  to  Jupiter,  to  Saturn  in  1972,  and 
ultimately  to  Pluto.      (SBD.  4/23/65.  297) 


198  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

April  23:  Addressing  a  citizen's  seminar  at  Boston  College  sponsored  by  the 
College  of  Business  Administration.  Rep.  George  P.  Miller  (D-Calif.), 
Chairman  of  the  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics,  gave 
examples  of  the  potential  dovvn-to-earth  benefits  of  space  research: 

" — Automated  highspeed,  urban  and  interurban  rail  transportation, 
such  as  the  four-hour  trip  between  Boston  and  Washington  mentioned 
recently  by  President  Johnson. 

" — Better  communications  systems,  more  reliable  radios  and  televis- 
ion sets,  improved  home  appliances. 

" — Reduction  of  rust  and  corrosion  by  controlling  bacteria  which 
space  researchers  found  to  thrive  by  eating  and  digesting  metal. 

" — Prevention  of  muscular  atrophy  and  new  methods  of  treating 
Paget's  disease,  osteo-porosis  and  kidney  stones.  All  this  springing 
from  the  studies  of  weightlessness. 

".  .  .  also  new  knowledge  about  the  processes  of  aging,  and  cancer." 
(White,  Boston  Globe,  4/23/65) 

•  Prof.  Hannes  Alfven  of  the  division  of  plasma  physics  at  the  Royal  Insti- 

tute of  Technology  in  Stockholm,  Sweden,  revived  a  theory  that  the 
moon  was  once  an  independent  planet.  In  an  article  written  for 
Science,  he  said  that  "many  if  not  all  of  the  craters  of  the  moon  were 
produced"  by  an  "intense  bombardment  of  fragments  of  itself"  when  the 
moon  swept  too  close  to  the  earth  and  partly  disintegrated  under  the 
tremendous  tidal  forces  that  were  generated.  "It  is  also  possible,"  the 
theory  suggested,  "that  so  much  of  the  lunar  matter  fell  down  [on  this 
planet]  that  the  upper  layer  of  the  earth — the  crust — originally  derives 
from  the  moon."  Prof.  Alfven  wrote  that  this  theory  was  first  stated 
by  H.  Gerstenkorn  of  Hanover,  Germany,  and  published  in  1954  in 
Zeitschrift  fur  Astrophysik  under  the  title  "Uber  die  Gezeitenreibung 
beim  Zweikorperproblem"  ("About  Tidal  Friction  in  a  Two-Body 
Problem").  (Osmundsen,  NYT,  4/24/65,  31:  Myler,  Wash.  Post, 
4/24/65) 

•  USAF  received  at  Travis  afb,  Calif.,  the  first  of  65  c-141  Starlifter  cargo 

jets  to  be  delivered  this  year,  dod  announced.  The  aircraft  were 
capable  of  carrying  30  tons  of  cargo  or  123  combat  troops  6,000  mi. 
nonstop  at  a  speed  of  about  500  mph.      (UPI,  NYT,  4/24/65,  15) 

•  FAA  announced  that  U.S.  airports  known  to  faa  numbered  9,490  at  the 

end  of  1964,  an  increase  of  676  over  previous  years.  Over  the  past 
five  years,  the  annual  increase  in  landing  facilities  reported  to  FAA  had 
averaged  623.  (faa  Release  65-36) 
April  24:  Second  major  Saturn  V  milestone  this  month:  First  five-engine 
ignition  test  of  the  Saturn  V  second  stage,  the  s-ii,  was  conducted 
at  the  Santa  Susana,  Calif.,  static  test  laboratory  of  North  American 
Aviation,  Inc.,  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  announced.  The 
five  J-2  engines,  built  by  naa's  Rocketdyne  Div.,  would  produce  one 
million  pounds  thrust.  Short-duration  firings  leading  to  full-duration 
tests  of  nearly  400  sec.  would  follow  the  ignition  firing.  (MSFC  Release 
65-99) 

•  In  an  address  at  Duke  University,  Vice  President  Hubert  H.  Humphrey 

said:  "How  fortunate  we  are  to  live  in  this  dramatic  and  creative 
period  of  change,  of  challenge,  of  opportunity.  How  great  is  our 
responsibility  to  achieve  excellence  of  mind  and  spirit  to  do  the  tasks 
that  must  be  done. 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  199 

"I  appeal,  therefore,  to  you  the  generation  of  1965. 

"Make  no  little  plans. 

"Have  not  little  dreams. 

"Do  not  set  your  standards  and  goals  by  those  of  your  mother  and 
father. 

"Do  not  set  your  standards  and  goals  by  those  of  this  time. 

"Challenge  the  impossible.     Do  what  cannot  be  done. 

"Thirty  years  ago  it  was  'Brother,  can  you  spare  a  dime.' 

"Today  we  reach  the  stars."  (Text,  CR,  4/26/65,  8179-80) 
April  24:  The  John  Young  Award,  a  medal  specially  struck  by  the  citizens 
of  Orlando.  Fla.,  was  presented  to  the  astronaut  as  a  highlight  of  the 
John  Young  Day  celebration.  The  medal  would  be  used  in  future 
years  to  honor  Orlando  residents  for  outstanding  achievements,  but 
would  not  necessarily  be  awarded  annually.      {Orl.  Sent.,  4/18/65) 

•  Soviet  astronomer  Dr.  I.  S.  Shklovsky  of  the  Sternberg  State  Astronomical 

Society  in  Moscow  suggested  100  years  as  the  age  for  a  source  of  radio 
waves  known  only  as  1934  minus  63.  These  figures  pinpoint  its 
position  in  the  southern  sky.  1934  minus  63  would  be  the  youngest 
known  natural  object  in  the  sky.      (Sci.  Serv.,  A^IT,  4/24/65,  9) 

•  Employees  of  nasa  Kennedy  Space  Center  began  moving  into  the  new 

headquarters  building  on  Merritt  Island.  The  move  of  more  than 
1,700  employees  would  be  completed  by  mid-August,  (ksc  Spaceport 
News  A/22/65,  1) 
April  25:  faa  Administrator  Najeeb  E.  Halaby  said  that  faa's  sonic  boom 
tests  over  Oklahoma  City  last  year  had  shown  that  construction  of  a 
supersonic  airliner  prototype  was  clearly  warranted:  "My  current  con- 
clusion is  that  a  supersonic  airplane  can  be  designed  in  terms  of  con- 
figuration, operating  attitudes  and  flight  paths  so  as  to  achieve  public 
acceptance  in  the  early  1970s."  Halaby 's  statement  was  in  conjunction 
with  release  of  a  three-volume  final  report  on  the  Oklaihoma  City  ex- 
periment. 

The  FAA  report,  which  included  preliminary  results  from  boom  tests 
at  the  White  Sands  Missile  Range,  concluded  that  only  abnormally 
massive  booms  would  create  serious  problems.  A  principal  finding  in 
the  "community  reactions"  study  stated:  "Substantial  numbers  of 
residents  reported  interference  with  ordinary  living  activities  and 
annoyance  with  such  interruptions,  but  the  overwhelming  majority 
felt  they  could  learn  to  live  with  the  numbers  and  kinds  of  booms 
experienced  during  the  six-month  study." 

The  three  volumes  just  released  were  "Structural  Response  to  Sonic 
Booms,"  "Community  Reactions  to  Sonic  Booms  in  the  Oklahoma  City 
Area,  February-July  1964,"  and  "Final  Program  Summary,  Oklahoma 
City  Sonic  Boom  Study,  February  3-July  30,  1964." 

Publication  of  these  three  documents  completed  the  five-part 
Oklahoma  City  report.  Two  volumes  had  been  made  public  in 
February  1965.      (faa  Release  65-34) 

•  Expansion  of  the  role  of  the  National  Science  Foundation  and  expenditure 

by  Federal  mission-oriented  research  agencies  of  more  money  on  basic 
research  were  two  major  recommendations  of  a  special  panel  of  the 
National  Academy  of  Sciences  to  Congress.  Recommendations  were  in 
a  report,  Basic  Research  and  National  Goals,  submitted  tO'  the  House 
Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics. 


200  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

The  panel,  headed  by  Dr.  George  B.  Kistiakowsky  of  Harvard  Univ., 
former  science  adviser  to  the  President,  was  comprised  of  15  scientists, 
engineers,  and  economists.  The  panel  held  that  the  National  Science 
Foundation,  as  the  sole  agency  of  Government  whose  purpose  was 
support  of  science  across  the  board  without  regard  for  immediate 
practical  gains,  should  be  expanded  to  serve  as  a  "balance  wheel"  to 
soften  the  impact  of  variable  research  policies  of  mission-oriented 
agencies  on  "little  science."  The  recommendation  that  agencies  should 
devote  greater  portions  of  their  budgets  to  basic  research  was  based 
on  the  view  that  in  many  cases  these  budgets  were  becoming  stationary 
while  the  capacity  for  scientific  growth  was  expanding.  The  panel 
also  recommended  that  in  some  cases  the  Congress  should  extend  the 
mission  of  the  agency  to  include  the  pursuit  of  certain  branches  of  basic 
research. 

Three  general  opinions  were  widely  held  by  the  panel  regarding  the 
balance  of  science  support  today:  first.  Federal  funds  should  be 
allocated  with  some  consideration  to  the  geographical-social  effects  of 
their  expenditure ;  second,  biological  sciences  had  been  under-supported 
and  should  receive  support  to  expand  them  faster  than  the  physical 
sciences;  third,  there  was  an  impending  crisis  in  the  physical  sciences 
because  mission-oriented  agencies,  faced  with  stationary  budgets,  would 
probably  not  expand  their  support  of  basic  physical  research  as  fast  as 
capacity  to  do  basic  research  expanded.  (Clark,  NYT,  4/26/65,  55; 
SBD,  4/30/65,  330) 
April  25:  Dr.  Hideo  Itokawa,  professor  at  Tokyo  Univ.  and  deputy  director 
of  Japan's  Institute  of  Space  and  Aeronautical  Science,  was  quoted  on 
Japan's  role  in  space  activity  by  Peter  Temm  in  an  article  in  the 
Washington  Sunday  Star:  "Space  research  is  not  a  competition.  It 
should  be  a  cooperative  undertaking  among  all  countries,  to  explore  and 
study  the  universe. 

"Both  America  and  Russia  appear  to  be  chiefly  interested  in  artificial 
satellites  and  manned  space  vehicles.  I  see  Japan's  role  as  filling 
some  of  the  gaps  skipped  over  by  these  two  nations. 

"I  believe  it  is  possible  that  Russia  may  be  preparing  to  abandon  its 
project  of  putting  a  man  on  the  moon  in  favor  of  assembling  a  satellite 
space  station;  at  least,  this  how  I  interpret  the  recent  Voskhod  flight 
and  its  emphasis  on  carrying  out  tasks  outside  of  the  capsule. 

"I  sincerely  hope  if  this  is  so,  that  American  space  scientists  will 
not  swerve  from  their  intentions  of  getting  to  the  moon.  There  are 
many  sides  to  space  research,  and  the  ideal  approach  is  for  all  nations 
engaged  in  the  new  science  to  tackle  different  areas. 

"That  way,  we  will  all  progress  at  a  faster  rate."  (Temm,  Wash. 
Sun.  Star,  4/25/65) 
April  26:  A  37-man  study  group  chaired  by  Dr.  Colin  Pittendrigh  of 
Princeton  Univ.  and  convened  by  the  Space  Science  Board  of  the 
National  Academy  of  Sciences  at  the  request  of  NASA  had  reconfirmed 
the  Academy's  appeal  for  exploration  of  Mars  to  receive  "the  highest 
priority  among  all  objectives  in  space  science — indeed  in  the  space 
program  as  a  whole"  and  endorsed  NASA  plans  to  use  the  1969-73 
favorable  Mars  window  for  intensive  study  of  the  planet  with  the 
Voyager  spacecraft.  In  its  final  report  transmitted  to  NASA  Adminis- 
trator Webb,  the  group  said  that  "given  all  evidence  presently  avail- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  201 

able,  we  believe  it  entirely  reasonable  that  Mars  is  inhabited  with 
living  organisms  and  that  life  independently  originated  there,"  and  thus 
that  "the  biological  exploration  of  Mars  is  a  scientific  undertaking  of 
the  greatest  validity  and  significance." 

The  panel  noted,  however,  that  "while  we  are  eager  to  press  Martian 
exploration  as  expeditiously  as  the  technology  and  other  factors  permit, 
we  insist  that  our  recommendation  to  proceed  is  subject  to  one  rigorous 
qualification:  that  no  viable  terrestrial  microorganisms  reach  the 
Martian  surface  until  we  can  make  a  confident  assessment  of  the 
consequences." 

The  group  made  seven  basic  recommendations:  (1)  "every  oppor- 
tunity for  remote  observation  of  Mars  by  earth-bound  or  ballon-and 
satellite-borne  instruments  should  be  exploited";  (2)  "...  An  adequate 
program  for  Martian  exploration  cannot  be  achieved  without  using 
scientific  payloads  substantially  larger  than  those  currently  employed 
in  outer  unmanned  space  research  program.  .  .  .  We  see  very  sub- 
stantial advantages  in  the  use,  from  the  onset,  of  the  new  generation  of 
large  boosters  which  are  expected  to  become  operational  toward  the 
end  of  the  decade";  (3)  since  flyby  missions  "yield  at  best  a  fleeting 
glimpse  of  the  planet"  and  carry  a  relatively  small  array  of  instru- 
ments, "we  deliberately  omit  an  explicit  recommendation  in  favor  of 
any  flyby  missions  additional  to  those  already  executed  or  planned"; 

(4)  "Every  effort  should  be  made  to  achieve  a  large  orbiting  mission 
by  1971  at  the  latest.  This  mission  should  precede  the  first  lander.  .  .  . 
By  'large'  we  mean  a  scientific  payload  that  would  include  instru- 
mentation for  infrared  and  television  mapping,  microwave  radiometry 
and  bistatic   radar,  infrared  spectrometry,  and  optical  polarimetry"; 

(5)  "The  first  landing  mission  should  be  scheduled  no  later  than  1973 
and  by  1971  if  possible"  and  will  "ultimately  demand  a  large  lander" 
like  Abl  (Automated  Biological  Lab)  ;  (6)  "The  task  of  designing  an 
Abl  should  be  initiated  immediately  as  a  continuing  project";  and 
(7)  to  maintain  "a  continuing  dialogue  among  all  potential  investi- 
gators and  the  engineers  responsible  for  implementing  their  scientific 
goals,"  the  Academy's  Space  Science  Board  should  have  a  standing 
committee,  (nas  Release;  Abraham,  Phil.  Eve.  Bull.,  4/26/65;  Hines, 
Wash.  Eve.  Star,  4/26/65,  2;  Sullivan,  NYT,  4/27/65,  1) 

April  26:  The  Federal  Communications  Commission  confirmed  it  expected 
to  rule  soon  on  who  should  own  the  initial  American  ground  stations 
providing  access  to  communications  satellites.  The  established  inter- 
national carriers,  including  AT&T,  RCA  Communications,  Western  Union 
International,  and  ITT  World  Communications,  had  accused  ComSat- 
Corp  of  exceeding  its  statutory  authority  and  demanded  the  right  to 
share  in  the  ownership  of  the  ground  stations.  (Gould,  NYT,  4/27/65, 
1,  25) 

•  Dr.  Charles  A.  Berry,  chief  of  medical  operations  at  NASA  Manned 
Spacecraft  Center,  had  said  that  new  body  sensor  equipment  developed 
for  astronauts  had  "stretched  the  doctor's  stethoscope  to  reach  100 
miles,"  reported  Norm  Spray  in  an  article  in  the  Houston  Chronicle: 
"This  could  open  the  door  for  new  types  of  medical  research  and  treat- 
ment potentially  as  important  to  the  family  physician  as  to  space 
scientists.  Dr.  Berry  believes. 

"  'Right  now,'  he  said,  'we  think  our  sensing  and  monitoring  system 


202  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

would  be  a  tremendous  tool  in  hospital  recovery  and  intensive  care 
rooms. 

"  'Basic  medical  data  that  is  reliable  and  distortion-free  could  be  fed 
from  each  patient  to  a  central  computer  or  console.  Each  patient  could 
be  watched  as  closely  as  if  a  nurse  or  even  a  doctor  were  constantly 
at  his  bedside.'"  (Spray,  wbe  Sci.  Serv..  Houston  Chron.,  4/26/65) 
April  26:  Sen.  Claiborne  Pell  (D-R.I.I  discussed  in  the  Senate  S.  1483,  bill 
which  he  had  introduced  to  establish  a  National  Foundation  on  the  Arts 
and  the  Humanities.  He  cited  article  bv  Frank  Getlein  on  the  recent 
"Eyewitness  to  Space"  exhibition  at  the  National  Gallery  of  Art.  Get- 
lein's  article  showed  "how  cooperation  between  our  Government  and 
the  arts  can  illuminate  some  of  the  most  exciting  moments  in  our 
important  explorations  in  space."  The  exhibition  contained  some  70 
paintings  and  drawings  by  15  artists  under  the  NASA  art  program. 

".  .  .  The  work  shows  total  freedom  and  a  wide  variety,  ranging  from 
the  superb  illustrationist's  style  of  Paul  Calle  to  the  highly  individual 
abstraction  of  Washington  artist  Alfred  McAdams. 

".  .  .  The  space  effort,  therefore,  from  Huntsville  to  the  launching 
apparatus  at  Cape  Kennedy,  to  the  pickup  system  in  the  Pacific,  is 
covered  at  once  as  a  set  of  visual  phenomena  and  an  immensely  varied 
set  of  artistic  responses  to  those  phenomena.  .  .  . 

"The  NASA  art  program  is  a  modest  step  but  a  carefully  made  one  in 
the  gradually  reemerging  relationship  between  American  art  and  the 
American  Government.  It  deserves  study  by  those  interested  in  the 
larger  problem."   (Getlein,  Wash.  Eve.  Star;  CR,  4/26/65,  8122-23) 

•  Groundbreaking  ceremony  for  Univ.  of  Maryland's  $1.5-million  Space 

Science  Building  was  held  at  the  College  Park,  Md.,  campus.  Dr. 
Homer  E.  Newell,  nasa  Associate  Administrator  for  Space  Science 
and  Applications,  and  Edward  F.  Holter,  Vice  Chairman  of  the  Univ. 
of  Maryland  Regents,  shoveled  the  first  spadefuls  of  dirt.  ( Wash.  Post, 
4/27/65,  A12) 

•  Dr.    Roman    Smoluchowski    of   Princeton    Univ.    said    at   the   American 

Physical  Society's  meeting  in  Washington,  D.C.,  that  there  was  no  life 
on  Mars.  All  seasonal  changes  in  the  color  of  the  planet  could  be 
traced  to  bombardment  of  minerals  with  energetic  radiation  under 
varying  temperatures. 

Dr.  Jane  Blizard  of  Boulder,  Colo.,  also  speaking  at  the  APS  meeting, 
suggested  that  any  astronaut  braving  a  400-day  journey  to  Mars  would 
be  likely  to  get  a  fatal  dose  of  radiation.  Maybe,  she  said,  long  range 
forecasting  of  solar  storms  can  be  perfected  in  time.  Or  maybe 
"superconductive  magnetic  doughnuts"  could  be  devised  to  shield 
spacecraft  from  barrages  of  protons  spewed  out  in  solar  storms. 
(Hines,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  4/27/65) 

•  Jean     Delorme,     president     of     France's     L'Aire     Liquide     and     head 

of  Eurospace,  said  he  believed  there  could  be  no  large-scale  European 
space  program  without  formation  of  a  European  equivalent  to  the  U.S. 
National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration.  He  called  for  estab- 
lishment of  a  central  coordinating  body  that  would  be  the  suprana- 
tional European  NASA,  with  the  power  to  make  financial  decisions. 
Delorme  was  addressing  opening  of  12-day  U.S.-Eurospace  conference 
in  Philadelphia,     (ap,  NYT,  2/27/65,  17) 

•  Dr.   Paul    Herget,   professor    and   director   of   the    Univ.   of   Cincinnati 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  203 

Observatory,  was  awarded  the  James  Craig  Watson  Medal  of  the  Na- 
tional Academy  of  Sciences  "for  important  contributions  to  the  field 
of  celestial  mechanics,  and  particularly  his  application  of  electronic- 
computer  techniques  tO'  calculations  of  the  orbits  of  comets,  earth 
satellites,  and  asteroids."  He  previously  had  responsibility  for  de- 
veloping operations  of  the  Vanguard  Computing  Center,  which  provided 
tracking  information  on  early  scientific  satellites.  Henry  Draper 
Medal  for  original  investigation  in  astronomical  physics  was  awarded 
in  absentia  to  British  radioastronomer  Martin  Ryle.  (nas  Release; 
NAS-NRC  News  Report,  4/65,  4) 
April  26:  Speaking  before  the  Fourth  Symposium  on  Advanced  Propulsion 
Concepts  in  Palo  Alto,  Calif.,  Gen.  Bernard  A.  Schriever,  AFSC  Com- 
mander, said  that  the  Air  Force  was  studying  the  possibility  of  using 
hydrogen-burning,  supersonic  combustion  ramjet  engines,  known  as 
Scramjet,  to  power  hypersonic  aircraft:  "The  Scramjet  is  the  most 
promising  approach  we  have  today  for  sustained  hypersonic  flight 
....  it  could  be  used  effectively  on  hypersonic  aircraft  with  both 
military  and  commercial  applications."  He  said  experience  gained 
with  the  research  airplane  might  lead  to  the  hypersonc  aircraft  and 
could  make  feasible  the  development  of  recoverable  launch  vehicles  for 
flight  speeds  up  to  about  8,000  mph.  This  would  permit  delivery  of 
very  large  payloads  into  space  at  far  greater  economy  than  is  presently 
possible.      (Text,  afsc  News  Release  65.65) 

•  DOD     had     asked     NASA     to     consider     using     Minuteman     I     missiles 

scheduled  to  be  removed  from  their  silos,  as  launch  vehicles.  Missiles 
and  Rockets  reported.  NASA  Hq.  transferred  study  to  Langley  Re- 
search Center.  LaRC  was  expected  to  complete  its  feasibility  investiga- 
tion in  three  to  four  weeks.      {M&R,  4/26/65,  7;  LaRc) 

•  Maj.  Gen.  Don  R.  Ostrander,  Commander  of  usaf's  Office  of  Aerospace 

Research,  said  at  the  Fourth  Symposium  on  Advanced  Propulsion  Con- 
cepts in  Palo  Alto,  Calif.,  that  important  changes  in  America's  re- 
search and  development  posture  during  the  past  few  years  "are  the 
result  of  the  more  stringent  requirements  that  must  be  met  before 
increasingly  complex  and  expensive  systems  can  be  approved  for 
development."  He  continued:  "These  changes  have  placed  more 
emphasis  on  research  and  exploratory  development. 

"Coupling — or  reducing  the  time  lag  between  discovery  and  applica- 
tion— is  the  proposed  solution  for  accomplishing  this  tremendous  task. 
The  problem  of  coupling  is  the  problem  of  time.  .  .  ."  (oAR  Release 
4-65-3) 

•  Passage  of  bills  concerned  with  freedom  of  information  was  urged  by 

William  J.  Coughlin  in  an  editorial  in  Missiles  and  Rockets:  "Intent 
of  the  bills  is  to  establish  a  Federal  public  records  law  and  to  permit 
court  enforcement  of  the  people's  right  to  know  the  facts  of  government. 
Providing  for  sensible  exceptions  in  the  case  of  sensitive  and  classified 
information,  the  proposed  law  would  require  every  agency  of  the  gov- 
ernment to  make  all  its  records  promptly  available  to  any  person.  .  .  . 
"The  onus  for  restrictive  news  management  usually  falls  on  the 
Dept.  of  Defense,  and  rightly  so,  but  there  are  a  number  of  individuals 
in  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration  who  are  in- 
clined to  regard  the  agency  as  a  preserve  which  should  be  off  limits 
to  the  press.     It  is  to  the  credit  of  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  that 


204  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

he  has  a  consistent  record  of  correcting  abuses  of  press  freedom  that 
are  called  to  his  attention.  The  same  cannot  be  said  of  his  counter- 
part in  the  Defense  Department."  (  M&R,  4/25/65) 
April  27:  The  House  Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics  unanimously 
approved  a  S5.2  billion  NASA  authorization  for  FY  1966,  cutting  only 
$75  million  from  the  President's  request.  An  unrequested  S27.2 
million  was  included  for  the  260-in.  solid  propellant  program,  the 
M-1  liquid  hydrogen  engine,  and  the  Snap  8.  Biggest  single  reduction 
was  $42  million  cut  in  $3.6  billion  request  for  Apollo.  Other  programs 
affected  by  the  cut  included  Oao.  Ogo,  Surveyor,  Rover,  Lunar 
Orbiter,  and  Centaur.      (FS/,  4/28/65) 

•  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  announced  $40  million  modification 

to  contract  held  by  General  Electric  Co.  for  the  design  of  electrical 
equipment  for  Saturn  vehicle  launch  support.  Modification  would 
cover  the  design  portion  of  the  work  involved  in  providing  electrical 
support  equipment  for  Saturn  IB  and  Saturn  V  launches,  (msfc  Re- 
lease 65-100) 

•  W.  L.  Everett,  chief  test  pilot  for  the  Ryan  Aeronautics  Co.,  was  catapulted 

to  his  death  from  an  xv-5a  experimental  plane  after  the  vertical 
take-off  aircraft  developed  mechanical  difficulties. 

A  witness  said  the  xv-5a  was  at  only  800  ft.  and  upside  down 
when  Mr.  Everett  ejected:  "When  he  ejected,  he  ejected  straight  into 
the  ground."  The  parachute  did  not  have  time  to  open.  (N.Y.  Her. 
Trib.,  4/28/65;  Miles,  Wash.  Post,  4/28/65) 

•  Gen.  William  F.  McKee   (USAF,  Ret.),  NASA  Assistant  Administrator  for 

Management  Development,  was  named  to  succeed  Najeeb  E.  Halaby 
as  Administrator  of  the  Federal  Aviation  Agency.  (Wash.  Post, 
4/28/65) 

•  Frederick  G.  Donner,  chief  executive  of  General  Motors,  appeared  before 

a  Senate  Commerce  Committee  on  his  renomination  by  President 
Johnson  as  a  director  of  the  Communications  Satellite  Corporation. 
Asked  about  rivalry  from  the  Soviet  Union  in  view  of  their  recently- 
launched  comsat,  Donner  said  he  regarded  this  about  the  same  way  he 
did  Soviet  automobiles  as  far  as  competition  was  concerned,  (ap, 
Wash.  Post,  4/28/65) 

•  "Self-organizing  flight  controller,"  featuring  device  that  could  cope  with 

unexpected  flight  conditions  of  satellites  and  aircraft,  was  being 
developed  by  afsc  Research  and  Technology  Div.  Applying  "proba- 
bility state  variable  devices,"  bionics  researchers  had  recreated  function 
of  a  living  nerve  cell  in  a  device  called  "Artron"  (artificial  neuron). 
Networks  of  Artrons  in  electronic  cluster  functioned  like  living  neurons: 
they  became  self-organizing,  achieving  problem-solving,  and  learning 
new  ways  to  capitalize  on  their  mistakes  and  find  new  ways  of  perform- 
ing a  given  task,  afsc  stressed  that  flyable  self-organizing  flight  con- 
troller was  5-10  yrs  away,      (afsc  Release  50.65) 

•  Dr.    Geoffrey    Bennett,    chief    medical    officer    of    the    British    Ministry 

of  Aviation,  gave  a  progress  report  on  the  Anglo-French  supersonic 
transport,  the  Concorde,  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Aerospace  Medical 
Association  in  New  York.  He  said  problems  of  designing  a  supersonic 
aircraft  safe  enough  for  commercial  use  were  proving  less  difficult 
than  had  been  expected:  "It  is  quite  heartening  to  find  that  the  further 
one  goes  along,  the  less  difficult  things  seem  to  be." 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  205 

After  his  talk.  Dr.  Bennett  said  in  an  interview  that  such  potential 
hazards  as  loss  of  air  pressure  in  the  cabin,  accumulation  of  ozone, 
radiation,  and  problems  of  acceleration  aroused  much  worry  and  dis- 
cussion a  few  years  ago.  Overcoming  these  problems  by  proper  designs 
had  proved  less  difficult  than  many  expected,  he  said.  (Schmeck, 
NYT,  4/28/65,  89) 
April  27:  President  Charles  de  Gaulle  said  in  address  delivered  over  French 
radio  and  television:  "In  the  economic,  scientific  and  technical  domain, 

...  we  must  see  that  our  activities,  for  the  essential  part,  remain 
under  French  management  and  control.  We  must  also  meet,  at  what- 
ever cost,  the  competition  in  advanced  sectors.  .  .  .  Finally,  when  it  is 
opportune,  in  order  to  combine  our  inventions,  our  capabilities  and  our 
resources  in  a  given  branch  with  those  of  another  country,  we  must 
often  choose  one  of  those  which  is  closest  to  us  and  whose  weight  we  do 
not  think  will  overwhelm  us. 

"That  is  why  we  are  imposing  a  financial,  economic,  and  monetary 
stability  upon  ourselves  which  frees  us  from  resorting  to  outside  aid ;  we 
are  converting  into  gold  the  dollar  surpluses  imported  into  our  country 
as  a  result  of  the  American  balance  of  payments;  we  have  over  the 
past  six  years  multiplied  by  six  the  funds  devoted  to  research;  ... 
we  are  joining  with  England  to  build  the  world's  first  supersonic 
passenger  aircraft ;  we  are  ready  to  extend  this  French-British  collabora- 
tion to  other  types  of  civil  and  military  aircraft;  we  have  just  con- 
cluded an  agreement  with  Soviet  Russia  concerning  the  perfection  and 
use  of  our  color  television  process.  In  sum,  however  large  may  be 
the  glass  offered  to  us.  we  prefer  to  drink  from  our  own,  while  touch- 
ing glasses  round  about.  .  .  ."    (Text,  Atlantic  Comm.  Qtrly.,  6/22/65) 

•  Rep.  Emilio  Q.  Daddario  ( D-Conn. )  disclosed  in  speech  before  Washing- 

ton Section,  National  Association  of  Science  Writers,  that  the  House 
Subcommittee  on  Science,  Research  and  Development  (of  which  he 
was  chairman)  was  planning  an  investigation  of  the  National  Science 
Foundation.  He  said:  "For  some  years,  there  has  been  the  need  to 
review  its  work  and  to  determine  if  it  were,  in  fact,  thoroughly  success- 
ful in  promoting  the  progress  of  science,  the  national  health,  prosperity 
and  welfare  and  for  other  purposes."      {Wash.  Post,  4/28/65,  C9) 

•  In    a    speech    before    the    Aero    Club    of    Washington,    Dr.    Raymond 

L.  Bisplinghoff,  NASA  Associate  Administrator  for  Advanced  Re- 
search and  Technology,  ventured  predictions  for  the  next  20  years 
in  aeronautics  and  astronautics.  He  noted  the  steady  increase  in 
civil  aircraft  output  and  the  expansion  in  air  travel  "at  a  rate  better 
than  12  percent  per  year  for  more  than  15  years."  He  predicted  "a  20- 
fold  rise  in  air  traffic  volume  over  the  next  25  years,"  but  said  that  in 
order  to  reach  its  full  potential  the  aircraft  must  be  improved  "in  at 
least  three  important  respects":  reduction  of  minimum  speeds  for 
safe  controlled  flight;  increase  of  maximum  flight  speed;  and  greater 
simplicity  and  economy  of  operation.  He  cited  NASA  research  in  these 
vital  areas.       (Text) 

•  Dr.  Erhard  Loewe,  vice  president  of  the  German  company  Telefunken, 

outlined  Eurospace's  long-range  goals  at  Eurospace  Conference  in 
Philadelphia:  ".  .  .  we  want  to  avoid  errors  as  far  as  possible  and 
derive  the  greatest  possible  profit  from  experience  gained  in  the 
U.S " 


206  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

Loewe  said  that  Eurospace  would  urge  support  of  the  Aerospace 
Transporter,  conceived  as  a  two-stage  vehicle — both  piloted — able  to 
carry  a  5,000-lb.  payload  into  a  180-mi.  (3(X)-km.)  altitude  orbit  and 
capable  of  rendezvous  with  an  orbiting  satellite.  Loewe  said  that 
the  Aerospace  Transporter  "signified  as  much  to  Europe  as  the  trip 
to  the  moon  does  to  the  U.S.  and  the  U.S.S.R." 

Other  specific  projects  in  the  Eurospace  recommendations:  space 
stations,  because  long-term  platforms  were  believed  necessary  to  exploit 
space  scientifically  and  economically;  communications  satellites  in  a 
system  that  would  be  integrated  with  the  worldwide  system  of  the 
U.S.  ComSatCorp;  applications  and  scientific  satellites,  for  high- 
capacity  commercial  television,  weather  forecasting,  and  data  collect- 
ing; ground  facilities  for  basic  R&D.  {Av.  Wk.,  5/10/65,  74— 8U) 
April  27 :  Dr.  George  B.  Kistiakowsky,  professor  of  chemistry  at  Harvard 
Univ.  and  former  special  assistant  to  President  Eisenhower  for  science 
and  technology,  was  selected  Vice  President  of  the  National  Academy  of 
Sciences  for  four-year  term  beginning  July  1,  1965.  nas  also  elected 
35  new  members  in  recognition  of  their  distinguished  and  continuing 
achievements  in  original  research. 

National  Academy  of  Engineering,  holding  its  first  annual  meeting 
in  coordination  with  nas,  elected  19  new  members  including  Dr.  Ray- 
mond L.  Bisplinghoff,  nasa  Associate  Administrator  for  Advanced 
Research  and  Technology,  (nas  Releases;  nas-nrc  J^ews  Report,  4/65) 
April  28:  X-15  No.  2  was  flown  by  pilot  John  McKay  (nasa)  to  92,600-ft. 
altitude  at  a  maximum  speed  of  3,260  mph  (mach  4.80)  to  obtain  data 
on  the  landing  gear  modification  and  on  stability  and  control.  (NASA 
X-15  Proj.  Off.;  frc  Release) 

•  USAf   orbited   two   unidentified   satellites    with   a   single   Atlas-Agena   D 

launch  vehicle  launched  from  Vandenberg  afb.  (ap,  NYT,  4/30/65, 
40;  U.S.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act.,  1965,  140) 

•  In  its  11th  test  flight,  the  XB-70  aircraft  reached  a  speed  of  1,630  mph 

and  an  altitude  of  62,000  ft.— both  records  for  the  XB-70.  The  air- 
craft's total  time  in  the  air  was  14  hrs.  41  min.  Flight  was  made 
from  Edwards  afb  with  naa  pilots  Alvin  S.  White  and  Van  Shepard. 
(Clark,  NYT,  4/29/65) 

•  Quasi-stellar    radio    sources    ("quasars"),    cosmic    x-ray    sources,    and 

neutron  stars  were  discussed  at  nas  meeting  in  Washington.  Jesse 
L.  Greenstein  of  Mt.  Wilson  and  Palomar  Observatories  suggested 
qucisars  were  signs  of  galaxies  forming — "the  first  condensation"  of 
intergalactic  gases.  William  A.  Fowler  of  Cal  Tech  revived  his  earlier 
theory  (proposed  with  Fred  Hoyle)  that  these  sources  were  huge  energy 
masses  created  by  explosive  contractions  of  gigantic  stars.  Herbert 
Friedman  of  nrl  presented  new  evidence  that  cosmic  x-ray  sources  and 
neutron  stars  were  not  the  same  things.  (Scientists  at  nrl  had  earlier 
suggested  that  some  cosmic  x-ray  sources  were  the  theoretical  neutron 
stars.)  Edwin  E.  Salpeter  of  Cornell  Univ.  reiterated  the  neutron  star 
hypothesis.  He  suggested  neutron  stars  could  be  oscillating  stars  which 
generate  such  great  amounts  of  gravitational  energy  that  the  x-rays 
are  produced.      (Simons,  Wash.  Post,  4/29/65,  A5) 

•  Dr.  Harold  C,  Urey,  Univ.  of  California  physicist,  told  members  of  the 

Overseas  Writers  Club  in  Washington,  D.C.,  that  Communist  China 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  207 

could  produce  hydrogen  bombs  by  a  comparatively  simple  process  and 
could  possibly  develop  a  nuclear  delivery  system  in  five  years.  Dr. 
Urey  said  Communist  China  had  surprised  world  scientists,  including 
himself,  when  it  produced  a  nuclear  bomb  last  fall  with  uranium  235 — 
one  of  the  technicallv  most  difficult  ways  to  produce  the  nuclear  bomb. 

(AP,yvyr,  4/30/65,' 3) 

April  29:  NASA's  explorer  xxvii  (be-c)  satellite  was  successfully  launched 
into  orbit  from  Wallops  Island  aboard  a  four-stage  Scout  rocket. 
Orbital  parameters  were:  apogee,  796.5  mi.  (1,162.4  km.)  ;  perigee, 
579.7  mi.  (921.3  km.)  ;  period,  108  min.;  inclination  to  the  equator, 
41°.  Primary  mission  of  the  132-lb.,  windmill-shaped  satellite  was 
geodetic  measurement:  irregularities  in  the  earth's  gravitational  field 
would  be  mapped  by  analysis  of  the  Doppler  shift  of  radio  signals  from 
the  spacecraft.  As  a  secondary  mission,  explorer  XXVII  would  pro- 
vide data  related  to  ionospheric  studies  and  would  evaluate  further  the 
use  of  laser  techniques  in  deriving  orbital  and  geodetic  information 
and  for  deep  space  communication. 

All  systems  were  operating  as  planned.  (Wallops  Release  65—24; 
NASA  Release  65-147;  nasa  JProj.  Off.) 

•  mariner  IV  set  world  space  communications  distance  record  shortly  after 

3:00  a.m.  est  when  it  reached  a  straight-line  distance  from  earth  of 
66  million  mi.  Soviet  scientists  reported  two  years  ago  that  they 
lost  radio  contact  with  their  mars  I  spacecraft  March  21,  1963,  after 
149  days  of  flight  at  more  than  65  million  mi.  (nasa  Release  65- 
141) 

•  USAF  launched  Thor  Agena  D   from  Vandenberg  afb  with  unidentified 

satellite  payload.      (U.S.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act.,  1965,  141) 

•  Second   successful   Biosatellite   nose   cone   test   at   White    Sands    Missile 

Range  was  conducted  by  afcrl,  which  was  assisting  NASA  in  evaluat- 
ing reentry  of  the  spacecraft  after  being  released  by  balloons  at  alti- 
tudes of  from  88,000  ft.  to  100,000  ft.  ^  First  such  test  had  been  con- 
ducted March  24.      (oar  Research  Revieiv,  7/65,  30) 

•  An  accelerated  reservoir  light-gas  gun  had  set  a  world  speed  record  of 

25,300  mph  for  controlled  flight  of  a  visible  object,  of  known  mass 
and  shape,  and  over  a  known  distance  in  a  ground  facility  in  tests  at 
NASA  Ames  Research  Center,  Ames  announced.  The  shot  was  3,200 
mph  faster  than  the  previous  record.  In  the  light-gas  gun  used,  an  ex- 
plosive charge  was  set  off  in  a  cylinder  behind  a  plastic  piston.  The 
explosion  pushed  the  piston  into  a  chamber  of  hydrogen  gas,  compress- 
ing it,  and  the  gas  in  turn  pushed  the  projectile  out  of  the  firing  tube. 
A  light  gas  must  be  used  because  it  has  low  mass  and  would  expand 
at  the  highest  speed  after  compression. 

With  the  ability  to  move  objects  this  fast,  researchers  could  extend 
their  knowledge  of  space  flight  problems,  (arc  Release  65-13;  ARC 
Astrogram,  4/29/65,  1,  2) 

•  DOD  announced  interagency  agreement  whereby  Defense  Supply  Agency 

would  furnish  NASA  about  $500,000  worth  of  electronic  items  annually 
on  a  reimbursable  basis.  The  agreement  would  involve  approximately 
12,000  centrally-managed  items  at  dsa's  Defense  Electronics  Supply 
Center  in  Dayton,  Ohio,      (dod  Release  272-65) 


208  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

April  29:  At  the  Spring  Meeting  of  the  American  Physical  Society,  Dr. 
Homer  E.  Newell,  nasa  Associate  Administrator  for  Space  Science  and 
Applications,  attempted  to  answer  the  question  "What  can  the  space 
program  do  for  experimental  sciences  like  physics":  ".  .  .  the  impact 
that  space  techniques  are  having  and  have  already  had  on  geophysics 
...  is  three-fold  in  character.  First,  the  geophysicist  finds  in  the 
space  program  powerful  tools  to  use  in  a  new  approach  to  solving  old 
problems.  Secondly,  the  application  of  space  techniques  to  geophysics 
has  already  turned  up  a  number  of  exciting  new  problems,  greatly 
broadening  the  scope  of  the  discipline.  Thirdly,  as  space  probes,  and 
eventually  men,  reach  other  bodies  of  the  solar  system  such  as  the 
moon  and  planets,  the  domain  of  geophysics  grows  beyond  the  con- 
fines of  a  single  body  of  the  solar  system.  Let  us  consider  each  of 
these  extensions  to  geophysics  a  little  further. 

".  .  .  space  techniques  have  provided  new  tools  for  studying  old 
problems  of  geophysics.  Geodesy,  meteorology,  upper  atmospheric 
physics,  ionospheric  research,  and  sun-earth  relationships  have  all 
benefited  from  the  application  of  space  techniques.  In  the  case  of 
geodesy,  the  influence  of  the  earth  upon  the  orbits  of  various  artificial 
satellites  has  been  measured  by  careful  radio,  radar,  and  optical  track- 
ing and  used  to  obtain  quantitative  measures  of  the  various  harmonics 
in  the  expansion  of  the  earth's  gravitational  potential.  As  a  con- 
sequence of  such  measurements  it  has  been  found  that  the  earth's 
equatorial  bulge  is  some  70  meters  greater  than  one  would  expect.  .  .  . 
Other  departures  of  the  geoid  from  the  figure  of  hydrostatic  equilibrium 
have  also  been  determined  from  these  satellite  measurements.  .  .  . 
These  measurements  in  turn  have  important  implications  for  the 
distribution  of  matter  within  the  earth,  and  for  the  internal  strength 
of  the  earth's  mantle."      (Text) 

•  At  a  news  conference  in  Washington,  D.C.,  Dr.  George  E.  Mueller,  nasa 

Associate  Administrator  for  Manned  Space  Flight,  said  that  although 
"extravehicular  activity"  was  not  planned  for  Gemini  astronauts  until 
GT-5,  "we  are  working  hard  at  trying  to  qualify  the  space  suit  and 
the  hatch  itself  to  see  whether  we  can  accelerate  that  date." 

If  their  spacesuits  and  the  spacecraft's  hatch  passed  tests  in  time. 
Astronaut  Edward  H.  White  (Maj.,  usaf)  would  lean  halfway  out 
of  the  capsule  for  perhaps  15  min.  on  flight  GT-4,  scheduled  for  early 
June.  He  and  Astronaut  James  A.  McDivitt  would  attempt  to  orbit  the 
earth  63  times  in  98  hours,  taking  off  from  Cape  Kennedy  and  landing 
in  the  Atlantic  near  Grand  Turk  Island. 

Maj.  White  and  Maj.  McDivitt  appeared  at  the  news  conference  with 
their  backup  crew — Lt.  Cdr.  James  A.  Lovell,  Jr.  (usn),  and  Maj. 
Frank  Borman   (usaf).      (Transcript) 

•  Dr.   Winston   E.   Kock,   Director  of   nasa   Electronics   Research   Center, 

was  guest  of  Dr.  Robert  R.  Gilruth.  Director  of  nasa  Manned 
Spacecraft  Center,  on  a  tour  of  MSC  facilities.  While  in  Houston,  Dr. 
Kock  addressed  the  annual  banquet  of  the  Institute  of  Navigation.  In 
his  speech  he  revealed  ERG  would  investigate  possibilities  of  new  guid- 
ance techniques  for  future  ion-propelled  (or  other  low-thrust)  space- 
craft, employing  Mossbauer  radiation  as  an  accelerometer  to  monitor 
systems  performance  on  the  spacecraft.     He  termed  Mossbauer  radia- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  209 

tion  "the  most  precise  electromagnetic  frequency  yet  known"  in  guid- 
ance applications,  (msc  Roundup,  5  14/65,  7) 
April  29:  National  Academy  of  Engineering's  first  award,  the  Charles 
Proteus  Steinmetz  Centennial  Medal,  was  presented  to  RCA  President 
Elmer  W.  Engstrom.  for  his  outstanding  leadership  in  electrical  engi- 
neering for  more  than  30  years,      (nas-nrc  News  Report,  4/65,  4) 

•  Dr.    Charles    H.    Townes.    provost    of    MIT,    reported    at    the    meeting 

of  the  American  Physical  Society  in  Washington,  D.C.,  that  a  laser 
beam  had  been  used  to  produce  sound  waves  more  than  a  million  times 
higher  in  pitch  than  those  audible  to  the  human  ear.  Dr.  Townes 
explained  that  the  laser  beams  at  MIT  had  been  used  to  produce  oscil- 
lations constituting  sound  waves  in  solids  and  liquids.  Sound  had 
been  produced  by  means  of  the  laser  at  3,000  mc  in  a  fluid  and  60,000 
mc  in  a  solid.  It  should  be  possible.  Dr.  Townes  said,  to  generate 
sound  at  300,000  mc  in  diamond.      (Sullivan,  NYT,  4/30/65) 

•  John  G.  Lee,  pioneer  aircraft  designer  and  former  director  of  research 

for  United  Aircraft  Corp.,  had  joined  nasa  as  a  part-time  consultant  to 
NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  on  aeronautical  research,  (nasa 
Release  65-143) 

•  A  full-size  model  of  the  Soviet  Union's  Vostok  spacecraft  was  placed  on 

public  view  for  the  first  time.  The  spherical,  silvery  capsule,  mounted 
on  a  model  of  the  last  stage  of  its  launch  vehicle,  was  on  display  in 
Moscow's  permanent  Exhibition  of  National  Economic  Achievement. 
The  4.6-ton  Vostok  had  a  diameter  of  IV2  ft.  {NYT,  4/30/65,  8) 
April  30:  s-ivb  stage  of  the  first  Saturn  IB  launch  vehicle — first  piece  of 
flight  hardware  from  Douglas  Space  Systems  Center  at  Huntington 
Beach — had  been  shipped  aboard  NASA  barge  Orion  to  Douglas 
Sacramento  Test  Flight  Center  for  flight  readiness  testing.  The  stage, 
58  ft.  long  and  21.5  ft.  in  dia.,  had  single  Rocketdyne  J-2  engine,  de- 
veloping 200,000  lbs.  thrust,     (msfc  Release  65-104) 

•  NASA  had  awarded  $300,000  grant  to  the  Dept,  of  Interior's  Bureau  of 

Mines  for  a  three-year  research  program  on  the  potential  use  of  lunar 
materials  to  support  manned  exploration  of  the  moon.  The  research 
team,  utilizing  data  from  NASA's  unmanned  lunar  programs,  would 
study  the  possible  production,  processing,  and  uses  of  materials  on  the 
moon  for  the  construction,  supply,  and  operation  of  manned  lunar 
bases.  Faculty  consultants  and  graduate  students  from  Univ.  of 
Minnesota  would  assist  as  part  of  the  Bureau's  program  to  develop 
future  capabilities  at  educational  institutions,      (nasa  Release  65-144) 

•  NASA  Flight  Research  Center  awarded  separate  lifting  body  study  contracts 

to  McDonnell  Aircraft  Co.  and  Northrop  Norair.  The  two  separate 
six-month  studies  would  investigate  a  vehicle  concept  whose  sole  mission 
would  be  the  basic  research  involved  with  reentry  of  a  manned  lifting 
body  from  orbital  flight.  Preliminary  objectives  included  determina- 
tion of  problem  areas  and  their  influence  on  design.  Both  contracts 
were  fixed  price;  McDonnell  received  $152,496  and  Norair  $150,000. 
(frc  Release  11-65) 

•  James  E.  Webb,  nasa  Administrator,  addressed  meeting  of  Eurospace  in 

Washington,  D.C. 

"Launch  vehicle  and  propulsion  requirements  for  more  distant  ap- 
plications have  led  us  to  establish  the  feasibility  of  nuclear  reactors 
for  space  propulsion  purposes,  and  continuing  attention  will  be  given 


210  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

to  this  field.  Data  obtained  in  10  years  of  extensive  technical  effort 
have  now  experimentally  verified  the  analytical  predictions  of  per- 
formance for  this  type  of  propulsion.  And,  of  course,  the  support- 
ing technologies  which  would  be  necessary  for  difficult  and  distant 
future  missions  must  also  be  considered,  the  power  sources,  including 
fuel  cells,  radio  isotope  sources,  reactor  power  plants,  vastly  improved 
communications  technology,  pointing  and  orientation  technology,  high- 
ly reliable  and  long-lived  componentry,  and  life  support  systems,  in- 
cluding closed  ecological  systems.  In  this  wide  range  of  prospects  for 
the  more  distant  future,  we  are  not  committed  to  a  particular  line  of 
development  nor  to  given  systems.  We  are  too  early  in  the  space  age 
to  make  such  commitments.  .  .  ."  (Text) 
April  30:  C.  Leo  De  Orsey,  financial  advisor  and  attorney  for  the  seven 
original  astronauts  and  acting  president  of  the  Washington  Redskins 
football  team,  died.  (UPI,  Houston  Chron.,  5/1/65;  AP,  NYT,  5/2/65, 
89) 

•  Operational   control   of  U.S.   weapons   to   intercept   and   destroy   armed 

satellites  had  been  assigned  to  the  Space  Defense  Center  at  Colorado 
Springs,  Denver  Post  reported.  The  Space  Defense  Center  included 
the  Space  Detection  and  Tracking  Systems  (Spadats),  which  recorded 
the  launches  of  all  space  vehicles,  foreign  and  domestic,  and  logged 
precise  orbital  data  until  they  decayed  in  the  earth's  atmosphere. 
(Partner,  Denver  Post,  4/30/65) 
During  April:  More  than  100  delegates  from  Eurospace  toured  U.S.  aero- 
space installations,  including  NASA  Kennedy  Space  Center,  Goddard 
Space  Flight  Center,  and  facilities  of  U.S.  firms  corresponding  to 
Eurospace  member  companies.  Purpose  of  the  U.S.  European  Space 
Conference  was  to  bring  together  top  industrial  leaders  from  European 
and  American  aerospace  companies  to  review  problems  posed  for  the 
industry  by  evolution  of  space  technology.      (M&R,  4/26/65,  9) 

•  A  $2.3-million  test  facility  expected  to  improve  space  storability  of  liquid 

and  solid  rocket  propulsion  systems  would  be  completed  at  the  Air 
Force  Rocket  Propulsion  Laboratory  at  Edwards  AFB,  Missiles  and 
Rockets  reported.      (M&R,  4/26/65,  10) 

•  The  2,000th  full-scale  solid  rocket  motor  of  the  Polaris  A-3  model  was 

shipped  to  Navy's  Pacific  Missile  Facility  where  it  would  be  integrated 
into  an  operational  missile,      ij/ Armed  Forces,  4/24/65,  15) 

•  Walter   R.    Dornberger,   vice   president   in   charge   of   research   for   Bell 

Aerosystem  Co.,  wrote  in  the  company's  bimonthly  magazine.  Ren- 
dezvous, the  United  States  was  spending  too  much  for  space  explora- 
tion. As  a  start  to  cutting  costs,  Dornberger  proposed  developing 
space  boosters  that  could  be  recovered  and  reused,  (ap,  Milwaukee  J., 
4/14/65) 

•  AFCRL  experiment  proved  that  a  radio  signal  transmitted  by  an  orbiting 

satellite  could  be  trapped  between  two  layers  of  the  ionosphere  and, 
upon  emergence,  channeled  to  ground  stations  half  way  around  the 
world.  Scientists  had  been  aware  of  the  ionospheric  ducting  capability 
for  a  number  of  years,  but  it  had  not  been  fully  explored  before  the 
orbiting  satellite  experiment.      fOAR  Release  4-65-1) 

•  Dr.  Willard  F.  Libby,  chemist  and  Director  of  ucla  Institute  of  Geo- 

physics and  Planetary  Physics,  advocated  emphasis  on  manned  scientific 
missions   in   the   U.S.   space   program.     "In   my   opinion,   space   is   a 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  211 

great  unknown  from  which  we  will  obtain  many  new  scientific  dis- 
coveries." He  approved  of  the  use  of  scientist-astronauts,  "but  they 
must  be  backed  much  more  wholeheartedly  by  the  entire  scientific  com- 
munity, particularly  the  academic  community,  than  is  at  present  the 
case.  Education  will  help  to  accomplish  this  eventually,  but  there  is  a 
particular  urgency  to  determine  the  post- Apollo  objectives  in  the  near 
future."  A  solution  to  the  immediate  problem,  which  had  been  pro- 
posed to  and  adopted  by  NASA:  formation  of  a  "Scientific  Task  Force," 
made  up  of  scientists  about  the  same  age  as  the  astronauts,  to  work 
and  live  at  MSC  and  be  closely  connected  with  the  astronauts,  MSC 
Director  Dr.  Robert  R.  Gilruth,  Director  of  the  Office  of  Space  Sciences 
Dr.  Homer  E.  Newell,  and  the  Advisory  Committee  for  Science  and 
Technology.  The  Scientific  Task  Force  would  educate  the  scientific 
community  with  the  manned  space  flight  program  and  thereby  acquire 
its  ideas  on  the  subject,  and  acquaint  the  nasa  directors  with  the 
ideas  for  scientific  experiments  suggested  by  the  academic  community. 
{A&A,  4/65,  70-75) 
During  April:  Martin  Summerfield,  Princeton  Univ.,  said  in  aiaa  editorial 
that  most  of  the  critics  of  the  U.S.  space  program  were  erecting  and 
knocking  down  "straw  men."  Some  of  the  attacks  on  the  space  pro- 
gram were  designed  to  divert  space  funds  "to  other,  supposedly  more 
important  purposes,"  and  these  viewpoints  are  "pushed  too  hard  and 
can  lead  the  nation  in  dangerous  directions."  The  more  significant 
criticism  on  scientific  grounds  was  that  ground-based  instruments  (sup- 
plemented by  unmanned  probes)  can  gather  data  about  space,  the 
moon  and  other  celestial  bodies  more  effectively  than  rocket-launched 
exploration.  This  criticism,  he  said,  "misses  the  mark  completely  be- 
cause it  takes  for  granted  that  the  national  space  program — or  at  least 
the  NASA  part  of  it — was  conceived  simply  as  a  scientific  venture, 
.  .  ."  He  recalled  the  words  of  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space 
Act  of  1958,  which  provided  "clearly  .  .  .  the  overriding  intent  to 
develop  the  technology  of  space  flight  as  an  extension  of  the  former 
naca's  commitment  to  aeronautical  flight.  .  .  . 

"The  real  issue  is  whether  the  nation  should  continue  to  develop  the 
technology  for  flight  in  space,  capitalizing  on  such  useful  applications 
as  seem  practical  from  time  to  time.  The  answer  can  only  be  'yes,' 
and  nothing  less  than  a  vigorous  program  will  do.  It  makes  no  sense 
to  insist  that  so  broad  a  program  be  evaluated  in  competition  with 
telescopes  or  unmanned  scientific  probes.  Advances  in  space  science 
will  not  substitute  for  flying  capability.  Each  of  these  efforts  is  im- 
portant in  its  own  right.  .  .  ."      {A&A,  4/65,  23) 

•  Orville  H.  Daniel  discussed  small  rockets — chiefly  meteorological  sound- 

ing rockets — in  International  Science  and  Technology.  "Forty  years 
ago,  when  Dr.  Goddard  was  performing  his  first  experiments,  all  rockets 
were  small  rockets.  Today,  with  thrusts  nearing  10  million  pounds 
and  rocket  vehicles  approaching  the  size  of  small  skyscrapers,  a  500- 
pound-thrust  rocket  seems  like  a  relic  of  the  past.  Nevertheless,  such 
small  rockets  remain  as  important  to  science  and  as  challenging  to 
technology  as  Dr.  Goddard's  fledglings  were  in  his  day.  About  1500 
of  them  were  fired  last  year  for  various  scientific  purposes.  .  .  ." 
(Int.  Sci.  &  Tech.,  4/65,  .32-37) 

•  Cosmic  x-ray  detection  experiment  carried  aloft  by  an  Aerobee  sounding 


212  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

rocket  discovered  the  first  two  extragalactic  x-ray  sources  and  identi- 
fied a  variable  x-ray  source  within  the  Milky  Way  galaxy.  The  two 
extragalactic  sources — Sygnus  A  and  M-87 — were  found  to  emit  x- 
radiation  10  to  100  times  their  radio  and  light  energy.  The  variable 
x-ray  source  was  Casiopeia  A.  Details  of  the  experimental  results  were 
announced  March  2,  1966,  by  Dr.  Herbert  Friedman,  Naval  Research 
Laboratory  physicist.  Project  was  conducted  by  Dr.  Friedman,  E.  T. 
Byram,  and  T.  A.  Chubb  of  nrl  under  sponsorship  of  NRL  and  National 
Science  Foundation.      (Clark,  NYT,  3/3/66;  A&A,  4/66,  98,  100) 


1 


May   1965 


May  1:  nasa  Administrator  James  E.  Webb,  speaking  at  Rose  Polytechnic 
Institute,  Terre  Haute,  Ind.:  "Indeed,  the  success  of  the  national  space 
program  depends  to  a  very  large  degree  on  the  quality  and  the  extent 
of  involvement  by  the  universities.  Their  most  important  contribution 
would  naturally  be  in  doing  the  jobs  they  are  uniquely  qualified  to  do, 
that  is,  in  research  and  in  educating  and  training  at  both  the  under- 
graduate and  graduate  levels  the  scientists,  engineers,  and  other  profes- 
sional personnel  required  by  the  space  program.  .  .  . 

"With  its  university  program,  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space 
Administration  is  approaching  a  goal  established  early  in  its 
history.  That  goal,  when  achieved,  will  provide  a  substantial  incre- 
ment to  those  trained  men  who  are  capable  of  guiding  this  country's 
undertakings  in  science  and  technology  confidently  toward  future 
needs  that  are  only  partially  visible  to  us  now.  That  goal  is  being 
pursued  in  institutions  of  higher  learning  where  men  teach  and  prac- 
tice their  specialties  in  the  context  of  other  highly  refined  fields  of 
interest.  Surely,  this  concept  is  broader  than  the  space  program 
itself."      (Text) 

•  YF-12A,  USAF's  twin-jet,   delta-winged  interceptor  prototype,  established 

four  speed  and  altitude  records  at  Edwards  afb:  (1)  2,062  mph 
straight-away  speed  record,  breaking  the  1,655.9  mph  previous  record 
held  by  the  Soviet  Union's  E-166;  (2)  80,000-ft.  record  for  sustained 
altitude  in  horizontal  flight,  exceeding  the  E-166's  74,376-ft.  record; 
(3)  1,688  mph  record  for  1,000-km.  closed-course  event  with  2000-kg. 
{4,409-lb.)  cargo,  surpassing  the  1,441  mph  record  set  by  the  e-166 
in  April  1965;  and  (4)  1,642  mph  record  for  500-km.  closed-course 
event,  topping  Soviet  performance  of  1,452  mph.  usaf  pilots  Col. 
Robert  L.  Stephens  and  Lt.  Col.  Daniel  Andre  set  the  first  two  records; 
Maj.  Walter  F.  Daniel  and  Capt.  James  Cooney,  the  others.  yf-12a 
performed  under  requirements  of  the  Federation  Aeronautique  Inter- 
nationale, world  authority  for  verification  of  flight  records,  (dod  Re- 
lease 281-65;  NYT,  5/9/65,  88) 

•  Possibility  that  the  wake  of  ice  crystals — contrails — produced  by  super- 

sonic jets  would  persist  and  spread  into  a  thin,  semipermanent  haze 
layer  at  about  14-mi.  altitude,  increasing  temperature  of  the  air  mass 
below,  altering  global  wind  patterns,  and  effecting  unpredictable  cli- 
mate changes  had  been  suggested  by  several  weather  specialists,  report- 
ed Walter  Sullivan.  ( Sullivan,  NYT,  5/1/65,  1 ) 
May  2:  The  recommendation  to  nasa  by  NAS-convened  study  group  [see 
Apr.  26]  that  Mars  receive  "the  highest  priority  among  all  objectives 
in  space  science,"  evoked  editorial  comment  from  the  New  York 
Times: 

213 


214  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

"The  biological  exploration  of  Mars  will  not  be  cheap,  and  available 
funds  for  scientific  research  and  development  are  limited. 

"The  likely  costs  and  returns  of  the  search  for  Martian  life  must  be 
compared  with  those  from,  say,  programs  for  stepped-up  research  into 
cancer  or  for  building  giant  accelerators  that  would  permit  physicists 
to  peer  more  deeply  into  the  recesses  of  the  atomic  nucleus.  That 
broader  consideration  may  well  suggest  a  less  concentrated  program 
than  the  scientists  had  recommended. 

"Such  a  decision  would  have  the  added  advantage  of  allowing  more 
time  for  an  effort  to  make  the  search  for  Martian  life  a  cooperative 
international  project  and  not,  .  .  .  merely  one  more  arena  for  the 
wasteful  duplication  that  is  the  essence  of  Soviet-American  space  com- 
petition." {NYT,  5/2/65) 
May  3:  Nike-Cajun  sounding  rocket  was  launched  from  Wallops  Station, 
Va.,  to  obtain  temperature,  wind,  density,  and  pressure  at  a  time  of 
minimum  zonal  wind  flow  by  exploding  twelve  grenades  during  the 
ascent  of  the  rocket.  Two  grenades  did  not  eject  and  a  third  exploded 
before  complete  ejection,  causing  complete  failure  of  experiment. 
Coordinated  firings  did  not  occur  simultaneously  at  Ft.  Churchill  or 
Pt.  Barrow  due  to  weather  conditions  and  payload  problems.  (NASA 
Rpt.  SRl) 

•  FAA  announced  one-month  extensions,  through  May  1965,  of  design  con- 

tracts with  Boeing  Co.  and  Lockheed  Aircraft  Corp.,  airframe  contrac- 
tors; and  General  Electric  Co.  and  Pratt  &  Whitney  Div.  of  United 
Aircraft  Corp.,  engine  contractors,  for  U.S.  supersonic  transport 
program.  Extensions  applied  to  design  contracts  awarded  to  four 
companies  for  period  Jan.  1  through  Feb.  28,  1965,  with  provisions 
for  one-month  extensions  from  Feb.  28  through  June  30.  Dollar 
amount  of  each  one-month  airframe  contract  extension  was  $1  million 
($750,000  Government,  $250,000  contractor)  ;  dollar  amount  of  each 
one-month  engine  contract  extension  was  $835,000  ($626,250  Govern- 
ment, $208,750  contractor ) .      ( FAA  Release  65-40 ) 

•  Gemini     Astronaut     John     W.     Young     (LCdr.,     USn)     was    presented 

the  Navy's  astronaut  wings  by  Secretary  of  the  Navy  Paul  H. 
Nitze.     (AP,  rasA.Po5«,  5/4/65) 

•  EARLY   BIRD   I   transmitted   clear   pictures   and   sound   of   live   television 

programs  between  Europe  and  North  America  for  14  hrs.  demon- 
strating its  usefulness  in  regularly  scheduled  television.  For  three 
weeks,  television's  use  of  early  bird  i  would  be  restricted  to  Mon- 
days; daily  commercial  use  would  not  begin  until  fall  when  rates  had 
been  fixed.  The  satellite  would  be  used  on  other  days  for  telephone 
purposes  and  transmission  of  recorded  information.  (ComSatCorp; 
Gould,/Vyr,  5/4/65,  75) 

•  A  GEMINI   III   experiment   in   which   blood   cells   subjected   to   a  known 

dosage  of  radiation  were  allowed  to  float  around  weightless  in  a  con- 
tainer showed  that  weightlessness  had  no  effect  on  irradiated  human 
blood  cells,  according  to  Charles  W.  Mathews,  Gemini  program 
manager.  He  also  explained  why  gemini  Iii  landed  about  60  mi. 
short  of  predicted  spot:  The  pilots  were  instructed  to  fly  a  bank  angle 
based  on  wind-tunnel  data  of  Gemini  spacecraft's  lift  characteristics. 
But  in  actual  reentry,  the  spacecraft's  "lift  was  only  about  %  of  what 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS.  1965  215 

we  had  expected  it  to  be."  Onboard  instrumentation  showed  the 
discrepancy,  but  the  command  pilot  followed  ground  instructions. 
When  he  ultimately  changed  the  angle,  based  on  the  onboard  display, 
it  was  too  late  to  achieve  the  spacecraft  target.  (Transcript) 
May  3:  Editorializing  in  Aviation  Week  and  Space  Technology,  Robert 
Hotz  said  that  during  the  Eurospace  meeting  in  Philadelphia,  Euro- 
pean members  had  made  significant  points  of  interest:  "Europe  needs 
a  technically  strong,  economically  beneficial  and  politically  imagina- 
tive space  program  of  its  own  if  it  is  to  remain  a  powerful  economic 
entity  and  maintain  its  present  standard  of  general  prosperi- 
ty ..  .  Europe  must  organize  its  technical  and  political  resources  on 
an  over-all  European  level  to  be  successful  in  space  technolo- 
gy. ..  .  European  industry  faces  a  formidable  task  in  selling  the 
economic  and  political  benefits  of  space  technology  to  its  people  and 
governments.  .  .  .  European  industry  must  develop  its  own  space 
technology  and  cannot  remain  technically  dependent  on  the  U.S.  re- 
gardless of  how  much  support  this  country  is  willing  to 
provide."  Hotz  concluded  that  "the  fact  that  the  discussions  were  so 
blunt  and  realistic  proved  the  value  of  an  organization  such  as  Euro- 
space  where  these  admittedly  knotty  problems  can  be 
aired...."  {Hotz,  Av.  Wk.,  5/3/65,  U) 
•  Discussions  at  last  week's  Eurospace  meeting  in  Philadelphia  indicated 
that  "Europeans  are  eagerly  seeking  means  to  acquire  U.S.  technical 
know-how  and  systems  management  capability  without  buying  hard- 
ware," wrote  William  J.  Coughlin  in  a  Missiles  and  Rockets 
editorial.  He  continued :  "This  was  recognized  in  a  blunt  statement  by 
Lockheed  vice  president  Elmer  P.  Wheaton: 

"  'As  we  see  the  situation,  the  real  reason  today  for  joint  U.S.-Euro- 
pean  industrial  cooperation  is  to  facilitate  acquisition  by  Europe  of  the 
technical  capability  the  United  States  has  been  fortunate  enough  to 
develop.  H  we  objectively  appraise  the  existing  circumstances,  we  all 
recognize  that  U.S.  cooperation  will  often  simply  strengthen  the  Euro- 
pean ability  to  compete  more  effectively  with  U.S.  firms.  With  these 
facts  in  mind,  it  is  obvious  that  the  purchase  of  U.S.  hardware  does 
not  best  fulfill  Europe's  aims'.  .  .  . 

"As  Lord  Caldecote,  managing  director  of  the  guided  weapons  divi- 
sion of  British  Aircraft  Corp.,  put  it:  T  cannot  believe  European  tax- 
payers will  be  prepared  to  put  forward  money  for  programs  on  which 
American  firms  are  prime  contractors'.  .  .  . 

"The  most  hopeful  route  to  European  space  collaboration  probably 
lies  in  the  proposals  put  forward  for  navigation,  meteorological  and 
television  satellites."  (CoughHn,  M&R,  5/3/65,  46) 
May  4:  Aerobee  sounding  rocket  successfully  launched  from  NASA  Wallops 
Station,  Va.  carried  317-lb.  payload  to  90-mi.  altitude  and  impacted 
about  54  mi.  downrange  in  the  Atlantic.  Conducted  by  NASA  Goddard 
Space  Flight  Center,  the  stellar  spectroscopy  experiment  measured  spe- 
cial radiation  of  two  stars,  Spica  and  Alkaid,  utilizing  an  ultraviolet 
stellar  spectrometer  and  an  input  telescope  with  a  13-in.  aperture. 
Performance  of  a  gimbaled  star  tracker  and  modified  attitude  control 
(Strap)  was  also  tested.  Data  were  telemetered  to  ground  station 
during  flight.      (Wallops  Release  65-26) 


216  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

May  4:  Sen.  Russell  B.  Long  (  D-La. )  introduced  a  bill  (S.  1899)  in  the 
Senate  "to  prescribe  a  national  policy  with  respect  to  the  acquisition, 
disposition,  and  use  of  proprietary  rights  in  inventions  made,  and  in 
scientific  and  technical  information  obtained,  through  the  expenditure 
of  public  funds.*'  Senator  Long  said  in  introducing  the  bill:  "New  dis- 
coveries derived  from  research  supported  by  public  funds  belong  to 
the  people  and  constitute  a  part  of  the  public  domain  to  which  all 
citizens  should  have  access  on  terms  of  equalitv."  (CR,  5/4/65, 
9023-9027) 

•  Aerospace  Corp.'s  S22  million  expenditure  to  construct  buildings  in  Cali- 

fornia when  space  was  available  in  nearbv  U.S.  facilities  was  criticized 
by  Comptroller  General  Joseph  Campbell  in  his  testimony  before  the 
House  Armed  Services  Special  Investigations  Subcommittee  investigat- 
ing Aerospace.  Campbell  said  that  Aerospace  had  also  incurred  "cer- 
tain questionable  costs  which  appear  to  be  of  interest."  (AP,  NYT. 
5/5/65) 

•  Dr.  Eugene  B.  Konecci  of  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Council 

staff  discussed  future  manned  aerospace  flight  before  the  American 
Astronautical  Society  meeting  in  Chicago: 

"A  great  deal  of  lifting-body  research  is  being  performed  by  NASA 
and  the  USAF.  In  the  not  too  distant  future  we  will  enter  into  the 
truly  second  generation  manned  spacecraft  era  by  relying  more  on  a 
higher  l/d  (lift-drag  ratio)  such  as  a  hypersonic  l/d  of  about 
1.3.  .  .  .  The  lifting  body  second  generation  manned  spacecraft  gives 
operational  versatility  for  reentry  from  a  number  of  orbit  planes  and 
gives  a  recovery  capability  at  a  number  of  landing  sites  within  the 
United  States.  This  versatility  also  increases  the  margin  of  safety  for 
the  astronauts.  .  .  ."      (Text) 

•  Orbit  of  MOLNIYA  I  Soviet  communications  satellite  was  slightly  correct- 

ed to  increase  its  usefulness  for  relaying  telecasts  between  Moscow  and 
Vladivostok.  Soviet  Communications  Minister  Nikolai  D.  Psurtsev 
told  Izvestia  that  the  firing  of  a  special  rocket  motor  aboard  the  satel- 
lite had  raised  the  apogee  to  40,045.2  km.  (24.872.8  mi.)  ;  perigee  to 
548.4  km.  (340.6  mi.);  and  the  period  to  12  hrs.  Previous  orbital 
parameters:  apogee,  39,467.7  km.  (24,514.1  mi.);  perigee,  498.4  km. 
(309.5  mi.)  ;  period,  11  hrs.  48  min.  The  corrected  high  elliptical 
orbit  put  MOLNIYA  I  within  the  visibility  of  Russia's  ground  stations 
for  the  greater  part  of  its  period.  {NYT,  5/5/65,  6) 
May  4-6:  U.S.S.R.  Mars  probe  zond  ii  had  stopped  transmitting  data  to 
earth,  Russian  physicist,  Gennadii  Skuridin,  told  the  AAS-IIT  Research 
Institute  Symposium  on  Post-Apollo  Space  Exploration  in  Chicago. 
Cutoff  apparently  resulted  from  a  failure  in  the  probe's  solar  panels 
caused  by  meteoroid  impact  or  solar  radiation,  he  said.  Other  facts 
about  the  Soviet  space  program  made  public  for  the  first  time:  (1) 
pressure  in  Cosmonaut  Aleksey  Leonov's  spacesuit  during  his  walk  in 
space  on  March  18,  was  about  5.9  lbs.  psi;  (2)  Leonov  had  trouble 
with  his  vision  and  in  orienting  himself  while  in  space,  but  was 
capable  of  performing  useful  work;  (3)  Soviet  scientists  have  the 
technological  know-how  to  perform  orbit-changing  spacecraft  maneu- 
vers. A  thirty-minute  movie  of  Leonov's  walk  in  space  gave  closeup 
views  of  construction  of  VOSKHOD  ii's  airlock,  Leonov's  spacesuit, 
gloves,  footwear,  and  life-support  equipment  back  pack. 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  217 

Discussing  investigation  of  space  by  the  U.S.S.R.,  Skuridin  said 
that  from  1962.  the  problem  of  going  to  the  moon  had  been  studied 
with  the  Cosmos  series  of  spacecraft.  He  said  cosmos  ill  and  COSMOS 
IV  had  studied  solor  plasma,  its  energy  and  location  in  earth  areas, 
and  during  the  period  April  24  to  May  2,  1962.  had  transmitted  to 
earth  more  than  50  million  measurements;  20  million  more  had  been 
stored  in  a  data-storage  system,  cosmos  xli  had  investigated 
charged  particles  at  40,000  mi.  altitude.  The  Elektron  series,  he  con- 
tinued, had  made  important  measurements  of  the  atmosphere  up  to  an 
altitude  of  3,000  km.  The  ions  of  hydrogen,  carbon,  and  oxygen  had 
also  been  measured. 

Discussing  future  flights,  Skuridin  said  the  Soviet  Union  would  like 
to  study  Saturn.  Pluto,  and  the  sun,  but  added  that  a  satellite  was 
needed  that  could  be  launched  to  far-off  planets  and  the  sun  and  return 
to  earth,  (upi,  NYT,  5/6/65,  2;  Kotulak.  Chic.  Trih.,  5/7/65;  M&R, 
5/10/65,  12,  13) 

May  4^6:  Preliminary  plans  for  Apollo  Extension  System  (Aes)  develop- 
ment required  selection  of  three  major  spacecraft  contractors,  NASA 
official  told  Missiles  and  Rockets  during  Symposium  on  Post-Apollo 
Space  Exploration  in  Chicago:  one  to  devise  single  payload  plan,  one 
to  cover  physical  installation  of  experimental  payloads  and  checkout 
systems,  and  one  to  translate  Apollo  spacecraft  into  Apollo  extension 
vehicle  with  a  six-week  manned  orbiting  capability.  NASA  official  at- 
tributed this  decision  to  a  reluctance  to  depend  on  a  single  contractor 
and  a  desire  for  broad-based  readily  available  industrial  capability. 
{M&R,  5/10/65,  13) 

May  5:  Soviet  Cosmonaut  Aleksey  Leonov,  first  man  to  walk  in  space,  had 
received  1  '230th  of  the  permissible  radiation  dose,  proving  that  space 
travel  is  radiation-safe.  Tass  announced.      (Reuters,  NYT,  5/6/65,  2) 

•  NASA  Assistant  Deputy  Administrator  Dr.  George  L.  Simpson,  Jr.,  was 

named  Chancellor  of  the  University  System  of  Georgia  and  would  as- 
sume the  duties  of  the  new  post  July  15.  Simpson,  who  had  joined 
NASA  in  1962  as  Assistant  Administrator  of  Public  Affairs,  later  be- 
came Assistant  Administrator  for  Technology  Utilization  and  Policy 
Planning.  In  July  1964  he  assumed  the  additional  duties  of  Assistant 
Deputy  Administrator.  A  native  of  North  Carolina,  he  had  been  a 
professor  at  the  Univ.  of  North  Carolina  and  a  planner  of  the  Research 
Triangle,  cooperative  endeavor  of  the  Univ.  of  North  Carolina,  Duke 
Univ.,  and  North  Carolina  State  College,  (ap.  Wash.  Eve.  Star, 
5/5^65) 

•  USAF  Chief  of  Staff  General  John  P.  McConnell,  speaking  at  a  meeting  of 

the  National  Press  Club  in  Washington,  D.C.,  said:  ".  .  .  As  airmen, 
all  of  us  in  the  Air  Force  look  at  space  with  real  concern.  Will  it 
someday  become  an  area  of  military  operation?  If  so,  what  will  be 
the  U.S.  posture?      In  military  language,  what  is  our  readiness?   .  .  . 

"Space  exploration  is  the  responsibility  of  the  National  Aeronautics 
and  Space  Administration.  .  .  .  The  act  which  created  the  National 
Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration  gave  NASA  broad  responsi- 
bilities for  meeting  many  of  the  broad  needs  of  the  nation.  It  also 
stated  that  the  Department  of  Defense  should  be  responsible  for  and 
direct  those  space  activities  pecuUar  to  or  primarily  associated  with  the 


218  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

development  of  weapon  systems,  military  operations  or  the  defense  of 
the  United  States. 

"So  we  have  both  NASA  and  Air  Force  assigned  specific  responsi- 
bilities. We  have  the  basis  of  a  partnership.  And  a  partnership  it  is 
in  carrying  out  the  national  program  as  recommended  by  the  President 
and  authorized  and  funded  by  Congress.  The  intent  of  Congress  is 
very  clear.  The  members  wanted  the  broad  space  capabilities  of  the 
nation  to  be  built  up  as  rapidly  as  possible  without  unnecessary  dupli- 
cation of  effort  or  of  waste.  This  we  are  attempting  to  do.  And 
while  I  would  not  ordinarily  try  to  speak  for  Jim  Webb,  the  NASA 
Administrator,  I  think  I  can  speak  for  him  today  on  this  subject,  in 
saying,  that  it  is  a  very  well  understood  mutual  objective  between  the 
Air  Force  and  NASA." 

Asked  his  opinion  about  spending  of  $20  billion  to  reach  the  moon, 
McConnell  said:  "I  think  it  is  necessary  for  us  to  get  everything  we 
can  out  of  space.  And  I  think  we  should  get  it  as  rapidly  as  we  can  at 
as  reasonable  cost  as  we  can.  But  you  can't  get  it  rapidly  and  at  the 
same  time  cheaply  .  .  .  going  to  the  moon  is  just  the  end  product  of 
what  we  are  getting  out  of  it.  If  we  were  just  going  to  the  moon,  I 
wouldn't  think  it  would  be  worth  20  billion  dollars  to  go  to  the 
moon.  But  I  don't  hesitate  to  say  that  all  of  the  other  things  which 
we  have  to  do,  the  preliminaries,  and  the  things  that  we're  going  to 
learn  in  the  process  of  achieving  that  goal  is  well  worth  the  expendi- 
ture of  whatever  money  is  required  to  attain  the  knowledge  which  we 
will  attain  as  a  result  of  this  project."  (Text) 
May  5:  Boeing  Co.  unveiled  to  the  public  a  mockup  of  its  Molab  (Mobile 
Laboratory ) ,  a  six-wheeled  vehicle  being  studied  by  NASA  for  use  in 
manned  exploration  of  the  moon,  (ap,  Tulsa  Daily  World,  5/6/65) 
May  6:  MARINER  iv,  after  159  days  in  space,  was  72  million  mi.  from 
earth,  had  travelled  243  million  mi.  The  spacecraft  continued  to  re- 
turn scientific  and  engineering  data  to  ground  stations  daily  and  to  set 
new  records  for  distance  of  communications,  (nasa  Release  65-148) 
•  U.S.  House  of  Representatives  passed  a  bill  authorizing  appropri- 
ations to  NASA  for  FY  1966  totaling  $5,183,844,850,  as  follows: 
S4,537,121,000  for  research  and  development;  $60,675,000  for  con- 
struction of  facilities;  and  $586,048,850  for  administrative  operations. 
NASA  had  requested  $5.26  billion. 

During  the  debate  preceding  passage  of  the  bill,  Rep.  James  G. 
Fulton  (R-Pa.)  said:  "We  have  moved  quickly.  But  we  are  not  in  a 
crash  program.  We  are  now  conducting  a  reasonable  program  .  .  . 
it  is  a  well-planned  program. 

"It  is  impossible  to  believe  that  in  the  fiscal  year  1959  only 
$48,354,000  was  authorized  for  space  [nasa].  In  fiscal  year  1960  it 
went  up  ten  times  to  $485,550,000.  It  doubled  again  in  fiscal  year 
1961  to  $915  million. 

"In  fiscal  year  1962  it  went  to  $1,361,900,000. 

"In  fiscal  year  1963,  it  went  to  $3,742,162,000  and  in  fiscal  year 
1964  to  $5,238,119,400. 

"In  fiscal  year  1965  it  went  to  $5,193,810,500. 

"For  this  fiscal  year,  the  committee  has  recommended  $5,183,844?- 
850,  which  is  down  from  last  year's  level. 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  219 

"I  want  the  House  to  know  we  have  gone  over  these  programs 
thoroughly.  We  have  made  cuts  in  the  committee,  and  the  cuts  were 
worthwhile.  They  are  responsible,  and  they  are  substantial.  They 
are  not  small." 

Regarding  funds  restored  to  the  NASA  budget.  Rep,  Fulton  said: 
"The  M-1  engine  development,  the  260-inch  engine  development,  and 
the  SNAP-8  development,  were  ongoing  programs  of  research  that  were 
approved  by  the  committee  and  authorized  by  the  House  over  the  past 
several  years.  However,  for  reasons  of  economy,  the  Administrator 
cut  these  three  programs  entirely  from  the  NASA  budget.  The  commit- 
tee on  the  other  hand,  believed  that  such  actions  in  the  long  run  would 
be  extremely  wasteful  and  later  result  in  very  high  costs  when  it  would 
become  necessary  to  reactivate  these  programs. 

"Consequently,  the  committee  restored  S15  million  to  the  M-1  pro- 
gram to  continue  it  on  a  technological  development  level,  S6.2  million 
to  the  260-inch  solid  rocket  program  to  carry  it  through  the  test  firing 
of  two  full  length  rockets,  and  S6  million  to  the  snap-8  to  continue  it 
at  the  scheduled  level  of  effort." 

Rep.  Olin  E.  Teague  ( D-Tex. )  discussed  changes  made  by  the 
Manned  Space  Flight  Subcommittee:  "The  total  request  by  NASA  for 
manned  space  flight  for  fiscal  year  1966  is  $3,567,052,000.'.  .  .  The 
subcommittee  is  recommending  a  total  reduction  of  $42,825,000. 

"NASA  requested  $3,249,485,000  for  research  and  development  in 
manned  space  flights.  Total  reduction  in  research  and  development 
amounts  to  $30  million.  All  of  this  reduction  comes  from  the  Apollo 
program.  It  is  the  view  of  the  subcommittee  that  in  the  areas  of 
Apollo  mission  support  and  engine  development  that  program  improve- 
ments could  be  made.  However,  the  reduction  was  made  in  the  total 
request  to  allow  NASA  to  make  program  alterations  with  a  broad  man- 
agement latitude  of  choice  without  adversely  affecting  the  total 
program.  It  was  recognized  by  the  subcommittee  that  NASA,  prior  to 
coming  before  the  committee,  had  made  substantial  reductions  in  their 
total  research  and  development  program.  A  further  reduction  was 
also  made  by  the  Bureau  of  the  Budget.  Based  on  this,  the  $30  mil- 
lion reduction  is  considered  a  maximum  amount  that  could  be  taken 
without  jeopardizing  the  pace  and  progress  of  the  Apollo 
program."  ( CR,  5/6/65,  9291,  9296,  9301 ) 
May  6:  Saturn  V  booster  (s-ic  stage)  was  static-fired  for  the  second  time 
at  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center.  The  five  F-1  engines  were 
ignited  in  a  15-sec.  test  during  which  they  generated  7.5  million  lbs. 
thrust.  Tests  of  this  stage  would  gradually  increase  in  duration  until 
full-length  firing  of  2^/2  min.  was  reached  in  late  spring  or  early 
summer,  (msfc  Release  65-117) 
•  USAF  Titan  iii-A  rocket  was  fired  from  Eastern  Test  Range  in  a  maneu- 
verability test  in  which  the  third  stage  (transtage),  carrying  two  satel- 
lites, executed  a  series  of  consecutive  and  intricate  maneuvers.  Pri- 
mary goal  of  the  mission  was  four  separate  ignitions  of  the  transtage's 
engines — a  feat   never  before   attempted. 

First  firing,  after  burnout  of  the  first  two  stages,  lasted  296  sec.  and 
injected  the  7,000-lb.  rocket-payload  assembly  into  near-earth  orbit  of 
125-mi.  (201.3  km.)  apogee,  108-mi.  (173.9-km.)  perigee,  and  88.1- 
min.  period.     After  one  earth  orbit,  about  90  min.  after  launch,  the 


220  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

third  stage  ignited  a  second  time,  for  37  sec,  driving  the  stage  upward 
into  an  elliptical  orbit  of  apogee,  1,757  mi.  (2,828.8  km.)  and  perigee, 
115  mi.  (185.2  km.).  Two  and  one-half  hours  later,  transtage's  two 
8,000-lb. -thrust  engines  burned  a  third  time,  for  27  sec,  to  circularize 
the  orbit  at  1.743-mi.  (2,806.2-km.)  apogee  and  1,729-mi.  (2,783.7- 
km.)  perigee.  Thirty  seconds  after  shutdown  of  the  transtage,  an  82- 
Ib.  Lincoln  Laboratory  experimental  communications  satellite  (les 
II ),  equipped  with  its  own  rocket  motor  to  shoot  itself  into  a  higher 
elliptical  orbit,  was  spring-ejected  from  the  stage.  LES  ii  attained 
orbit  of  9,364-mi.  (15,076-km.)  apogee;  1,753-mi.  (2,822-km.)  peri- 
gee; 315-min.  period;  and  31.35°  inclination.  Then,  42  sec.  after  LES 
11  was  released,  a  44.5-in.-dia.,  75-lb.  hollow  aluminum  radar  calibra- 
tion sphere  (lcs  i)  was  ejected  from  the  transtage.  LCS  i  was  to 
remain  in  near-circular  orbit  with  1,743-mi.  (2,806.2-km.)  apogee, 
1,729-mi.  (2,783. 7-km.)  perigee.  Seven  hours  after  launch,  the  tran- 
stage was  fired  a  fourth  time,  driving  it  into  a  final  elliptical  orbit  of 
2,317-mi.  (3,730.4-km.)  apogee;  1,725-mi.  (2,777.3-km.)  perigee;  157- 
min.  period;  and  32.07°  inclination,  (upi,  NYT,  5/7/65,  12;  Av. 
Wk.,  5/10/65,  33;  usaf  Proj.  Off.;  JJ.S.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act.,  1965, 
141) 
May  6:  nasa  announced  its  agreement  with  the  Brazilian  Space  Commis- 
sion (cnae)  to  cooperate  in  scientific  sounding  rocket  program  to 
investigate  the  lower  regions  of  the  ionosphere,  emphasizing  the  effects 
of  cosmic  rays.  NASA  would  provide  and  CNAE  would  launch  two' 
sounding  rockets  from  Natal,  Brazil;  scientific  payloads  would  be  con- 
structed by  Brazilian  technicians  at  NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight 
Center.  NASA  and  cnae  would  combine  to  provide  ground  support 
equipment,  to  analyze  data,  and  to  publish  the  results  of  the 
experiment.  In  addition,  NASA  would  launch  one  instrumented  sound- 
ing rocket  from  Wallops  Station,  Va.,  in  a  complementary 
experiment.  The  project  would  contribute  to  observance  of  1965' as 
International  Cooperation  Year,      (nasa  Release  65-149) 

•  To  assure  expeditious  completion  of  NASA's  Mississippi  Test  Facility — 

permanent  national  center  for  ground  testing  of  large  launch  vehicle 
stages — Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  announced  two  changes  in  prepa- 
ration of  the  installation :  ( 1 )  buildup  in  personnel  would  start  imme- 
diately; (2)  MSEC  planning,  construction,  and  activation  elements 
would  be  grouped  into  a  new  Mississippi  Test  Facility  Task 
Force.  Jackson  Balch,  until  now  MSFC's  assistant  deputy  director, 
technical,  would  have  the  dual  titles  of  Mississippi  Test  Facility  site 
manager  and  head  of  the  mtf  Task  Force.  A  permanent  organization 
to  operate  mtf  once  it  was  activated  would  be  formed  later,  (msfc 
Release  65-114) 

•  Techniques  for  weather  predictions  reliable  up  to  two  weeks  were  dis- 

cussed at  Geophysics  Corp.  of  America  in  Bedford,  Mass.,  by  Dr.  D.  Q. 
Wark  of  the  U.S.  Weather  Bureau,  Dr.  William  Nordberg  of  NASA 
Goddard  Space  FHght  Center,  and  Dr.  Jean  I.  F.  King  of  GCA.  These 
scientists  had  successfully  utilized  radio  waves  to  collect  weather  data 
and  were  planning  to  build  a  new  weather  satellite  which  could  log 
greater  amounts  of  data  and  provide  constant  coverage.  They  pro- 
posed placing  weather  buoys  in  the  oceans  and  weather  balloons  in  the 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  221 

atmosphere  equipped  to  relay  data  to  the  orbiting  satelHte  which,  in 
turn,  would  relay  data  to  ground  stations.  (Hughes,  CSM,  5/6/65) 
May  6:  Russian  communications  satellite  molniya  I,  because  of  its  higher 
and  sharply  elongated  orbit,  could  transmit  continuously  several  hours 
longer  than  American  Telstars,  reported  Tass.  Tass  claimed  that  Tel- 
stars  could  transmit  uninterruptedly  for  only  30  min.  (Reuters,  NYT, 
5/7/65,  3) 

•  Chairman  of  the  UCLA  Astronomy  Dept.   Dr.  L.   H.  Aller  believed  the 

moon  might  be  as  solid  as  metal  below  the  top  few  inches  of  surface, 
reported  George  Getze  in  the  Los  Angeles  Times.  According  to  Getze, 
Aller  said  chances  were  good  that  the  chemical  composition  of  the 
moon  was  more  like  the  sun's  than  the  earth's  and  that  elements  in 
the  sun  as  gases  would  be  found  in  the  moon  as  solids.  "The  first  few 
inches  of  the  moon's  surface  may  have  been  changed  a  good  deal  by 
meteor  hits  and  solar  radiation,  but  if  we  go  down  a  few  feet  we  will 
probably  find  that  the  composition  is  like  the  sun's,"  he  said.  (Getze, 
L.A.  Times,  5/6/65) 

•  Editorializing   in   the   Evening   Star,   Richard   Fryklund   said:    "It   is    a 

pity  .  .  .  that  the  hot,  new  plane,  called  the  yf-12a,  has  almost  no 
chance  to  be  used  by  the  Air  Force  for  anything  except  tests  and  speed 
records.  .  .  . 

"The  reason:  Secretary  of  Defense  McNamara  doubts  that  any  new 
interceptor  is  needed  or  that  the  Air  Force's  nomination  is  the  right 
plane  even  if  one  is  needed.  .  .  . 

"Three  of  the  records  set  by  the  yf-12a  on  May  Day  are  consid- 
ered to  be  the  most  important  performance  checks  on  any  airplane: 
Speed  over  a  straight  course  (2,062  miles  an  hour,  or  about  mach 
3.2),  altitude  (80,000  feet,  though  it  can  go  higher)  and  speed  around 
a  circular  course  (1,688  miles  an  hour)."  (Fryklund,  Wash.  Eve. 
Star,  5/6/65,  7) 
May  7:  U.S.S.R.  launched  cosmos  lxvi  with  scientific  instruments  aboard 
for  investigation  of  outer  space,  Tass  announced.  Orbital  data:  apo- 
gee, 291  km.  (180.7  mi.) ;  perigee,  197  km.  (122.3  mi.) ;  period,  89.3 
min.;  inclination,  65°.  All  systems  were  functioning  normally. 
(Tass,  5/7/65) 

•  The   President   of  Aerospace   Corp.,    Dr.    Ivan   A.    Getting,   replying   to 

Comptroller  General  Joseph  Campbell's  charges  that  Aerospace  had 
spent  $22  million  to  build  new  facilities  in  California  when  Govern- 
ment space  was  available,  told  the  House  Armed  Services  Special 
Investigations  Subcommittee  that  the  separate  buildings  assured  "the 
financial  independence  and  stability  to  enable  the  corporation  to  per- 
form its  mission,"  and  that  the  construction  would  be  paid  for  with 
earnings  from  Government  contracts  and  fees.  Chairman  of  the  Sub- 
committee Rep.  Porter  Hardy,  Jr.  (D-Va.),  said  that  the  hearings  had 
revealed  "startling  deficiencies  in  the  control  of  public  funds  made 
available  to  Aerospace."     (ap,  NYT,  5/9/65,  76) 

•  Civil   Aeronautics   Board   approved   a   United   Air  Lines   plan   to   lease 

eight  Boeing  727-22  jet  airliners  from  a  group  of  22  banks  rather  than 
buy  them  directly  from  Boeing.  United  told  the  CAB,  in  applying  for 
approval  of  the  new  agreement,  that  the  lease  arrangement  would  give 
it  the  use  of  the  planes  on  a  cost  basis  substantially  more  favorable 
than  if  it  leased  the  planes  some  other  way  or  financed  their  purchase 


222  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

through  commercial  bank  borrowings.  Each  plane  would  be  leased  to 
United  for  13  yrs.  from  date  of  delivery.  (WSJ,  5/7/65,  6) 
May  7:  Civil  Aeronautics  Board  request  for  $2.1  million  in  subsidies  for 
commercial  helicopter  lines  in  New  York,  Chicago,  and  Los  Angeles,  to 
be  paid  during  July-December  period,  was  denied  by  House  Appropri- 
ations Committee.      ( WSJ,  5/7/65,  2) 

•  Pan   American   Airways   announced   it  would   purchase   four   additional 

Boeing  727  jet  aircraft,  bringing  its  Boeing  purchase  program  total  to 
19.     (r5/,  5/7/65,  3) 

May  8:  "We  are  already  getting  ready  for  the  next  manned  flight,"  Soviet 
Cosmonaut  Pavel  Belyayev's  backup  pilot  wrote  in  a  Soviet  air  force 
journal.  "We  are  getting  acquainted  with  the  construction  of  a  new 
ship"  and  "planning  new  flights  on  new  courses  with  more  complicated 
assignments."      (  Wash.  Post,  5/8/65) 

May  9:  luna  v,  a  3,254-lb.  instrumented  moon  probe,  was  successfully 
launched  by  U.S.S.R.  on  an  undisclosed  mission.  According  to  Tass 
announcement,  the  probe  was  launched  by  multi-stage  rocket  into  a 
parking  orbit  and  then  fired  toward  the  moon.  All  onboard  equip- 
ment was  said  to  be  functioning  normally  and  a  U.S.S.R.  station  track- 
ing the  probe  was  receiving  "scientific  information."  Tass  reported 
that  LUNA  V  was  "moving  along  a  trajectory  close  to  the  planned 
one."  At  10:00  p.m.  Moscow  time,  the  probe  was  110,000  km. 
(68,323  mi.)  from  earth.      (Tass,  5/9/65) 

•  Sir   Bernard   Lovell,    director   of   the   radiotelescope    facility    at   Jodrell 

Bank,  England,  said  that  the  telescope  would  try  to  track  Soviet  lunar 
probe  LUNA  V  on  May  10.  "We  have  been  expecting  the  Russians  to 
make  an  attempt  to  achieve  a  soft  landing  of  an  instrumented  package 
on  the  moon  for  some  time  now,"  he  said.  "This  may  possibly  be  the 
attempt."     {NYT,  5/10/65) 

•  Studies    on    flight    handling    qualities    of    a    manned    lifting    body    re- 

entry vehicle  during  the  later  stages  of  reentry  and  during  the  land- 
ing approach  were  being  jointly  conducted  by  NASA  and  Cornell  Aer- 
onautical Laboratory  at  NASA's  Flight  Research  Center  using  a  T-33 
jet  aircraft  specifically  modified  for  AF  Systems  Command  by 
Cornell.  Cornell  was  working  under  a  NASA-funded  $231,000  contract 
which  also  included  human  transfer-function  studies  and  ground  simu- 
lation of  the  lifting  body,      (frc  Release  12-65) 

•  Recently  released  photograph  of  the  recoverable  capsule  of  the  U.S.S.R. 

Vostok  spacecraft  revealed  that  the  craft  was  spherical  and  that  one 
third  of  it  was  covered  with  an  unidentified  material  marked  by  con- 
centric rings.  In  a  New  York  Times  article,  Frederic  Appel  said  that 
the  U.S.  had  rejected  a  spherical  design  for  U.S.  spacecraft  because  of 
its  lack  of  dynamic  stability  and  because,  during  reentry,  too  much 
surface  was  exposed  to  hot  gases  deflected  by  the  heat  shield  raising 
the  internal  temperature  above  allowable  limits.  Appel  speculated  that 
the  Soviets  might  have  solved  the  problem  with  greater  heat  insulation 
or  a  more  powerful  coohng  system  and  that  the  material  marked  by 
concentric  rings  could  be  the  remains  of  a  heat  shield  that  had  burned 
away.      (Appel,  NYT,  5/9/65,  14) 

•  U.S.S.R  displayed  some  of  its  newest,  most  powerful  missiles  during  a 

parade  across  Red  Square  in  Moscow  commemorating  20th  anniver- 
sary of  victory  over  Hitler's  Army.     Missiles  never  before  displayed 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  223 

included  two  three-stage  missiles  about  110  ft.  long  and  10  ft.  in  diam- 
eter which  Tass  described  as  of  "unlimited"  range  and  as  similar  to 
the  rockets  that  orbited  the  Vostok  and  Voskhod  spacecraft;  two  mis- 
siles of  similar  construction — about  65  ft.  long — described  by  Tass  as 
"intercontinental  rockets"  using  solid  fuel;  a  massive  self-propelled 
missile  consisting  of  a  tracked  carrier  topped  by  a  stubby  rocket  rest- 
ing as  if  in  a  pod  and  described  by  Tass  as  a  solid-fuel  medium-range 
missile  of  "tremendous  destructive  power."  This  was  the  first  time 
the  Soviet  Union  had  officially  reported  it  possessed  a  solid-fuel  rocket 
of  the  intercontinental,  or  orbital,  type. 

Also  in  the  parade  were  a  Polaris-type  missile  used  by  submarines 
and  what  Tass  described  as  an  "antimissile  missile."  These  types  of 
weapons  had  been  displayed  before.  (Tanner,  NYT,  5/10/65) 
May  9:  Dr.  Richard  L.  Lesher,  consultant  to  NASA  since  June  1964  and  a 
special  assistant  to  Breene  M.  Kerr,  nasa  Assistant  Administrator  for 
Technology  Utilization  since  Nov.  1964,  became  NASA  Deputy  Assistant 
Administrator  for  Technology  Utilization.      (NASA  Release  65-161) 

•  Sixty  college  science  and  engineering  students  selected  in  a  nationwide 

competition  were  awarded  NASA  grants  to  participate  in  a  summer 
space  science  program  at  Columbia  Univ.      {NYT,  5/9/65,  34) 

May  9-12:  During  NASA  Conference  on  Aircraft  Operating  Problems,  NASA 
scientists  reported  to  Government  and  industry  technical  experts  on 
research  accomplishments  leading  to  improved  aircraft  usefulness  and 
safety.  Held  at  NASA  Langley  Research  Center,  the  technical  sessions 
were  under  the  sponsorship  of  NASA's  Office  of  Advanced  Research  and 
Technology  and  included  34  papers,  (nasa  Release  65-160;  NASA 
SP-83.) 

May  10:  Tass  announced  that  luna  v  probe  had  undergone  a  planned 
midcourse  maneuver  to  change  its  trajectory.      (Tass,  5/11/65) 

•  Evidence  of  life  on  earth  2.7  billion  yrs.  ago  was  reported  by  Univ.  of 

California  professor  and  Nobel  prize  winner  Melvin  Calvin.  The  evi- 
dence was  in  the  form  of  two  chemicals,  phytane  and  pristane,  extract- 
ed from  the  Soudan  Formation,  a  carbon-rich  and  precisely-dated  geo- 
logical stratum  in  Minnesota.  Both  are  carbon-hydrogen  compounds; 
both  are  manufactured  only  by  living  systems;  both  are  stable  enough 
to  have  survived  unaltered.  As  Calvin  reconstructed  it,  both  chemi- 
cals were  synthesized  by  chlorophyll-containing  plants — fairly  high 
forms  of  life  requiring  long  ancestry.  First  signs  of  earthly  life  must 
therefore  have  existed  800  million  yrs.  prior  to  the  date  currently 
accepted.      {Newsweek,  5/10/65) 

•  Rep.  James  C.  Corman   (D-Calif.)    announced  that  a  poll  taken  among 

his  constituents  showed  that  68.7%  supported  a  program  to  land  an 
American  on  the  moon  by  1970;  14%  felt  the  program  should  be 
slowed  down;  17.3%  disapproved  of  the  program.  {CR,  5/10/65, 
A2275) 

•  Newest  U.S.  telescope,  a  24-in.   reflector  for  photographing  stars,  was 

operating  at  Univ.  of  Rochester  under  direction  of  Dr.  Stewart 
Sharpless.  It  would  be  used  to  study  the  structure  of  the  galaxies,  the 
gas  and  dust  between  stars,  and  the  evolution  of  variable  stars.  (Sci. 
Serv.,  Wash.  Daily  News,  5/10/65) 

•  USAF  scientist  Dr.  John  W.  Evans  received  DOd's  Distinguished  Civilian 

Service  Award  for  his  research  on  the  physical  processes  of  solar  mag- 


224  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

netic  fields,  mass  motions  of  the  solar  photosphere,  and  growth  and 
development  of  solar  flares.  fOAR  Release  5-65-1) 
May  10:  Second  stage  (s-iv)  for  the  tenth  and  last  Saturn  I  launch  vehicle 
was  delivered  to  Kennedy  Space  Center,  NASA,  aboard  "Pregnant 
Guppy"  aircraft.  The  stage  was  flown  from  Douglas  Aircraft  Co.'s 
Sacramento,  Calif.,  facility,      (msfc  Release  65-135) 

•  U.S.S.R.'s   antimissile   missile   and   other  powerful   rockets   were  shown 

in  action  for  the  first  time  in  a  film  on  Moscow  television,  "Rockets 
in  Defense  of  Peace."  Included  were  test  firings  of  surface-to-air, 
air-to-surface,  and  underwater  missiles  as  well  as  launchings  of 
intermediate  and  intercontinental  surface-to-surface  ballistic  missiles, 
some  from  underground  silos.  Also  displayed  were  installations  of 
the  Soviet  antimissile  defense,  including  testing  stations,  computer 
centers  supplying  data  for  interceptions,  and  launching  sites  for  inter- 
ceptor missiles.  One  sequence  showed  firing  of  an  antimissile  missile 
and  the  interception  of  an  intercontinental  ballistic  missile  at  an 
unspecified  altitude.      ( Shabad,  NYT,  3/11/65,  4) 

•  In  a  New  York  Times  article.  Jack  Gould  suggested  that  statesmen  plan- 

ning EARLY  BIRD  I  telecasts  prepare  their  speeches  well  in  advance  and 
consider  time  differences  in  their  scheduling.  He  noted  that  President 
Johnson's  speech  had  received  limited  European  coverage  because  it 
was  hastily  arranged  and  that  the  address  of  West  Germany's  Chancel- 
lor Ludwig  Erhard  had  suffered  because  of  an  unusually  poor  simulta- 
neous English  translation.  (Gould,  NYT,  5/10/65,  59) 
May  11:  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb,  speaking  to  the  Washington 
Board  of  Trade,  said:  "In  1959,  when  NASA  attempted  14  space  flights, 
we  had  37  percent  success  in  missions  and  launch  vehicles.  Last  year 
we  attempted  30  missions,  more  than  twice  as  many  as  in  1959,  and 
the  percentage  of  success  in  missions  went  up  to  83,  with  93  percent 
success  in  vehicles.  So  far  this  year,  the  percentages  are  holding  close 
to  those  of  1964."     (Text) 

•  Successful  75-min.  test  of  USAF  f-111a  supersonic  fighter  bomber  was 

conducted  at  Edwards  afb  by  Lt.  Col.  James  W.  Wood  (usaf)  who 
flew  at  760  mph  and  to  30,000  ft.      (ap,  NYT,  5/12/65) 

•  F-111b,  USN  version  of  the  F-111  multipurpose  fighter  designed  for  use 

by  both  USAF  and  usN,  was  displayed  for  the  first  time  during  a  roll- 
out ceremony  at  the  Grumman  Aircraft  Engineering  Corp.  plant  at 
Peconic,  L.I.  Secretary  of  the  Navy  Paul  H.  Nitze  was  the  principal 
speaker.  Test  pilots  demonstrated  the  variable-sweep  wing  which 
could  extend  almost  perpendicular  to  the  fuselage  for  take-offs,  land- 
ings, and  slow  flight,  and  then  pivot  back  sharply  for  supersonic 
flight.  In  a  news  conference.  Brig.  Gen.  John  L.  Zoeckler  (usaf), 
F-111  project  manager,  acknowledged  that  f-111b  was  500-600  lbs. 
"overweight,"  but  said  that  "very  substantial  strides"  had  been  made 
in  weight  reduction.  He  added  that  "some  compensation"  in  perform- 
ance would  be  achieved  in  later  USN  models  by  addition  of  high-lift 
devices.  The  two-man,  all-weather,  supersonic  aircraft  was  designed 
to  fly  at  about  1,600  mph.  (dod  Release  285-65;  Hudson,  NYT, 
5/12/65,  18) 

•  A  third  solid-fuel  Pershing  ballistic  missile  unit  would  be  moved  to  Eu- 

rope this  month,  dod  announced.     The  Pershing  could  reach  400  mi. 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  225 

with  either  a  nuclear  or  conventional  warhead  and  would  replace  the 
slower-firing  liquid-fuel  Redstone  missile.  {Wash.  Post,  5/11/65) 
May  11:  nasa  announced  closing  of  its  Santa  Monica  and  Dallas  Area 
Professional  Staffing  Offices  and  moving  of  its  New  York  office  to 
Boston  to  assist  in  recruitment  program  for  new  Electronics  Research 
Center  in  Cambridge.      (NASA  Release  65-156) 

•  Dr.   Raymond   L.   Bisplinghoff,   NASA   Associate   Administrator   for   Ad- 

vanced Research  and  Technology,  announced  the  appointment  of  Fran- 
cis J.  Sullivan  as  Director  of  the  Electronics  and  Control  Div.  of 
NASA's  Office  of  Advanced  Research  and  Technology.  Mr.  Sullivan 
had  been  serving  as  Acting  Director  since  Sept.  1,  1964.  (NASA  Re- 
lease 65-152) 

•  Decision    to    narrow    the    choice    of    type    of    broadcast    satellite    it 

would  consider  from  three  to  two  was  announced  by  ComSatCorp  pres- 
ident Joseph  V.  Charyk  at  a  stockholder's  meeting  in  Washington, 
D.C.  Two  of  the  approaches  under  consideration  involved  satellites 
that  would  operate  about  6,000  mi.  above  the  earth:  one  would  have 
18  satellites,  orbiting  in  random  positions;  the  other  would  have  12 
satellites,  orbiting  at  "phased"  or  controlled  positions.  The  third  ap- 
proach, being  tested  in  EARLY  bird  I,  had  satelHtes  placed  at  an  alti- 
tude of  22,000  mi.  in  synchronous  orbit.  In  his  speech,  Charyk  re- 
vealed that  the  corporation  had  decided  to  drop  from  consideration  the 
6,000-mi.  random  version.  It  had  been  discovered,  he  reported,  that  a 
6.000-mi.-high  satellite  could  be  controlled  more  easily  than  ComSat- 
Corp had  believed  when  it  first  started  studying  random  satelUtes  as 
one  alternative  approach.  Moreover,  Charyk  said,  it  now  appeared 
that  a  satellite  could  be  designed  that  would  operate  either  at  6,000  mi. 
in  controlled  positions  or  at  the  22,000-mi.-high,  synchronous  position. 

ComSatCorp  therefore  would  invite  satelHte  designers  to  offer  bids 
to  build  this  type  of  satellite.  (Denniston,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  5/11/65, 
12) 
May  11-21:  1965  cospar  (Committee  on  Space  Research)  meeting  was 
held  in  Mar  del  Plata,  Argentina,  where  it  was  moved  from  Buenos 
Aires  because  of  student  demonstrations. 

A  new  working  group  was  formed,  with  Morris  Tepper  (Chief  of 
Meteorological  Programs,  nasa)  as  chairman.  Called  Working  Group 
VI,  for  Scientific  Space  Experiments  Concerned  with  Properties  and 
Dynamics  of  the  Troposphere  and  Stratosphere,  it  was  formed  to 
"further  international  understanding  of,  and  cooperation  in,  the  use  of 
rocket  and  satellite  systems  and  techniques  for  meteorological  research, 
and  to  promote  international  discussions  involving  meteorologists  with 
scientists  of  other  disciplines  in  order  to  provide  a  good  climate  for 
the  development  of  imaginative  new  approaches  to  the  use  of  rockets 
and  sateUites  for  meteorological  research."  (nas-NRC  News  Report, 
Vol.  XV,  5/6/65,  6) 

Dr.  0.  Z.  Gazenko,  physiologist  and  member  of  the  Soviet  Academy 
of  Sciences,  said  that  cosmonauts  had  no  difficulty  knowing  the  orien- 
tation of  their  bodies  and  experienced  no  nervous  disorders  if  they 
were  given  visual  cues.  He  based  his  remarks  on  experiences  of  So- 
viet cosmonauts,  especially  those  of  Lt.  Col.  Aleksei  Leonov  in 
VOSKHOD  II:  "When  he  saw  the  spacecraft,  he  had  no  problem  know- 


226  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

ing  his  orientation,  but  it  was  different  when  he  didn't  see  the  space- 
craft." 

During  the  launch  phase,  the  cosmonauts'  pulse  and  breathing  rates 
were  greater  than  noted  during  centrifugal  tests  in  ground  laborato- 
ries. In  VOSKHOD  II,  it  took  a  comparatively  long  time  for  the  normal 
levels  to  be  reached,  according  to  Gazenko.  Comparison  of  the  data 
of  the  Voskhod  flights  with  other  space  flights  showed  fewer  cardiovas- 
cular variations  and  better  responses  to  stress.  He  recommended 
crews  of  several  people  since  "the  feeling  of  togetherness  of  cosmo- 
nauts is  very  important."      ( Text) 

Success  of  the  fully  stabilized  British  Skylark  rocket  in  obtaining 
new  astrophysical  data  was  described.  Skylark  was  a  single-stage,  sol- 
id-fuel vehicle  designed  to  carry  150-200-lb.  payload  to  200  km.  ( 124 
mi.)  altitude.  Using  the  sun  as  a  reference,  Skylark  could  achieve 
pointing  accuracy  of  between  two  and  three  minutes  of  arc  in  pitch 
and  yaw,  reported  Kenneth  Pounds,  lecturer  at  Leicester  College,  Eng- 
land, and  one  of  its  users:  "The  new  Skylark  has  revolutionized  the 
whole  field  of  rocket  research  as  far  as  we're  concerned."  He  pointed 
out  that  many  scientific  experiments,  such  as  taking  x-ray  photographs 
of  the  sun,  could  not  be  done  by  an  unstabilized  rocket:  "You  need 
100  sec.  or  more  exposure  time,  plus  roll  stabilization,  or  the  pho- 
tographs will  be  blurred."      (  cospar  Rpt.) 

M.  S.  V.  Rao,  reporting  on  the  Thumba,  India,  experiments  conduct- 
ed on  World  Days  during  the  1964—1965  IQSY,  said  east  northeasterly 
winds  with  speeds  of  60-90  knots  were  observed  in  the  stratosphere 
during  the  monsoon.  In  the  mesosphere,  data  revealed  a  region  of 
unusually  strong  winds  with  high  shear.  Rao  reported  that  radar  ob- 
servations of  the  rate  of  dispersion  of  chaff  confirmed  existence  of 
complex  pattern  of  high  shears  and  pronounced  turbulence  in  the 
equatorial  mesosphere  in  the  monsoon  season.      (Text) 

NASA  scientists  at  Wallops  Station,  Va.,  had  made  a  similar  rocket 
launching  during  the  Thumba  experiments  to  get  a  synoptic 
picture.  Arnold  Frutkin,  NASA  Director  of  International  Programs, 
said  at  the  COSPAR  meeting  that  "these  data  were  the  first  relating  to 
the  monsoon  problem  on  a  global  scale.  It  shows  what  very  important 
work  less  advanced  countries  can  do."      (M&R,  5/24/65,  17) 

Activities  in  the  1964  U.S.  space  program  were  summarized  by  Dr. 
Richard  W.  Porter,  National  Academy  of  Sciences  delegate  to 
cospar:  ".  .  .  Satellite  storm  warnings,  intercontinental  television, 
voice  and  data  transmissions  via  satellite,  all-weather  navigational 
'fixes'  for  ships  at  sea,  and  precise  map  making  by  means  of  satellite 
observations  have  become  almost  commonplace  events.  Space  launch- 
ings  at  frequent  intervals  are  providing  a  continuous  stream  of  new 
information  of  value  to  science  and  mankind.  ...  In  total,  the  var- 
ious agencies  of  the  United  States  carried  out  sixty-one  successful  sat- 
ellite and  space  probe  launchings;  however,  because  of  the  occasional 
practice  of  launching  several  satellites  at  a  time  .  .  .  the  total  number 
of  useful  discrete  payloads  in  Earth  orbit  or  escape  trajectory  was 
seventy-seven.  .  .  . 

"In  addition,  the  United  States  launched  seven  large  high-altitude 
rocket  probes,  in  the  range  from  700  to  1100  km.,  and  well  over  one 
hundred  other  scientific  sounding  rockets,  most  of  which  reached  alti- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  227 

tudes  between  110  and  250  km.  Twelve  hundred  twenty-three  small 
meteorological  rockets,  having  a  payload  of  about  5  kg.  and  a  maxi- 
mum altitude  of  about  60  km.  were  fired  on  regular  schedules  by  the 
meteorological  rocket  network  and  more  than  one  hundred  scientifical- 
ly instrumented  large  balloon  flights  were  made  during  the  period. 

"Technological  advances  made  during  this  period  which  will  con- 
tribute significantly  to  the  space-research  capability  of  the  United 
States  include  the  launching  of  three  SATURN  i  booster  rockets,  capable 
of  putting  about  7500  kg.  of  useful  weight  into  Earth  orbit,  one  titan 
IIIA  booster,  and  successful  tests  of  the  centaur  liquid  hydrogen 
rocket.  Electrostatic  ion  accelerator  rocket  propulsion  devices  were 
tested  in  space  during  1964,  and  more  recently  a  nuclear  reactor  with 
thermoelectric  energy  conversion  devices  successfully  began  an  endur- 
ance run  in  space  which  is  still  continuing.  Passive  gravity-gradient 
stabilization  techniques  have  been  perfected  by  means  of  additional 
satellite  tests  to  the  point  where  this  technique  is  ready  for  useful 
employment  in  a  variety  of  space  applications.  The  highly  directional 
properties  of  a  lasar  beam  were  successfully  used  in  tracking  a  satel- 
lite. Significant  improvements  were  also  made  in  sounding  rocket, 
high  altitude  balloon  design  and  in  data  conversion  facili- 
ties."    (Text) 

K,  Maeda,  chief  Japanese  delegate  to  the  sixth  international  space 
symposium  of  COSPAR,  told  Missiles  and  Rockets  Japan  would  launch 
its  own  satellite  with  its  own  launch  vehicle  within  the  next  three 
years.  A  four-stage,  solid-fueled  rocket  would  be  used,  with  the  Mu 
rocket  as  first  stage.  The  satellite,  to  be  used  solely  for  scientific 
research,  would  weigh  between  50—100  kgs.  and  be  sent  into  a 
500-1,000-km.   (311-621-mi.)   orbit.    {M&R,  5/17/65,  9) 

At  a  news  conference  during  the  cospar  meeting,  A.  A.  Blagonra- 
vov,  chief  Soviet  delegate,  said  that  in  view  of  the  difficulties  of  soft 
landing  on  the  moon,  the  Soviet  Union  would  probably  try  to  soft  land 
another  Lunik  before  attempting  to  land  cosmonauts.  He  said  the 
lunar  surface  must  be  known  in  detail  and  "should  be  examined  by 
automatic  stations."  Because  of  the  problems  involved,  he  added,  "it 
is  not  possible  to  set  any  date  for  a  lunar  landing."  {M&R,  5/24/65, 
17) 
May  12:  luna  v  "hit  the  moon  in  the  area  of  the  Sea  of  Clouds"  at  10:10 
p.m.  Moscow  time  [3:10  p.tn.  edt],  Tass  announced.  The  release 
continued:  "During  the  flight  an(i  the  approach  of  the  station  to  the 
moon  a  great  deal  of  information  was  obtained  which  is  necessary  for 
the  further  elaboration  of  a  system  for  soft  landing  on  the  moon's 
surface."  The  announcement  revealed  no  further  details  of  the 
landing.  Western  experts  saw  evidence  that  the  Soviets  had  attempted 
a  soft  landing  and  failed.  (Tass,  5/12/65;  Shabad,  NYT,  5/13/65,  1, 
24) 

•  USAF  launched  Blue  Scout  Jr.  space  probe  from  Eastern  Test  Range  with 

instrumented  payload  to  measure  pitch  angle  and  magnetic  field  inten- 
sity in  space.  Probe  attained  8,536-mi.  altitude  in  its  3-hr.  50-min. 
flight  and  returned  useful  data  to  earth  before  falling  into  Indian 
Ocean.      ( ^.5.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act.,  1965,  141 ) 

•  First  developmental  test  of  a  possible  landing  system   for   the  Apollo 

Spacecraft  was    successfully   performed    at   NASA   Manned    Spacecraft 


228  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

Center  with  the  drop  of  a  boilerplate  spacecraft  from  a  crane  into  a 
700,000  gallon  water  tank.  The  boilerplate  was  fitted  with  two  pairs 
of  rockets  and  an  8-ft.-long  altitude  sensor.  Rockets  were  mounted  in 
the  outer  rim  of  the  heat  shield;  thrust  vector  of  the  rockets  was 
aligned  with  the  gravity  vector  of  the  spacecraft. 

Structural  reinforcement  of  the  heat  shield  area  was  current  solution 
for  preventing  damage  to  the  spacecraft  in  a  rough  water  landing.  If 
the  landing  rocket  system  proved  desirable,  it  would  cut  several 
hundred  pounds  from  the  weight  of  the  Apollo  command  module  in 
addition  to  providing  an  improved  emergency  and  landing  capability. 
(msc  Roundup,  5/28/65,  8) 
May  12:  usn  would  build  new  stations  at  Raymondville  and  Roma,  Tex., 
as  part  of  its  spadats  (Space  Detection  and  Tracking  System)  sur- 
veillance network  for  detecting  satellites  passing  over  the  U.S.,  reported 
Warren  Burkett  in  the  Houston  Chronicle.  (Burkett,  Houston  Chron., 
5/12/65) 

•  NASA  announced  award  of  $15  million  contract  to   Grumman  Aircraft 

Engineering  Corp.  to  build  an  additional  Orbiting  Astronomical 
Observatory.  Grumman  already  was  building  three  Oao  spacecraft 
under  a  previously  awarded  contract,      (nasa  Release  65-154) 

•  At  Bell  Telephone  Laboratories  a  two-mile-long  laser  beam  was  folded 

into  a  ten-foot-long  space  by  reflecting  the  beam  back  and  forth  more 
than  1,000  times  between  two  mirrors.  By  distorting  the  shape  of  the 
mirrors  to  enable  the  beam  spots  to  form  a  pattern  of  slowly  changing 
ellipses,  scientists  kept  the  reflections  separate.  Bell  predicted  that  a 
computer  utilizing  this  effect  could  store  1,000  bits  of  information 
which  could  be  read  out  serially  one  bit  every  billionth  of  a 
second.      (A^yr,  5/12/65) 

•  DOD   awarded    Smith    and   Sapp   Construction   Co.    a   $1,616,970,   NASA- 

funded,  fixed-price  contract  for  construction  alterations  to  existing 
spacecraft  facilities  at  Cape  Kennedy,      (dod  Release  323—65) 

•  Soviet's  first  communications  satellite  molniya  I  maintained  direct  ra- 

diotelephone communications  between  Vladivostok  and  Sofia,  Warsaw, 
and  Prague  for  almost  three  hours.      (Tass,  5/12/65) 

•  In  interim  decision,  FCC  awarded  ComSatCorp  for  two  years  "sole  re- 

sponsibility" for  design,  construction,  and  operation  of  three  ground 
stations  for  a  global  communications  network.  Future  of  AT&T- 
owned  Andover,  Me.,  station  was  not  discussed.      (ComSatCorp) 

•  XB-70  and  Boeing  707  noise  comparison  results  were  reported  by  FRC 

engineers  Carol  S.  Tanner  and  Norman  J.  McLeod  at  Aircraft  Operat- 
ing Problems  Committee  meeting  at  LaRC.  During  takeoffs  both  air- 
craft reached  maximum  noise  level  in  the  frequency  range  of  about 
125  cps.  Data  from  tests  would  aid  in  prediction  of  runway  noise 
levels   for  the  proposed  supersonic  transport,      (frc   Release   13-65) 

•  Capt.   Robert  F.  Freitag    (usn.  Ret.),  Director  of  NASA  Manned  Space 

Flight  Field  Center  Development,  told  Theodore  von  Karman  Memo- 
rial Seminar  in  Los  Angeles  that  solutions  to  air  and  water  pollution 
"could  very  well  develop  out  of  the  research  now  being  undertaken 
to  develop  self-sustaining  life  support  systems  for  astronauts  on  mis- 
sions of  long  duration."  (West,  L.A.  Times,  5/13/65) 
May  13:  mariner  iv,  78,277,013  mi.  from  earth  at  9  a.m.  est,  had  cov- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  229 

ered  251,691,170  mi.  along  its  orbit.  The  Mars  probe  was  travelling 
46,214  mph  relative  to  earth  and  was  returning  data  and  scientific 
information  continuously.      (NASA  Release  65-159) 

President  Johnson  transmitted  to  Congress  a  plan  to  merge  the  Weather 
Bureau,  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey,  and  the  Central  Radio  Propa- 
gation Laboratory  of  the  National  Bureau  of  Standards  into  an  Envir- 
onmental Science  Services  Administration.  "The  new  administration 
will  then  provide  a  single  national  focus  for  our  efforts  to  describe, 
understand,  and  predict  the  state  of  the  oceans,  the  state  of  the  lower 
and  upper  atmospheres  and  the  size  and  shape  of  the  earth  ...  as 
well  as  enhance  our  ability  to  develop  an  adequate  warning  system  for 
the  severe  hazards  of  nature  .  .  .  which  have  proved  so  disastrous  to 
the  Nation  in  recent  years."  He  added  that  Federal  agencies  "con- 
cerned with  the  national  defense  [and  the]  exploration  of  outer  space" 
would  receive  improved  services  and  that  combining  of  offices  and 
technical  facilities  would  save  money.      (White  House  Release) 

Gemini  GT-4  countdown  rehearsal  at  KSC  with  Astronauts  James  A. 
McDivitt  (Maj.,  usaf)  and  Edward  H.  White  ii  (Maj.,  USAf)  was 
delayed  because  of  a  minor  fueling  problem.  Launch  of  the  GT-^ 
mission  was  scheduled  for  June  3.  (ap,  Galveston  Neivs -Tribune, 
5/14/65) 

An  Emeraude  rocket  was  successfully  fired  by  France  from  the  Hamma- 
guir  range,  Algerian  Sahara,  to  a  planned  altitude  of  112  mi.  It  was 
topped  by  a  mockup  of  the  Topaze  rocket  which  was  to  be  the  second 
stage  of  the  Diamant  launcher  that  France  was  developing.  (Reuters, 
NYT,  5/18/65;  Root,  Wash.  Post,  5/18/65;  M&R,  5/31/65,  11) 

NASA  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  researchers  Dr.  John  B.  Schutt 
and  Charles  M.  Shai  announced  development  of  a  new  series  of  inor- 
ganic spacecraft  paints  with  promise  of  commercial  application;  report 
given  at  a  meeting  of  the  Philadelphia  Society  for  Paint  Technology 
and  the  Philadelphia  Section  of  the  American  Chemical  Society.  The 
paints  would  utilize  an  alkali-metal  silicate  as  a  binder  and  an  inorgan- 
ic phosphate  as  a  wetting  agent.  They  would  adhere  to  most  metals 
and  non-metals;  would  not  crack,  peel,  chalk,  flake,  or  fade  when  sub- 
jected to  temperatures  between  1,800°F  and  — 320°F;  would  be  wash- 
able; could  be  made  in  any  color;  and  would  have  a  long  shelf 
life,     (gsfc  Release  G-13-65) 

American  Broadcasting  Co.  notified  the  FCC  it  was  preparing  plans  for  a 
domestic  communications  satellite  to  relay  network  television  programs 
to  affiliated  stations  for  rebroadcast,  thereby  raising  for  the  first  time 
the  question  of  a  company  other  than  ComSatCorp  owning  and  operat- 
ing a  Comsat.      (Gould,  NYT,  5/14/65,  1 ) 

NBC  announced  it  would  televise  the  June  3  Gemini  GT-4  spaceflight  in 
color.  It  would  be  the  first  live-color  coverage  of  a  space 
flight.      ( Doan,  N.Y.  Her.  Trib.,  5/14/65) 

Cornell  Univ.  astronomers  at  Arecibo  radiotelescope  facility  revealed 
that  their  radar  observations  of  the  planet  Mercury  April  25  indicated 
that  Mercury  rotated  on  its  axis  once  every  59  days,  rotating  in  the 
same  direction  as  its  orbit.  This  new  study  confirmed  clearly  that 
Mercury  did  not  have  a  retrograde  rotation  and  laid  to  rest  the  classic 
view  that  Mercury  did  not  rotate  on  its  axis  at  all.  The  astronomers 
had  reported  their  findings  on  Mercury's  rotation  in  Washington  last 


230  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

April  21  but  at  that  time  were  not  sure  whether  the  rotation  was 
retrograde  or  direct.  (Hines,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  5/13/65) 
May  13:  The  Sofar  (Sound  Fixing  and  Ranging  Device),  used  to  locate 
icbm's  through  a  small  explosive  charge  set  off  as  the  missile  sank, 
would  be  transformed  into  a  rescue  device  for  aircraft  and  ships  in  the 
Pacific,  Capt.  John  M.  Waters.  Jr.  (USCg),  told  a  U.S.  Coast  Guard- 
sponsored  North  Atlantic  Search  and  Rescue  Seminar  in  New  York.  A 
pressure  switch  mechanism  would  fire  the  explosive  at  2,500  ft.  below 
the  surface — depth  at  which  sound  waves  encountered  least  resistance; 
sound  of  the  explosion  would  be  picked  up  by  four  hydrophone  listen- 
ing stations  and  the  exact  disaster  site  plotted.  Capt.  Waters  said 
the  device  was  "practically  foolproof"  and  had  been  endorsed  by  the 
Naval  Aviation  Center.  Each  Sofar  locator  would  cost  about  S75. 
(Bamberger,  NYT,  5/14/65,  65) 

•  Soviet  engineer  T.  Borisov  suggested  that  cause  of  LUNa  v's  apparent 

failure  to  soft  land  on  the  moon  might  have  been  failure  of  the 
braking  rockets  to  fire  "precisely  when  needed,"  the  New  York  Times 
reported.  Borisov  pointed  out  that  earth  stations  could  not  help  the 
automatic  equipment  during  this  phase  because  it  takes  2Y2  sec.  for 
radio  signals  to  make  round-trip  between  earth  and  moon.  {NYT, 
5/14/65,  3) 

•  A  descriptive  report  on  the  three  generations  of  Soviet  manned  space- 

craft— VOSTOK  I  through  vostok  vi,  first  generation;  voskhod  I,  sec- 
ond generation;  and  voskhod  ii,  third  generation — was  prepared  by 
Space  Daily,  in  collaboration  with  Soviet  space  officials  and  the  Novos- 
ti  Press  Agency:  "The  Soviet's  first  three  generations  of  manned  space- 
craft are  injected  into  orbit  within  a  standard  cone-cylinder  configura- 
tion with  a  maximum  length  of  30.3  feet  and  a  maximum  diameter  of 
8.7  feet  .  .  . 

"The  launch-to-orbit  vehicle  is  comprised  of  four  major  compo- 
nents: the  last  stage  of  the  rocket;  the  instrument  and  service  module; 
the  cosmonaut  cabin  and  re-entry  capsule;  and  the  nose  cone  and  fair- 
ing. .  .  . 

"The  cabin  for  the  first  two  generation  spacecraft  remained  in  exter- 
nal configuration  essentially  the  same.  The  major  modification  .  .  . 
was  the  internal  arrangement  providing  a  capability  for  two  astronauts 
instead  of  one  which  included  the  requirement  for  an  additional  hatch. 
The  third  generation  spacecraft  has  required  not  only  a  major  modi- 
fication for  the  internal  arrangement,  for  the  third  cosmonaut,  but  has 
forced  a  configuration  addition  to  the  7.5  foot  sphere  with  the  attach- 
ment of  the  airlock.  .  .  . 

"For  the  first  generation  spacecraft  the  cosmonaut  was  seated  in  the 
center  of  the  sphere  with  his  back  to  re-entry  portion  of  the 
sphere.  The  capsule  had  three  hatches:  the  egress  hatch,  the  para- 
chute compartment  hatch  and  an  equipment  access  hatch  .  .  .  The 
parachute  compartment  was  located  to  the  left  and  rear  of  the 
cosmonaut  .  .  .  Antennas  for  the  radio  system  of  the  re-entry  capsule 
were  located  180  degrees  from  the  stagnation  point  of  the  heat 
shield.  Even  in  that  location  it  is  possible  that  heat  build-up  de- 
stroyed all  protruding  systems  as  evidenced  by  the  landed  voSTOK.  .  .  . 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  231 

"The  first  generation  vehicles  weighed  about  10,430  pounds,  after 
ejection  of  the  nose  cone  and  fairing  and  separation  of  the  third  stage 
of  the  booster.  .  .  .  The  cabin  for  the  first  and  second  generation 
missions  weighed  about  5300  pounds. 

"In  addition,  voskhod  ii  represents  an  advancement  to  a  more 
operational  type  of  vehicle  with  an  arrangement  indicating  its  role  for 
extensive  Earth-orbital  operations. 

"The  airlock  for  the  voskhod  ii  mission  would  represent  the  far- 
thest evolution  of  the  Soviet  manned  spacecraft  program  ...  a 
cylindrical  projection  to  the  basic  vehicle,  positioned  within  the  nose 
cone  and  fairing  above  or  forward  of  the  cabin  in  the  antenna  region. 
With  respect  to  the  cosmonauts  the  airlock  would  be  above  and  to  the 
front  as  they  remained  in  their  seats;  its  position  would  be  180  de- 
grees from  the  stagnation  point  of  the  heat  shield."  {SBD,  5/13/65, 
68-70) 
May  13-14:  Executives  of  four  competing  companies  briefed  the  USAF 
Space  Systems  Div.  source  selection  board  on  their  Manned  Orbiting 
Laboratory  (Mol)  entries.  Represented  were  the  Boeing  Co.,  General 
Electric  Co.,  Lockheed  Aircraft  Corp.,  and  Douglas  Aircraft  Co.  {Av. 
Wk.,  5/31/65,  22) 
May  14:  NASA  and  faa  announced  formation  of  a  joint  12-member  coordi- 
nating board  to  strengthen  joint  planning  and  facilitate  exchange  of 
information  between  the  two  agencies.  The  board  would  focus  its 
attention  on  aeronautical  research,  development,  and  testing  activities 
to  gain  the  greatest  return  from  available  resources  and  to  avoid 
duplication.  Co-chairman  would  be  Dr.  Raymond  L.  Bisplinghoff, 
NASA  Associate  Administrator  for  Advanced  Research  and  Technology, 
and  Robert  J.  Shank,  FAA  Associate  Administrator  for  Development. 
(NASA  Release  65-155) 

•  Sen.  A.  S.  Monroney  (D-Okla.)  told  a  meeting  of  the  American  Helicop- 

ter Society  in  Washington,  D.C.,  that  NASA  was  spending  too  small  a 
share  of  its  budget  on  aviation  research. 

Senator  Monroney,  the  chairman  of  the  Senate  Aviation  Subcommit- 
tee, said  he  became  angry  when  he  compared  the  $43  million  ear- 
marked for  aeronautics  next  year  with  the  space  agency's  total  budget 
of  $5.2  billion. 

He  said  that  although  the  agency  allocated  less  than  2  percent  of  its 
budget  to  solving  the  many  flight  mysteries  it  acknowledges  still  exist, 
the  agency's  working-level  scientists  wanted  to  do  more  in  this  area. 

Monroney  also  said  he  disagreed  with  those  who  contended  that 
subsidy  for  the  helicopter  airlines  was  wasteful  and  unwarranted. 

He  said  that  while  helicopters  might  not  have  made  the  progress 
many  wished  for  and  some  had  promised,  commercial  revenues  had 
increased,  costs  had  declined,  equipment  had  improved,  and  capability 
to  operate  on  instruments  had  been  developed,      (ap,  NYT,  5/15/65) 

•  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb  announced  during  a  ceremony  at 

Western  Reserve  Univ.  honoring  retiring  Dr.  T.  Keith  Glennan,  presi- 
dent of  Case  Institute  of  Technology,  that  Glennan  had  been  asked  to 
return  to  NASA  as  an  adviser.  Webb  said  Glennan  would  be  asked  to 
review  NASA  spending  plans  for  the  next  ten  years. 

Glennan,  Webb's  predecessor  as  NASA  Administrator,  was  appointed 


232  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

by  President  Eisenhower  to  head  the  agency  when  it  was  formed  in 
1958.  (Ludwigson.  Cleveland  Plain  Dealer,  5/15/65) 
May  14:  Secretary  of  Defense  Robert  S.  McNamara  told  the  House  Ap- 
propriations Committee  that  about  SI. 2  billion — 80  per  cent  of  the 
allocated  money — had  been  wasted  on  the  abortive  B-70  bomber  proj- 
ect, Howard  Margolis  reported  in  the  Washington  Post.  The  question 
of  how  much  of  the  money  spent  was  wasted  arose  when  McNamara 
was  asked  whether  knowledge  from  the  B-70  work  would  be  valuable 
to  other  mihtary  and  civilian  projects.  McNamara  suggested  that  at 
least  80  per  cent  of  the  money  had  been  wasted,  Margolis  said.  Mc- 
Namara's  general  view  had  been  that  substantial  "waste"  of  this  sort 
was  unavoidable  in  the  defense  program  since  it  was  rarely  possible  to 
know  how  valuable  a  development  project  would  be  before  large  sums 
had  been  spent.  Margolis  added  that  McNamara  suggested  minimizing 
such  waste  by  insisting  on  good  evidence  of  probable  value  before 
allocating  large  expenditures  and,  even  then,  by  limiting  spending  as 
much  as  possible  until  the  value  of  a  project  was  proven.  (Margolis, 
Wash.  Post,  5/15/65) 

•  A  special  educational  television  satellite  station  to  carry  color  or  black- 

and-white  TV  direct  to  home  receivers  was  proposed  to  NASA  by 
Hughes  Aircraft  engineer  Dr.  Harold  Rosen.  {Time,  5/14/65;  CR, 
5/20/65,  A2549) 

•  Sen.   Henry  M.   Jackson    (D-Wash.)    reported  that   ComSatCorp  would 

construct  a  $6  million  ground  station  at  Brewster,  Wash.,  and  that  FCC 
had  approved  ownership  of  the  station  by  ComSatCorp.  (ap,  Oregon- 
ian,  5/14/65) 

•  A  mouse-size   "algatron."   life-support   system    designed   to   make   outer 

space  habitable  for  astronauts  on  prolonged  missions,  was  demon- 
strated by  Univ.  of  California  scientists  Dr.  William  J.  Oswald  and  Dr. 
Clarence  G.  Golueke.  In  the  system  bacteria  break  down  animal 
wastes,  algae  live  off  the  result,  and  emit  oxygen  while  absorbing  car- 
bon dioxide.  According  to  the  scientists'  report,  the  algatron,  in 
which  a  mouse  lived  for  six  weeks  and  could  have  stayed  indefinitely, 
would  weigh  about  1,000  lbs.  in  a  man-sized  version.  {Wash.  Post, 
5/14/65) 

•  A  lunar  dust  cloud  produced  by  braking  rockets  of  Soviet  probe  LUNA 

V  as  it  attempted  a  soft  landing  on  the  moon  May  12  was  photographed 
by  the  observatory  at  Rodewisch,  E.  Germany,  said  the  observatory's 
director  in  an  interview  with  adn,  E.  German  press  agency.  The  track- 
ing station  had  made  photographs  of  the  lunar  approach  of  the  space- 
craft at  15-sec.  intervals.  At  the  moment  of  best  visibility — 10:15  p.m. 
Moscow  time — the  dust  cloud  was  140  mi.  long  and  50  mi.  wide.  It  had 
disappeared  by  10:21  p.m.  Moscow  time.  This  was  the  first  indica- 
tion that  braking  rockets  aboard  the  spacecraft  had  been  operative. 
Soviet  announcement  had  given  landing  time  for  LUNA  V  as  10:10  p.m. 
Pictures  of  the  dust  cloud  were  published  in  Izvestia.  {NYT,  5/16/65, 
6;  AP,  Wash.  Sun.  Star,  5/16/65) 

•  Communist  China  exploded  its  second  atomic  bomb  "over  its  western 

areas"   at   10  a.m.   Peking  time,   according  to   Hsinhua,   the   Chinese 
Communist  press  agency.      (Reuters,  NYT,  5/15/65,  2) 
May  15:  NASA  Administrator  James  E.  Webb,  speaking  to  the  University  of 
Alabama  Alumni  in  Washington,  D.C.:  "During  the  five  years  ending 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  233 

this  month,  NASA  will  have  awarded  to  the  University  general-purpose 
grants,  project  contracts  in  support  of  research,  and  traineeships 
amounting  to  over  S4.8  million. 

"This  sum  has  supported  68  research  projects  and  renewals  and  the 
training  of  30  graduate  students. 

"In  the  last  academic  year  63  faculty  members,  67  graduate  stu- 
dents, 51  undergraduate  students,  and  25  others  were  supported 
through  NASA  research  and  predoctoral  training  programs. 

"Over  the  past  five  years  49  faculty  members,  61  graduate  students 
and  73  undergraduate  students  participated  in  engineering  research 
sponsored  by  NASA. 

"In  addition  to  this  support — and  in  addition  to  support  for  the 
physics,  mathematics  and  chemistry  departments — the  Marshall  Space 
Flight  Center  has  guaranteed  support  for  the  graduate  training  pro- 
gram at  Huntsville  to  a  total  of  $750,000  in  five  years.  This  Hunts- 
ville  program  permitted  the  establishment  two  years  ago  of  resident 
master's  degree  programs  in  five  disciplines.  A  sixth  was  added  last 
year.  In  two  years,  2,729  students  have  participated."  (Text) 
May  15:  "There  are  593  objects  in  earth  orbit  today,"  said  Maj.  Gen. 
Horace  A.  Hanes  (USAf),  Commander  of  the  9th  Aerospace  Defense 
Div.,  at  an  Armed  Forces  Week  celebration  at  Selfridge  afb, 
Mich.  He  said  these  ranged  from  the  six-in.-dia.  Vanguard  satellite 
through  the  90-ft.-dia.  Echo  satellite.  Hanes  said  the  primary  mission 
of  his  division  was  to  detect  and  warn  the  U.S.  of  a  mass  ballistic 
missile  attack:  "We  use  radar  stations  in  Alaska,  Greenland,  and  Eng- 
land for  this.  But  to  detect  satellites  and  other  objects  in  earth  orbit 
we  use  these  radars  plus  a  variety  of  other  equipment  including  special 
optical  cameras  eleven  feet  high  that  weigh  3,000  pounds."  (Pipp, 
Detroit  News,  5/16/65) 
•  A  newspaper  article  summarizing  a  report  of  the  International  Civil 
Aviation  Organization  on  the  safety  record  of  the  non-Communist 
world's  airlines  in  1964  said:  ".  .  .  its  more  than  100  member  air- 
lines, which  include  U.S.  carriers,  ended  the  year  with  the  lowest  fatal- 
ity rate  on  record,  0.61  deaths  to  100  million  passenger-miles  flown, 
22.5  percent  below  1963,  the  best  previous  year."  (C/?,  5/19/65, 
10592) 
Week  of  May  16:  A  S300.000  telescope  produced  through  gifts  of  parts  and 
money  was  put  on  display  at  the  Stamford  (Conn.)  Museum  and 
Nature  Center.  The  22-in.  photo-visual  telescope,  designed  to  track 
even  man-made  satellites,  was  the  result  of  a  project  compared  to  a 
"barn  raising."  A  spokesman  said  that  at  dedication  on  June  13, 
plaques  would  be  distributed  to  51  major  contributors  of  equipment 
and  labor,  and  certificates  to  81  other  cooperators.  (Devlin,  NYT, 
5/23/65) 
May  16:  explorer  xxili  and  pegasus  i  meteoroid  technology  satellites 
continued  to  transmit  useful  information  after  months  of  operation  in 
the  space  environment,  reported  Milton  B.  Ames,  Jr.,  NASA  Director 
of  Space  Vehicles  Research  and  Technology. 

EXPLORER  XXIII,  launched  by  Scout  rocket  from  Wallops  Station, 
Va.,  Nov.  16,  1964,  was  last  of  three  S-55  series  satellites  which  were 
the  first  spacecraft  orbited  specifically  to  measure  meteoroid  penetra- 
tions through  spacecraft  structures.     Performance  of  explorer  xxiil 


234  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

had  been  entirely  satisfactory,  and  indications  were  that  it  would  have 
a  useful  life  of  more  than  a  year,  Ames  said.  Orbital  parameters 
were:  apogee,  615  mi.  (990  km.);  perigee,  290  mi.  (467  km.);  in- 
clination to  the  equator,  51.95°. 

PEGASUS  I,  launched  Feb.  16,  1965,  was  first  of  a  series  of  three 
satellites  intended  to  measure  meteoroid  penetrations  of  greater  struc- 
tural thicknesses  and  contained  a  meteoroid  penetration  area  of  almost 
2,300  sq.  ft.  Ames  said  that  although  useful  results  had  been  obtained 
with  .0015-in. -thick  panels,  the  data  obtained  with  .008-in. -thick  and 
.016-in. -thick  panels  had  not  been  fully  satisfactory  because  of  difficul- 
ties in  the  operation  of  the  detection  system.  Still,  PEGASUS  I  had 
provided  significant  inform.ation  leading  to  improvement  of  detection 
systems  on  the  remaining  two  Pegasus  spacecraft.  Orbital  parameters 
for  PEGASUS  I  were:  apogee,  451  mi.  (726  km.);  perigee,  311  mi. 
(500.7  km.)  ;  inclination,  31.75°.      (nasa  Release  65-157) 

May  16:  Editorializing,  the  Hartford  Courant  said:  ".  .  .  Lunik  V's  pur- 
pose was  openly  said  to  be  a  soft  landing  on  the  moon,  an  experiment 
that  might  have  sent  back  the  first  pictures  of  the  moon  from  the 
actual  lunar  surface,  and  information  about  the  physical  nature  of  that 
surface.  Possibly  the  Russians  were  sure  they  had  the  problems  of  a 
soft  landing  solved.  But  just  possibly  they  decided  this  time  to  be 
frank  and  out  in  the  open  about  the  whole  business.  After  all.  why  be 
scared?  Look  at  all  the  failures  the  United  States  has  admitted. 
And  right  now  the  Russians  have  something  to  console  themselves 
with.  It's  called  honesty,  and  its  just  as  good  to  be  distinguished  for 
this  as  it  is  for  technology."      {Hartford  Courant,  5/16/65) 

May  17:  Britain  and  France  signed  an  agreement  to  jointly  build  two 
supersonic  military  aircraft  for  the  1970s:  (1)  a  strike  trainer;  and 
(2)  a  pivoting-wing  attack  plane.  The  strike  trainer,  to  be  based  on 
France's  twin-engine  Breguet  121,  would  be  built  by  the  British  Air-, 
craft  Corp.  in  cooperation  with  the  Societe  des  Ateliers  d' Aviation 
Louis  Breguet.  Rolls  Royce,  Ltd.,  and  Turbomeca,  a  French  engine 
concern,  would  supply  the  engines.  The  variable  sweep  wing,  aircraft 
similar  to  the  American  F-111  fighter-bomber,  but  smaller,  would  be 
based  on  the  concept  of  British  aircraft  designer  Dr.  Barnes  Wallis 
and  built  by  the  British  Aircraft  Corp.  and  the  Societe  Generale  Aero- 
nautique  Marcelle  Dassault. 

The  agreement  committed  each  country  to  an  initial  expenditure  of 
$56  million,  most  of  which  would  be  spent  on  a  prototype  for  the 
strike  trainer.      (Farnsworth,  NYT,  5/18/65,  8) 

•  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  had  awarded  a  $1,600,000  contract  to 

Aero  Spacelines,  Inc.,  to  transport  Saturn  upper  stages  and  outsize 
rocket  components  in  its  modified  Boeing  Stratocruiser,  Pregnant 
Guppy.  The  contract  would  run  through  June  1966.  (msfc  Release 
65-123) 

•  Aviation  Week  reported:  "nasa  is  considering  the  possibility  of  launch- 

ing two  manned  Gemini  spacecraft  within  a  few  days  of  each  other  so 
that  the  two  would  operate  concurrently  in  space  for  a  day  or 
two."  Noting  that  the  plan  was  not  yet  approved,  the  item  speculated 
that  such  action  would  probably  not  take  place  until  late  in  the  Gemini 
program.     Since  only  one  Gemini  launch  stand  existed,  it  was  most 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  235 

likely  that  the  second  vehicle  would  be  erected  and  checked  out  first, 
then  stored  until  the  first  had  flown.  {Av.  Wk,  5/17/65,  23) 
May  17:  Robert  Hotz  said  in  an  editorial  in  Aviation  Week  and  Space 
Technology:  "With  each  passing  year  it  becomes  more  and  more  appar- 
ent that  the  Soviets  agreed  to  the  partial  nuclear  test  ban  treaty  at 
a  time  most  advantageous  to  them  and  most  disadvantageous  to 
us.  The  Soviets  already  had  tested  their  nuclear  warheads  over  the 
entire  spectrum — from  underwater  devices  to  50-megaton  air  bursts 
including  live  icbm  warheads.  The  U.S.  had  not  tested  any  of  its 
nuclear  warheads  in  strategic  systems  and  can  only  theorize  about  the 
effects  that  high-altitude  nuclear  blasts  in  the  50-megaton-and-up  range 
will  have  on  communications  and  control  networks  of  silo-based  iCBMs 
and  other  strategic  systems. 

"Mr.  McNamara  has  based  his  defense  policy  on  the  belief  that  he 
will  be  able  to  detect  any  new  Soviet  weapons  development  in  time  to 
develop  a  U.S.  counter-measure  before  the  Russians  can  become  opera- 
tional with  their  new  force.  Since  several  of  the  new  Soviet  iCBMs 
and  an  anti-iCBM  shown  in  recent  Red  Square  parades  came  as  a 
complete  surprise  to  the  Western  intelligence  community,  it  would  ap- 
pear that  this  assumption  by  Mr.  McNamara  is  open  to  serious 
challenge.  History  may  prove  that  Mr.  McNamara's  view  of  the  time 
span  available  for  the  U.S.  to  counter-develop  weapons  to  thwart  a 
Soviet  challenge  is  as  wrong  as  his  forecasts  of  the  war  in 
Vietnam."  {Av.  Wk.,  5/17/65,  21 ) 
•  "The  Soviet  Union,  with  its  May  9  display  of  missile  and  space  might, 
has  dealt  a  major  blow  to  the  complacency  of  those  persons  in  the 
United  States  who  consistently  have  underestimated  the  competence  of 
the  Russians  in  these  fields,"  wrote  WilHam  J.  Coughlin  in  an  editorial 
in  Missiles  and  Rockets.  He  continued:  "The  appearance  of  Soviet 
solid-fuel  missiles  of  a  type  similar  to  the  U.S.  Minuteman  ICBM  indi- 
cates that  the  Soviets  finally  have  overcome  the  chemical  roadblock 
which  until  now  has  made  possible  the  U.S.  lead  in  solids.  .  .  . 

"In  a  film  which  the  Moscow  correspondent  of  the  New  York  Times 
estimated  to  be  at  least  three  years  old,  the  Soviets  also  displayed 
launchings  from  an  underground  silo.  The  combination  of  these 
events  suggests  the  Soviets  now  are  in  a  position  to  rapidly  close  the 
missile  gap  with  the  United  States  to  the  point  where  it  is  of  no 
consequence  in  military  calculations.  .  .  . 

"In  the  film  release,  the  Russians  for  the  first  time  showed  their 
anti-missile  missile  in  action.  One  sequence  was  of  intercept  of  an 
ICBM.   .   .   . 

"The  increasing  Soviet  confidence  also  is  indicated  in  the  space 
field.  The  Soviets  let  it  be  known  more  than  a  month  in  advance  that 
their  next  space  spectacular  could  be  expected  May  9.  .  .  .  The 
launch  of  LUNIK  v  obviously  was  right  on  schedule.  The  acknowl- 
edgement after  launch  but  in  advance  of  impact  that  its  goal  was  a 
lunar  soft  landing  also  is  a  more  realistic  approach  to  space  develop- 
ments than  previously  shown. 

"This  shift  toward  a  franker  attitude  is  supported  by  the  open  ad- 
mission of  the  Zond  ii  Mars  probe  failure  by  Soviet  scientists  attend- 
ing the  Space  Exploration  Symposium  in  Chicago  on  May  4. 


236  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

"At  the  same  time,  the  Russians  released  more  information  on  the 
Soviet  space  program  at  the  Chicago  meeting  than  heretofore. 

"All  of  this  points  toward  greater  maturity  in  both  Soviet  missile 
programs  and  Soviet  space  programs.  The  competition  therefore  is 
far  keener  than  many  persons  in  the  U.S.  have  been  willing  to  admit. 

"The  conclusion  is  clear.  The  U.S.  cannot  afford  to  let  down  or  it 
will  be  far  outdistanced  in  areas  which  will  continue  to  be  vital  in  its 
national  security  and  well-being  for  many,  many  years."  (Coughlin, 
M&R,  5/17/65,  74) 
May  17:  Communist  China's  second  nuclear  bomb  was  the  warhead  on  a 
missile  launched  from  a  military  base  and  detonated  in  the  air  after 
traveling  an  undisclosed  distance,  asserted  the  Japanese  newspaper 
Asahi  Shimbum.  The  bomb  was  exploded  May  14  over  Western 
China.  (UPI,  Wash.  Daily  News.  5/17/65,  18) 
May  18:  x-15  No.  2  flown  by  pilot  John  McKay  (nasa)  to  102,100  ft. 
altitude  at  maximum  speed  of  3.541  mph  (mach  5.17)  to  obtain  data 
for  stability  and  control  evaluation,  star  tracker  checkout,  advanced 
X-15  landing  dynamics,  and  landing  gear  modification  checkout. 
(NASA  X-15  Proj.  Off.;   X-15  Flight  Log) 

•  USAF   launched   an   unidentified   satellite   from   Vandenberg   afb   with   a 

Thor-Agena  D  booster  combination.      (uPi,  NYT,  5/19/65,  2) 

•  TELSTAR  II  had  successfully  turned  off  its  tracking  beacon  as  scheduled 

after  two  years  and  nine  days  of  service  and  4,736  orbits  of  the  earth. 
Bell  Telephone  System  engineers  announced.  This  would  not  affect 
the  Comsat's  usefulness,  but  would  conserve  energy  and  permit  other 
satellites  to  use  the  channel  that  was  cut  off.  telstar  ii  was  expect- 
ed to  remain  usable  for  at  least  three  more  years.  (UPi,  NYT, 
5/20/65,  18) 

•  Memorandum  of  Understanding  for  a  cooperative  Argentina-U.S.  pro- 

gram of  meteorological  sounding  rocket  research  was  signed  by  Teofilo 
Tabanera  for  the  Comision  Nacional  de  Investigaciones  Espaciales 
(cnie)  and  Hugh  L.  Dryden  for  NASA.  Specific  purpose  of  this 
experimental  program  was  to  obtain  high-altitude  meteorological  data 
in  the  vicinity  of  Chamical,  Argentina,  by  Boosted-Dart  and  Areas 
sounding  rockets  and  to  evaluate  Argentine  ground  support  equipment 
in  conjunction  with  the  payloads.  General  purpose  of  the  experiment- 
al program  was  "to  develop  a  basis  for  future  meteorological  rocket 
soundings  on  an  operational  basis."  The  program  was  contemplated 
as  "one  element  in  a  projected  inter-American,  experimental,  metero- 
logical  sounding  rocket  research  network  (exametnet)  ."  (Memo  of 
Understanding) 

•  3C-9,  a  quasar   (quasi-stellar  radio  source)    receding  from  the  earth  at 

149,000  mps  or  80%  of  the  speed  of  light,  had  been  discovered  with 
the  200-in.  telescope  at  Mt.  Palomar  Observatory,  Walter  Sullivan 
reported  in  the  New  York  Times.  It  was  the  most  distant  of  a  new 
generation  of  five  quasars  which  included  CTA-102,  the  object  Soviet 
astronomers  had  suggested  might  be  transmitting  signals  under  in- 
telligent control.  All  appeared  to  be  so  distant  that  their  life  had 
probably  ended  during  the  billions  of  years  required  for  their  light  to 
reach  earth.  Dr.  Allan  R.  Sandage  of  Mt.  Palomar  Observatory  said 
his  studies  of  brightness  and  velocities  of  these  five  quasars  and  four 
others  previously  calculated  resulted  in  evidence  supporting  the  "oscil- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  237 

lating  universe"  theory.  Data  on  the  nine  quasars'  velocities  largely 
was  the  work  of  Dr.  Maarten  Schmidt.  Mt.  Palomar  Observatory. 
(Sullivan.  NYT,  5/ 18  65.  1.  2:  5/23/65.  6E) 
May  18:  Stanley  R.  Reinartz.  previously  deputy  manager  of  NASA  Marshall 
Space  Flight  Center's  Saturn  i  IB  Program  Office,  had  been  named 
program  manager  of  the  newly  established  Saturn  IB /Centaur  office, 
MSFC  announced.  The  office  would  manage  the  program  definition 
and  design  phase  of  the  three-stage  Saturn  IB/Centaur  space  vehicle 
system,      (msfc  Release  65-124;  Marshall  Star,  5/26/65,  1 ) 

•  NASA  Lewis  Research  Center  planned  to  buy  enough  Vs-in.-dia.  pingpong 

balls  to  fill  a  bucket-like  device  12  ft.  in  dia.  and  19  ft.  deep.  The 
miniature  pingpong  balls  would  be  used  to  cushion  experiments  in 
LRc's  500-ft.-deep  zero-gravity  shaft.  Experiments  would  be  recovered 
intact  for  evaluation  and  later  reuse.  The  pingpong  balls,  it  was 
hoped,  could  cushion  up  to  6.000  lbs.      (lrc  Release  65-34) 

•  Four  Ohio  college  students  ended  a  six-week  isolation  test  at  Wright-Pat- 

terson AFB,  Ohio,  to  study  diets,  effect  of  continuous  wearing  of  a 
spacesuit,  and  microbiology  of  the  human  body.  The  four,  compris- 
ing the  eighth  group  to  take  part  in  space  tests  conducted  by  the 
Aerospace  Research  Labs.,  spent  the  first  three  weeks  on  a  balanced 
but  monotonous  diet  and  the  last  three  weeks  on  a  liquid  diet  with 
the  same  nutrients  as  their  earlier  meals.  All  agreed  that  astronauts 
would  probably  be  able  to  wear  spacesuits  for  long  missions  but  that 
"something  would  have  to  be  done"  about  the  proposed  liquid 
diet.      (AP.  NYT.  5  19/65;  ap.  Cleveland  Plain  Dealer,  5/19/65) 

•  Najeeb  E.  Halaby,  retiring  faa  Administrator,  speaking  at  the  annual 

news  conference  of  the  Aviation-Space  Writers  Association  in  Albu- 
querque, urged  President  Johnson  to  make  the  "tough  decision"  to 
develop  2,000  mph  airliners  to  handle  expanding  travel  in  the 
1970s.  He  said  opponents  of  the  supersonic  transport  project  had 
"seriously  overstated"  the  safety  and  other  problems  involved. 

Mr.  Halaby  received  the  Monsanto  Chemical  Co.'s  aviation  safety 
award  for  the  "most  significant  and  lasting  contribution  to  aircraft 
operating  safety  in  1964."  President  Johnson  sent  him  a  congratu- 
latory telegram  hailing  his  "outstanding  performance"  as  aviation  ad- 
ministrator,    (upi,  NYT,  5/19/65) 

•  Representatives  of  companies  planning  to  buy  the  supersonic  Concorde 

airliner  were  told  in  a  report  prepared  by  the  joint  builders,  British 
Aircraft  Corp.  and  Sud  Aviation  France,  that  the  makers  were 
confident,  following  extensive  wind  tunnel  tests,  that  the  Concorde 
represented  "the  best  possible  compromise  for  a  supersonic  transport" 
and  would  be  "safe  and  easy  to  fly."  A  special  report  on  the  problem 
of  sonic  boom  said  tests  had  shown  that  the  calculated  extent  of  these 
sharp  detonations  had  been  "generally  pessimistic."  It  said  that 
climb  and  acceleration  techniques  were  being  developed  that  would 
keep  the  shock  waves  of  air  causing  these  booms  as  slight  as  possible. 

The  experts  present  for  the  three-day  talks  on  the  airliner's  progress 
were  from  Air  France,  British  Overseas  Airways  Corp.,  Pan  American 
World  Airways,  American  Airlines,  Continental  Airlines,  Qantas,  Air 
India,  and  Middle  East  AirUnes,  which  had  together  ordered  or  taken 
options  on  45  of  the  aircraft,  valued  at  $560  million.  (Reuters,  NYT, 
5/19/65,  94C) 


238  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

May  18:  Sen.  Margaret  Chase  Smith  (R-Me.),  interviewed  by  a  group  of 
women  correspondents,  was  critical  of  the  Administration's  failure  to 
"pinpoint"  objectives  beyond  its  1970  goal  to  put  a  man  on  the 
moon.  She  said  she  found  it  "hard  to  believe"  the  Administration 
wasn't  thinking  beyond  the  moon  to  Mars  and  Venus  but  that  "it's 
difficult  to  get  the  answers."      (Dean,  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  5/19/65) 

•  A  fuel  cell  system  had  successfully  operated  for  more  than  1,300  hrs. — 

the  time  it  would  take  a  spacecraft  to  make  nine  trips  to  the  moon  and 
back— producing  electricity  and  drinking  water  from  hydrogen  and 
oxygen,  John  L.  Platner  of  the  Allis-Chalmers  Research  Div.  told  the 
19th  annual  Power  Source  Conference  in  Atlantic  City.  Platner  gave 
details  of  the  cell's  performance  in  reporting  on  an  advanced  2,000- 
watt  fuel  system  being  built  by  AUis-Chambers  for  NASA.  (UPI,  Wash. 
Post,  5/19/65,  A21) 
May  19:  A  71-ton  Little  Joe  ii  rocket  fired  from  White  Sands  Missile 
Range,  N.  Mex.,  to  test  the  Apollo  spacecraft  escape  system  split  into 
fragments  three  miles  above  ground  following  a  series  of  excessive 
rolls  occurring  about  25  sec.  after  launch.  The  escape  rocket  fired 
immediately,  however,  and  carried  the  14-ton  Apollo  boilerplate  free  of 
the  debris;  the  parachute  recovery  system  operated  normally,  lowering 
the  command  module  to  the  ground.  Apollo  program  manager  Dr. 
Joseph  F.  Shea  said:  "Although  the  prime  objectives  of  the  high  alti- 
tude abort  test  were  not  met,  the  launch  escape  system  proved  its 
mettle  in  an  actual  emergency,  which  is  the  purpose  for  which  it  was 
designed."  The  launch  escape  subsystem  would  be  used  to  propel  the 
spacecraft  and  its  crew  to  safety  in  the  event  of  a  Saturn  launch  vehi- 
cle failure  either  on  the  pad  or  during  powered  flight. 

Little  Joe  li  had  been  programed  to  carry  the  test  vehicle.  Boiler- 
plate 22,  to  22-mi. -altitude  in  89  sec;  an  escape  motor  would  propel 
the  spacecraft  to  a  peak  altitude  of  about  35  mi.  Finally,  the  three 
84-ft.-wide  parachutes  would  lower  the  command  module  to 
earth,  (nasa  Release  65-145;  N.Y.  Her.  Trib.,  5/20/65;  naa  S&ID 
Skywriter,  5/21/65,  1,  2;  NYT,  5/20/65,  42;  msc  Roundup, 
5/28/65,  8) 

•  U.S.    launched    eight    military    satellites    into    orbit    from    Vandenberg 

AFB  March  9  with  a  Thor-Agena  D  booster,  NASA  disclosed.  This  was 
the  greatest  number  of  payloads  the  U.S.  had  ever  orbited  with  a 
single  launch  vehicle  and  was  believed  to  exceed  any  multiple  launch- 
ing made  by  the  Soviet  Union.  Orbital  parameters:  apogee,  585  mi. 
(942  km.)  ;  perigee,  561  mi.  (903  km.)  ;  inclination  to  the  equator, 
70°.  Two  payloads  would  measure  solar  radiation;  two  would  test 
stabilization  methods  for  future  spacecraft;  one  would  map  the  earth's 
surface;  another,  Surcal  (Space  Surveillance  Calibration),  would  help 
improve  precision  of  satellite  tracking  networks;  another,  Oscar  (Or- 
biting Satellite  Carrying  Amateur  Radio),  would  broadcast  on  fre- 
quencies that  amateur  radio  operators  could  track.  The  satelHtes  had 
been  unidentified  until  NASA  listed  them  in  its  periodic  satellite  sum- 
mary. 

The  summary  also  showed  that  unmanned  COSMOS  LXI,  cosmos 
LXii,  and  cosmos  lxiii,  launched  by  U.S.S.R.  March  15  with  a  sin- 
gle launch  vehicle,  had  become  26  satellites  or  pieces  of  satelHtes.  cos- 
mos  LXVI,  and  two  companions,   launched  May   7,  had   fallen   out   of 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  239 

orbit,  (gsfc  SSR,  4/15  65;  Clark,  NYT,  5/19/65;  Wash.  Post, 
5/20/65,  A12) 
May  19:  NASA  launched  a  two-part  104-lb.  sounding  rocket  payload  from 
NASA  Wallops  Station,  Va.,  to  measure  electron  densities  and  ion  com- 
position of  the  upper  atmosphere.  Designed  as  a  mother-daughter  ex- 
periment— with  radio  signals  to  be  sent  from  daughter  to  mother — the 
payload  separated  as  planned  at  about  170-mi.  altitude  and  the  two- 
sections  reached  peak  altitude  at  605  mi.  The  sections  were  programed 
to  rise  separately  for  about  8  min.  and  reach  a  distance  apart  of  about 
3  mi.  Experimental  information  was  radioed  to  ground  stations  and 
no  recovery  of  the  sections  was  required ;  they  impacted  in  the  Atlantic 
Ocean.  Measurement  of  the  differences  between  the  signals  of  the  two 
devices,  monitored  by  ground  stations,  was  expected  to  provide  more 
accurate  profiles  of  upper  atmosphere  electron  density.  The  launching 
was  timed  to  occur  while  Canadian  satellite  alouette  was  passing 
nearby,  alouette's  instruments  would  provide  a  horizontal  profile  of 
ionospheric  and  ion  densities  and  temperatures  to  be  correlated  with 
findings  of  the  mother-daughter  experiment.  (Wallops  Release 
65-30) 

•  The  Gemini  2  spacecraft  which  made  a  suborbital  unmanned  flight  from 

Cape  Kennedy  Jan.  19,  1965,  would  be  reworked  by  the  McDonnell 
Aircraft  Corp.  and  delivered  to  USAF  in  July  1966  for  a  preliminary 
unmanned  flight  in  the  USAF  Manned  Orbiting  Laboratory  Program, 
NASA  Manned  Spacecraft  Center  announced,  usaf  would  launch  the 
spacecraft  in  an  unmanned  suborbital  flight  to  test  the  Gemini  B  heat 
shield  design.  The  heat  shield  would  have  a  hatch  to  allow  crew 
transfer  from  the  Gemini  to  the  Orbital  Laboratory.  ( NASA  Release 
65-166) 

•  NASA  successfully  launched  Argo  D-4  sounding  rocket  from  Wallops  Sta- 

tion, Va.,  to  peak  altitude  of  588  mi.  Objective  of  17M2-i"in.  test  was 
the  measurement  of  phase  differences  to  determine  electron  density 
along  the  rocket  trajectory.  Experiment  was  provided  by  Pennsylva- 
nia State  Univ.      (nasa  Rpt.  srl) 

•  Dr.  Homer  E.  Newell,  NASA  Associate  Administrator  for  Space  Science 

and  Applications,  was  among  the  ten  outstanding  Federal  Government 
employees  who  received  a  career  service  award  from  the  National  Civil 
Service  League.      ( Mohr,  NYT.  5/20/65 ) 

•  A  S784,600  contract  had  been  awarded  to  Mechhng  Barge  Lines,  Inc., 

for  towing  three  Saturn  space  vehicle  barges,  NASA  MSEC  announced. 
Two  of  the  barges,  Promise  and  Palaemon,  would  be  used  to  carry  the 
Saturn  I  and  IB  boosters.  A  third,  being  readied,  would  transport  the 
larger  Saturn  V  booster.  The  contract  covered  a  one-year  period. 
(msec  Release  65-128) 

•  Dr.  Wernher  von  Braun,  Director  of  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center, 

was  named  chairman  of  the  International  Sponsors  Committee  for 
Clark  Univ.'s  S5.4  million  Robert  Hutchings  Goddard  memorial  li- 
brary scheduled  for  completion  by  1968. 

Several  nuclear-powered,  self-supporting  lunar  bases  and  a  wide  va- 
riety of  space  stations  would  be  in  operation  by  the  year  2000,  Dr.  von 
Braun  told  the  luncheon  meeting  of  the  National  Space  Club  in  Wash- 
ington, D.C.     He  made  his  predictions  during  the  question  and  answer 


240  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

period  following  his  speech  on  Dr.  Robert  H.  Goddard's  contributions 
to  American  rocketry. 

The  greatest  activity  in  space  35  yrs.  hence  would  be  in  earth  orbits, 
von  Braun  felt,  and  space  would  provide  a  "tremendous  military 
field."  This  field  would  not  be  the  science  fiction  concept  of  orbiting 
hydrogen  bombs,  but  rather  a  broad  program  of  military 
reconnaissance.  Photography  and  direct  observation  of  foreign  mili- 
tary developments  were  cited. 

Space  stations  would  be  in  a  variety  of  orbits  and  many  would  be 
manned  by  scientists  and  repairmen  shuttling  back  and  forth  in  reusa- 
ble vehicles.  Scientists  would  spend  up  to  six  weeks  at  a  time  in  the 
stations  to  make  their  observations.  The  use  of  reusable  boosters 
would  cut  the  cost  of  delivering  payloads  to  orbit  down  to  some  10% 
of  today's  costs,  von  Braun  added,  (nsc  Newsletter,  5/65,  6/65) 
May  19:  "Early  Bird  should  not  be  construed  by  any  government  as  just 
another  door  to  be  opened  when  there  is  a  self-serving  point  to  be 
made,  and  a  door  to  be  slammed  when  that  point  is  in  danger  of  being 
questioned,"  said  Dr.  Frank  Stanton,  president  of  the  Columbia  Broad- 
casting System,  in  a  speech  at  the  Career  Services  Awards  dinner  of 
the  National  Civil  Service  League  in  Washington,  D.C.  Dr.  Stanton 
said  it  was  agreed  the  peoples  of  the  world  should  have  an  opportunity 
to  hear  foreign  leaders,  but  that  this  must  be  done  in  an  atmosphere 
of  freedom  "with  openness  and  in  candid  discussion."  He  added: 
"Early  Bird  must  not  be  transformed  from  the  unprecedented  opportu- 
nity into  the  most  universal  and  pervasive  censorship — both  affirmative 
and  negative— ever  known."      ( NYT,  5/20/65,  75 ) 

•  Dr.  Johannes  H.  Klystra,  interviewed  in  his  laboratory  at  the  State  Univ. 

of  New  York  in  Buffalo,  revealed  that  laboratory  mice  and  dogs  had 
survived  completely  submerged  in  heavily  oxygenated  salt  water;  the 
lungs  had  extracted  oxygen  from  the  pressurized  liquid.  Dr.  Kylstra 
said  that  man  might  one  day  find  it  useful  to  develop  techniques  for 
breathing  liquids  as  an  aid  in  the  exploration  of  the  two  new  realms 
that  are  just  opening  up  to  him:  space  and  the  ocean  depths.  A  space 
flier,  for  example,  could  be  protected  from  the  destructive  forces  of  a 
less-than-soft  landing  on  another  planet  if  he  were  in  a  cockpit  filled 
with  oxygenated  liquid  that  he  could  also  breathe;  a  free-swimming 
underwater  explorer  with  liquid-filled  lungs  could  go  deeper,  stay 
longer  and  ascend  faster  and  more  safely  than  a  diver  breathing  a 
gaseous  mixture  of  nitrogen  and  oxygen.  (Osmundsen,  NYT, 
5/19/65,  49C) 

•  Bendix  Corp.  would  receive  from  usaf  a  $2,666,840  initial  increment  to 

a  $22,123,000  fixed-price  contract  for  modification  and  improvement 
of  the  an/fps-85  space  track  radar.  Work  would  be  done  in  Tow- 
son,  Md.,  and  at  Eglin  afb,  Fla.  (dod  Release  343-65) 
May  20:  nasa-aec  successfully  performed  a  restart  of  the  NRX  A-3  Nerva 
experimental  engine  at  Jackass  Flats,  Nev.  The  firing  lasted  for  18 
min.,  including  13  min.  at  the  engine's  full  power  rating.  The  engine 
was  the  same  one  that  had  run  for  four  minutes  Apr.  23  before  being 
shut  down  prematurely  due  to  spurious  malfunction.  (SNPO-N-65-9; 
Wash.  Eve.  Star,  5/21/65;  Rover  Chron.) 

•  USAF   launched    unidentified  satellite   payload   with   Thor   Fw4s   booster 

from  v^^TR.      ( U.S.  Aeron.  &  Space  Act.,  1965,  142) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  241 

May  20:  Ground  test  version  of  the  Saturn  V  booster  (s-IC-t)  was  fired 
by  NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center  for  41  sec,  msfc  announced.  It 
was  the  third  and  longest  firing  of  the  five  engines,  which  developed 
7.5  million  lbs.  thrust.  The  firing  seemed  entirely  satisfactory,  based 
on  preliminary  evaluation  of  data,      (msfc  Release  65-131) 

•  USN's  F-IIIb  fighter  aircraft,  originally  designated  TFX,  was  given  its 

first  test  flight  over  Long  Island  at  2,000-mph  for  an  hour  and  18  min., 
during  which  the  variable  wing-sweep  of  the  craft  was  tested.  {Wash. 
Post,  5/19/65,  11;  lpi,  Wash.  Post,  5/20/65,  2) 

•  NASA  engineers  Harry  Carlson  and  Francis  E.  McLean  believed  the  sonic 

boom  problem  in  the  operation  of  the  supersonic  transport  could  be 
solved  by  fattening  the  fuselage  just  forward  of  the  wing,  thereby 
altering  the  air  flow  in  such  a  way  as  to  cut  the  boom  to  an  acceptable 
level,  reported  Richard  P.  Cooke  in  the  Wall  Street  Journal.  Fatten- 
ing the  Sst  fuselage  forward  of  the  wings,  said  the  NASA  engineers, 
would  also  help  the  lift  and  might  permit  room  for  more 
seats.      (Cooke,  WSJ,  5/20/65) 

•  AFSC  announced  that  an  airspace  surveillance  and  weapons  control  sys- 

tem had  been  proposed  for  installation  in  the  Ryukyu  islands,  south- 
west of  Japan.  Through  use  of  semi-automatic  data  processing,  the 
Ryukyu  Air  Defense  System  (Rads)  would  pick  up  airspace  intruders 
in  its  area  almost  instantly,  enhancing  defense  capabilities  of  the 
Pacific  Air  Force  in  that  area.  The  system  would  consist  of  radars, 
ultra-fast  communications,  data  processors,  display  consoles  and  com- 
mand posts  where  decision  makers  could  direct  manned  or  unmanned 
weapon  interception.  Returning  aircraft  could  be  directed  home  or  to 
alternate  bases  through  the  system,      (afsc  Release  54.65) 

•  Newest  Soviet  aircraft,  including  the  186-passenger,  four  engine  11-62, 

designed  for  nonstop  intercontinental  service,  were  displayed  at  an 
exhibition  of  airliners  and  helicopters  at  Moscow's  Vnukovo 
Airport.  The  11-62,  whose  engines  were  mounted  on  the  tail  section 
of  its  fuselage,  had  a  cruising  speed  of  500  to  550  mph  and  a  range  of 
5,500  mi.  Boris  Kharchenko,  chairman  of  the  Soviet  aircraft  export 
organization,  said  the  Soviet  Union  was  seeking  orders  this  year  for 
both  the  11-62  and  the  Tu-134,  a  medium-range,  two-engine 
jetliner.     Delivery  would  be  in  1967.      {NYT,  5/21/65) 

•  Secrets  unearthed  by  mariner  ii  and  just  made  public  were  reported 

by  Frank  Macomber  in  the  San  Diego  Union:  "Venus  is  no  lush  sea- 
and-swamp  world,  possibly  teeming  with  primitive  life,  as  some  astron- 
omers have  speculated.  Under  its  eternal  cloud  cover,  the  planet's 
surface  must  be  like  fuming  slag  or  lava.  The  surface  temperature  is 
about  800  °F. — hotter  than  molten  lead. 

"The  clouds  surrounding  Venus  are  a  dense,  unbroken  pall  of  hy- 
drocarbon smog,  boiling  up  to  at  least  60  miles  from  the  planet's 
surface." 

Macomber  said  mariner  ii  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  suc- 
cessful of  U.S.  spacecraft.  (Copley  News  Serv.,  Macomber,  San  Diego 
Union,  5/20/65) 

•  General  Bernard  A.  Schriever,  afsc  Commander,  said  in  an  address  to 

the  Aviation-Space  Writers'  Association  Conference  in  Albuquerque: 
"The  Air  Force  responsibility  for  our  nation's  military  developments 
in  space  is  clearly  established.     This  morning  I  would  like  to  review 


242  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

our   current    progress    in    the    areas    of    unmanned    space    programs, 
boosters  and  propulsion,  and  finally,  manned  space  programs.  .  .  . 

"In  the  late  1950s,  a  small  group  of  Air  Force  officers  began  a 
program  to  develop  a  space-based  missile  detection  and  warning 
system.  To  obtain  information  on  the  background  as  observed  from 
space  and  on  the  signature  of  ballistic  missile  rocket  motors,  the  Air 
Force  initiated  a  series  of  measurement  programs.  Instrumented  air- 
craft were  used  to  obtain  data  on  our  missile  target,  from  many 
aspects  and  in  various  weather  conditions.  Concurrently,  a  spacecraft 
'piggyback'  program  for  background  measurements  was  instituted. 
This  program  has  resulted  in  information  of  great  value  and  is  still 
collecting  valuable  data.  .  .  . 

"The  second  area  of  interest  is  anti-satellite  defense.  Last  Sep- 
tember, President  Johnson  announced  the  existence  of  operational  U.S. 
anti-satellite  defense  systems.  .  .  . 

"The  third  area  of  interest  is  the  detection  of  nuclear  detonations  in 
space.  The  original  effort  was  formerly  known  as  'Vela  Hotel,'  and 
has  now  emerged  as  the  present  Vela  Satellite  Program.  .  .  . 

"In  1963  the  first  pair  of  Vela  Satellites  was  launched  from  Cape 
Kennedy;  the  second  launch  occurred  in  1964.  Both  launches  were 
completely  successful,  and  the  four  satellites  are  still  functioning.  .  .  . 

"The  last  area  that  I  would  like  to  consider  in  unmanned  military 
space  systems  is  communication  satellites — commonly  called  COMSAT. 
Our  current  philosophy  of  controlled  response  has  placed  an  additional 
emphasis  upon  communications  between  field  commanders  and  the 
highest  level  of  our  nation.  .  .  . 

"In  summary,  space  is  a  new  environment  of  activity.  We  need  to 
exploit  it  effectively  for  our  own  purposes  to  prevent  it  from  being 
used  against  us.  We  are  aware  of  the  many  problems  confronting  us 
and  do  not  pretend  to  have  all  the  solutions.  But  much  has  been 
done,  and  we  are  building  a  broad  technological  base  to  meet  the  even 
greater  challenges  of  the  future."  (Text) 
May  20:  NASA  mariner  iv  was  85  million  miles  from  earth  and  traveling 
faster  than  48,000  mph,  nasa  announced.  A  radio  signal  from  the 
spacecraft,  traveling  at  the  speed  of  light,  would  take  more  than  T^/o 
min.  to  reach  a  ground  station.  The  Mars  probe  was  returning 
scientific  measurements  and  engineering  data  continuously  and  daily 
setting  a  new  record  for  distance  of  communications,  (nasa  Release 
65-167) 
•  A  NASA  report  on  its  Aircraft  Noise  Research  Program  to  the  House 
Committee  on  Science  and  Astronautics  and  the  Senate  Committee  on 
Aeronautical  and  Space  Sciences  said:  ".  .  .  there  is  a  growing  under- 
standing that  efforts  at  a  practicable  and  mutually  effective  solution 
will  need  to  be  evolutionary  in  nature,  and  involve  a  dedicated  attack 
on  all  major  aspects  of  the  problem.  These  include  the  acquisition  of 
definitive  information  on  the  manner  in  which  aircraft  noises  are  gen- 
erated and  propagated,  and  the  associated  development  of  efficient 
methods  for  the  reduction  of  adverse  aircraft  noise  at  its  source;  the 
establishment  of  safe  and  efficient  aircraft  operating  procedures  that 
minimize  and  control  the  exposure  of  airport  community  property  to 
undesirable  aircraft  noise;  and  the  provision  of  a  rational  understand- 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  243 

ing  of  the  specific  aircraft  noise  factors  which  produce  subjective  an- 
noyance for  various  activities  and  environments  of  a  community  popu- 
lation, and  of  optimum  methods  for  the  control  and  adjustment  of 
community  property  usage  in  critical  noise  areas  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
airport."  (CR,  5/27/65) 
May  20:  aec's  Snap-lOA  nuclear  reactor,  aboard  snapshot  satellite, 
launched  by  usaf  into  circular  polar  orbit  Apr.  3,  automatically  shut 
down  on  May  16  for  unknown  reasons,  aec  announced.  Snap-lOA  had 
been  producing  power  for  its  own  telemetry;  first  indications  of  mal- 
function came  when  telemetry  ceased.  Telemetry  resumed  about  40 
hrs.  later,  powered  by  stand-by  batteries,  and  indicated  the  reactor  had 
shut  itself  down  and  was  no  longer  producing  power. 

The  prototype  of  future  auxiliary  power  systems,  planned  to  operate 
at  least  90  days,  had  been  operating  successfully  although  the  ion 
engine  experiment  included  in  the  spacecraft  had  been  shut  down  when 
it  developed  electronic  noise.  The  spacecraft  containing  the  defunct 
power  system  would  remain  in  orbit  more  than  3,000  yrs.;  it  would 
take  100  yrs.  for  the  reactor's  radioactive  elements  to  decay  to  a  safe 
level. 

AEC  said  Snap-lOA  had  provided  valuable  information  for  design  of 
future  nuclear  propulsion  systems,  (ap.  Wash.  Post,  5/21/65;  UPI, 
NYT,  5/22/65,  5;  Atomic  Energy  Programs,  1965,  151) 

•  Enriched    uranium     of    U-235    was    the    fuel    used    by    the    Chinese 

May  14  in  their  second  nuclear  explosion,  according  to  preliminary 
analysis  of  airborne  radioactive  debris,  aec  announced.  It  found  "im- 
plausible" reports  that  the  nuclear  device  had  been  carried  by  a  missile 
although  the  detonation  took  place  "above  ground."  aec  said  the 
May  14  test  was  somewhat  larger  than  China's  first  explosion  of  Oct. 
16,  1964,  which  was  equal  to  20  kilotons  or  the  Hiroshima 
bomb.      {NYT,  5/21/65;   Wash.  Post,  5/21/65,  A27) 

•  Dr.  Jeanette  Piccard's  1934  balloon  flight,  establishing  the  still  current 

women's  world  altitude  record  for  a  balloon,  was  celebrated  in  Dear- 
born, Mich.,  by  a  ceremony  and  placing  of  a  marker  near  the  takeoff 
site.  The  balloon  had  a  600.000  cu.  ft.  volume,  reached  57,559  ft. 
altitude,  and  took  Dr.  Piccard  from  Dearborn,  Mich.,  to  Cadiz, 
Ohio.  (CR,  5/18/65,  A2465 ) 
May  21:  U.S.  and  Argentina  jointly  announced  plans  to  collaborate  in 
launching  weather  rockets  to  gain  information  about  hemispheric 
weather  patterns.  Under  terms  of  an  agreement,  Argentina  would 
provide  launching  facilities,  would  transport  rockets  and  equipment 
from  the  U.S.  where  they  would  be  manufactured,  and  would  assemble 
and  launch  the  rockets.  U.S.  launchings  would  be  made  from  Wallops 
Station;  launching  pads  in  Argentina  would  be  at  Chamical.  Other 
Latin  American  countries  had  been  invited  to  participate  in  the 
program.      (  ap,  NYT,  5/22/65 ) 

•  Vice  President  Humphrey,  Chairman  of  the  National  Aeronautics  and 

Space  Council,  said  at  the  16th  annual  luncheon  for  Albert  Lasker 
Medical  Journalism  Awards  in  Washington,  D.C.:  "The  most  impor- 
tant race  is  not  the  space  race  or  the  arms  race.  It  is  the  human 
race.  If  America  can  get  excited  about  putting  a  man  on  the  moon  in 
1970,  why  can't  we  get  excited  about  putting  a  lot  of  people  on  their 
feet  by  the  same  date?   .  .  .  some  day  we  will  be  able  to  tell  the  world 


244  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

that  science  has  discovered  the  secrets  of  aging  or  of  cancer  or  of 
muscular  dystrophy  or  multiple  sclerosis  or  mental  retardation.  That 
news  will  outrank  in  importance  even  the  wonderful  tidings  that  man 
has  landed  on  the  moon."  (Text) 
May  21 :  David  N.  Buell  of  Chrysler  Corp.  told  the  Aviation-Space  Writers' 
Association  Conference  that  an  unmanned  spacecraft  could  be  launched 
to  the  sun  by  1975  or  1980  with  a  modified  Saturn  IB/Centaur  booster 
and  that  it  could  obtain  information  vital  to  space  exploration  and  a 
better  understanding  of  the  universe.  Buell  envisioned  the  solar 
spacecraft  as  a  bi-conal  structure  with  the  forward  cone  pointing  to- 
ward the  sun  and  acting  as  a  sunshade,  bolstered  by  refrigerants  inside 
the  craft.      ( UPI,  Wash .  Post,  5/23/65 ) 

•  "mariner    IV,   speeding    toward    Mars    for    a    rendezvous    in    July,    has 

knocked  out  the  romantic  notion  that  the  ruddy  planet  is  the  site  of  a 
dying  civilization  millions  of  years  older  than  ours  and  far  wiser," 
wrote  David  Dietz  in  the  Knoxville  Neivs-Sentinel.  Continuing:  "This 
theory  holds  that  the  planet  is  drying  out,  losing  its  atmosphere  and  its 
water  supply  and  that  the  inhabitants  have  taken  refuge  in  under- 
ground cities. 

"Well,  if  this  is  the  case,  one  thing  is  certain.  The  Martians  forgot 
to  take  their  radios  with  them.  For  the  past  five  months,  Mariner  4 
has  been  sending  a  steady  stream  of  radio  chatter  back  to  earth  ...  If 
little  Mariner  4  can  do  that,  there  is  no  apparent  reason  why  the 
Martians  couldn't  do  the  same,  providing,  of  course,  that  there  are 
Martians  of  superior  intelligence."  ( Dietz,  Knoxville  News-Sentinel, 
5/21/65) 

•  David    H.    Hoffman,    aviation    editor    of   the    New    York    Herald    Trib- 

une and  Arthur  C.  Clarke,  British  science  writer,  were  cited  by  the 
Aviation-Space  Writers'  Association  for  outstanding  articles  in 
1964.  Mr.  Hoffman  received  the  James  J.  Strebig  memorial  award  for 
his  series  on  air  safety.  Mr.  Clarke  was  honored  for  an  article  pub- 
lished in  Life  magazine  on  communications  satellites.  {N.Y.  Her. 
Trib.,  5/23/65) 
May  22:  nasa's  200-lb.  Project  Fire  ii  spacecraft — similar  in  shape  to  an 
Apollo  command  module — was  launched  into  a  ballistic  trajectory 
from  ETR  by  an  Atlas  D  booster  that  sent  it  over  500  mi.  into  space  in 
test  of  reentry  heating  of  spacecraft  returning  from  the  moon.  Some 
26  min.  later,  when  the  ballistic  path  of  the  payload  turned  it  toward 
earth,  a  solid-fueled  Antares  rocket  fired  for  30  sec,  accelerating  the 
payload  into  the  atmosphere  at  25.400  mph.  As  a  fireball  estimated  at 
20,000°F  formed  a  shock  wave  in  front  of  the  spacecraft,  instruments 
in  its  interior  radioed  information  to  tracking  stations.  Tracking  re- 
ports indicated  that  the  heat  probe  impacted  32  min.  after  launch  in 
the  south  Atlantic  about  5,130  mi.  southeast  of  Cape  Kennedy.  The 
spacecraft  had  been  dubbed  a  "flying  thermometer"  because  it  was  to 
radio  more  than  100,000  temperature  readings. 

First  Project  Fire  flight  took  place  from  Cape  Kennedy  April  14. 
1964,  and  was  the  fastest  controlled  in-flight  reentry  experiment  ever 
conducted.  The  spacecraft  reached  a  speed  of  more  than  25,800  mph 
and  telemetered  many  important  direct  measurements  of  reentry 
heating,      (nasa  Release  65-131 ;  ap,  Wash.  Sun.  Star,  5/23/65) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  245 

May  22:  Jack  N.  James  of  the  Jet  Propulsion  Laboratory,  responsible  for 
MARINER  iv's  cameras  during  the  July  14  Mars  flyby,  told  the  Avia- 
tion-Space Writers'  Association  Conference  that  photographs  taken  by 
the  probe  were  not  expected  to  show  signs  of  life  that  might  exist  on 
the  planet  since  surface  detail  in  the  photographs  would  not  be 
great.  James  said  mariner  iv's  cameras  probably  would  be  fixed  on 
the  planet  by  command  from  earth;  previous  plans  had  called  for  this 
to  be  done  automatically  by  equipment  in  the  spacecraft.  (AP,  Wash. 
Sun.  Star,  5/23/65;  Wash.  Eve.  Star,  5/24/65) 

•  The    Gemini    4   manned    spaceflight    had    been    scheduled    for    June    3, 

NASA  announced.  The  four-day  flight  would  last  about  97  hrs.  50 
min.,  and  would  increase  the  U.S.'s  hours  of  manned  space  flight  to 
about  257  hrs.  No  decision  had  been  made  about  opening  the  two- 
man  spacecraft  and  letting  one  astronaut  stand  exposed  to 
space.      ( Clark,  NYT,  5/22/65,  8 ) 

•  President  Chung   Hee  Park   of  the   Republic   of   Korea,   his   wife,   and 

members  of  his  official  party  visited  Kennedy  Space  Center  where  they 
were  briefed  on  NASA  programs  and  toured  facilities  at  Cape  Kennedy 
and  on  Merritt  Island. 

In  a  luncheon  statement,  President  Park  said:  "You  are  now  en- 
gaged in  a  breath-taking  race  with  Moscow  for  the  conquest  of 
space.  ...  I  should  like  to  invite  your  attention  to  the  stark  reality 
that  there  are  some  fools  engaged  in  utilizing  space  power  politically, 
psychologically  and  militarily  for  sinister  and  dangerous  purposes. 

"They  are  absorbed  in  developing  space  power  not  for  the  true  pur- 
pose envisaged  by  mankind  but  for  making  it  an  instrument  with 
which  to  conquer  the  world. 

"Needless  to  say,  they  are  Communists.  I  believe  you  [Americans] 
have  the  responsibility  of  causing  the  Communists  to  desist  from  this 
dangerous  play  and  of  well  preparing  yourselves  to  douse  a  fire  if  it 
breaks  out  of  that  play.  .  .  ."  (nasa  Off.  Int.  Aff.;  ksc  Spaceport 
News,  5/20/65,  1,  5;  ap,  Miami  Her.,  5/23/65) 

•  In  an  interview  at  Reed   College,   Dr.   John  A.   Simpson,  professor   of 

physics  at  Univ.  of  Chicago's  Enrico  Fermi  Institute  for  Nuclear  Stud- 
ies, said  that  the  U.S.'s  present  space  policy  was  based  on  scientific 
achievement  "and  this  has  been  diverse,  thorough  and  deep  and  has 
led  to  wondrous  discoveries."  He  lauded  U.S.  developments  in 
weather  and  communications  satellites  which  he  termed  an  "outstand- 
ing example"  of  peaceful  developments  in  space  exploration.  "Russia 
is  mainly  concerned  with  putting  a  man  on  the  moon  and  has  ignored, 
for  the  most  part,  the  U.S.  goals  of  achieving  a  better  physical  under- 
standing of  our  solar  system — and  contributing  to  civilization's  use  of 
it."      (Sun.  Oregonian,  5/23/65) 

•  European  Broadcasting  Union's  administrative  council  issued  a  statement 

saying  it  was  concerned  by  the  possibility  that  "prohibitive"  charges 
might  make  it  impossible  to  transmit  television  programs  over  EARLY 
BIRD  I  communications  satellite.  The  council  expressed  the  hope  that 
the  first  three  experimental  years  of  intercontinental  satellite  television 
would  not  be  "cut  off  at  the  start  of  commercial  satellite 
operation."      (Reuters,  NYT,  5/23/65,  19) 

•  Soviet  pilot  Natasha  Prokhanova,  flying  an  E-22  supersonic  jet  trainer, 

climbed  to  79,000-ft.  altitude,  exceeding  the  world  altitude  record  for 


246  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

women  of  56,073  ft.  set  by  U.S.  pilot  Jacqueline  Cochran  in  1961  at 
Edwards  afb  in  a  Northrop  T-38  Talon  supersonic  jet  trainer.  {NYT, 
5/31/65,  24) 
May  23:  The  Life  Sciences  Committee  of  the  National  Academy  of 
Sciences'  Space  Science  Board  recommended  to  NASA  that  American 
astronauts  returning  from  the  moon  and  planets  be  kept  in  quarantine 
for  at  least  three  weeks  to  prevent  possible  contamination  of  the  earth 
by  extra-terrestrial  organisms,  Howard  Simons  reported  in  the  Wash- 
ington Post.  Recommendation  was  in  a  report  entitled  "Potential  Haz- 
ards of  Back  Contamination  from  the  Planets." 

Other  recommendations  included  the  need  to  avoid  decontamination 
of  returning  equipment  until  it  had  been  subjected  to  biological  study; 
the  possible  need  for  the  astronauts  to  shed  their  outer  garments  on 
the  moon  and  Mars  before  returning  home;  the  need  to  conduct  imme- 
diate research  on  any  samples  of  extraterrestrial  life  brought  to  earth; 
and  trial  runs  to  acquaint  astronauts  with  methods  for  minimizing 
chance  of  contamination.      (Simons,  Wash.  Post,  5/23/65) 

•  United  Press  International  had  announced  it  would  seek  to  establish  a 

worldwide  satellite  communications  system,  either  on  its  own  or  in 
partnership  with  others,  if  the  governments  concerned  granted  the 
necessary  permission.  [NYT,  5/23/65) 
May  24:  AFSC  had  selected  nine  graduates  of  its  Aerospace  Research  Pilot 
School,  Edwards  afb,  Calif.,  to  participate  in  crew  performance  studies 
for  manned  space  flight  to  be  conducted  by  NASA  at  the  Martin 
Co.  Three  seven-day  lunar  landing  simulations  would  be  made  using 
a  simulated  Apollo  lunar  landing  mission.  Each  would  utilize  a  three- 
man  crew,      (afsc  Release) 

•  President  Johnson  said,  in  transmitting  nsf's  sixth  annual  report  to  Con- 

gress on  weather  modification  programs  that  control  of  weather  was 
not  beyond  the  reach  of  man:  "The  development  of  methods  for  alter- 
ing weather  and  climate  is  a  subject  of  quickening  interest  in  the  Con- 
gress and  the  Executive  Branch  ...  as,  indeed,  it  is  to  all  of  the 
human  race.  We  must  recognize  that  the  achievement  of  such  a  capa- 
bility would  mean  vast  economic  and  social  gains  for  human  life  on 
this  earth."      (House  Doc.  188) 

•  EARLY   BIRD   I  Unked   audiences   at   the   Parke-Bernet   Galleries    in   New 

York  City  and  at  Sotheby's  in  London  for  the  first  trans-Atlantic  art 
auction,  ComSatCorp  reported.  BBC  broadcasted  a  portion  of  the  auc- 
tion for  British  TV  viewers.  The  telecast  marked  the  fourth  successive 
Monday  on  which  the  satellite  had  carried  a  commercial  program  free 
of  charge  to  show  its  potential.  (ComSatCorp  Release;  Esterow, 
yVFr,  5/25/65,  1) 

•  The  British  Government  announced  plans  for  conversion  of  weights  and 

measures  to  the  metric  system  over  the  next  ten  years.  The  announce- 
ment meant  the  U.S.  would  be  the  only  major  power  using  nonmetric 
units. 

Sen.  Claiborne  Pell  (D-R.L)  said  on  the  floor  of  the  Senate:  "The 
United  States  finds  itself  in  the  odd  position  of  having  inherited  our 
anachronistic  system  of  quarts,  pounds,  and  inches  from  the  British, 
only  to  find  that  the  parent  of  the  system  has  recognized  its  impracti- 
cality  and  is  moving  over  to  the  metric  system.    This  leaves  us  virtually 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 


247 


alone  in  the  world  in  our  insistence  upon  our  system  of  weights  and 
measures,  which  originated  in  medieval  times."  (Farnsworth,  NYT, 
5/25/65,  6;  CR,  5/24/65,  11023) 
May  25:  Saturn  I  (SA-8)  launch  vehicle,  launched  from  Eastern  Test 
Range,  orbited  a  23.000-lb.  payload  of  which  3,200  lbs.  was  the  PEG- 
ASUS II  meteoroid  detection  satellite  and  9,700  lbs.  was  Apollo  boiler- 
plate command  and  service  modules  (BP-26).  This  was  the  ninth 
successful  test  in  nine  flights  for  Saturn  I. 

At  launch.  Apollo  command  and  service  module  boilerplate  space- 
craft and  launch  escape  system  (Les)  tower  were  atop  Saturn  I,  with 
PEGASUS  II  folded  inside  the  service  module.  After  second-stage  igni- 
tion. Les  was  jettisoned.  After  injection  into  orbit,  the  Apollo  boiler- 
plate was  jettisoned  into  a  separate  orbit  and  a  motor-driven  device 
extended  96  X  14-ft.  winglike  panels  on  pegasus  ii,  exposing  2,300 
sq.  ft.  of  instrumented  surface.  The  satellite  was  attached  to  the 
Saturn's  S-IV  second  stage  and  would  remain  so  during  its 
lifetime.  Each  wing  consisted  of  seven  frames  hinged  together  and 
providing  mountings  for  a  total  of  208  detector  panels.  As  particles 
collided  with  this  surface,  the  penetrations  would  be  registered  and 
reported  to  earth.  Orbital  data:  apogee,  460  mi.  (741  km.)  ;  perigee, 
316  mi.  (509  km.)  ;  period,  97  min.;  inchnation,  31.8°. 

Primary  purpose  of  the  flight  was  to  gather  information  on  fre- 
quency of  meteoroids  encountered  in  the  near-earth  environment  for 
use  in  design  of  future  manned  and  unmanned  spacecraft. 

PEGASUS  II,  an  improved  version  of  pegasus  I  launched  Feb.  16, 
1965,  would  be  visible  to  the  naked  eye  under  favorable  conditions 
near  dawn  and  dusk.  (NASA  Release  65-151;  MSFC  Release  65-121; 
Marshall  Star,  5/26/65,  1:  ap,  NYT,  5/26/65,  10;  U.S.  Aeron.  & 
Space  Act.,  1965,  US) 
•  X-15  No.  1  was  flown  by  nasa's  Milton  0.  Thompson  to  179,800-ft. 
altitude  at  a  maximum  speed  of  3,418  mph  (mach  4.87)  to  obtain  data 
on  the  Honeywell  inertial  system  checkout,  MIT  horizon  photometer, 
Pace  transducer,  RAS    (Reaction  Augmentation   System)    modification 


May  25:   Saturn   I  launch   of 
PEGASUS    n    from    Cape    Ken- 
nedy. 


248  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

checkout,  and  pilot  altitude  buildup.  (NASA  x-15  Proj.  Off.;  X-15 
Flight  Log) 
May  25:  U.S.S.R.  launched  cosmos  lxvii  containing  scientific  equipment 
for  investigation  of  outer  space.  Orbital  parameters:  apogee,  350  km. 
(217  mi.)  ;  perigee,  207  km.  (128  mi.)  ;  inclination  to  earth, 
51.8°.  Onboard  equipment  was  functioning  normally.  {Krasnaya 
Zvezda,  5/27/65,  1,  atss-t  Trans.) 

•  During    the    planned     4-day    flight    June    3,     Astronaut    Edward     H. 

White  (Maj.,  usaf)  would  leave  the  Gemini  4  spacecraft  for  12  min. 
"if  conditions  are  favorable,"  Msc  officials  announced  at  press 
conference.     He  would  be  secured  to  the  craft  by  a  25-ft.  safety  line. 

NASA  said  the  decision  had  been  delayed  "so  final  qualification  tests 
could  be  completed  on  the  spacecraft,  spacesuit,  secondary  life  support 
pack  and  umbiHcal." 

The  12-layer  protective  suit  that  Astronaut  White  would  wear  had 
been  worn  for  more  than  200  hrs.  and  White  himself  had  worn  it 
during  more  than  60  hrs.  of  tests.  Among  other  things,  it  had  had 
pellets  fired  at  it  at  a  speed  of  30,000  fps  to  simulate  the  impact  of 
small  meteoroids. 

The  flight's  command  pilot,  Astronaut  James  A.  McDivitt  (Maj., 
usaf)  would  not  open  his  hatch  but  would  take  movies  of  White 
through  a  spacecraft  window.  Astronaut  White  would  take  a  35-mm. 
still  camera  loaded  with  color  film  on  his  "walk"  in  space.  Although 
he  had  practiced  acrobatics,  White  had  no  planned  program  and  would 
"use  his  own  judgment  as  to  what  to  do  while  outside  the  ship."  Exit 
from  the  spacecraft  was  planned  for  the  second  orbit.  (Transcript; 
Clark,  NYT,  5/26/65,  1,  11;  upi,  Wash.  Post,  5/26/65,  A3) 

•  Al   J.    Hayes,    International    Association    of   Machinists    president,    said 

union  negotiations  with  Aerojet-General  Corp.  would  not  halt  the 
scheduled  two-man  Gemini  shot  at  Cape  Kennedy  on  June  3.  He  said 
union  members  would  continue  work  at  Cape  Kennedy  even  if  a  walk- 
out were  called  against  Aerojet  General.  (UPi,  Wash.  Post,  5/26/65, 
A3) 

•  X-22a  vertical/short  take-off  and  landing  aircraft  (V/Stol)   was  inspect- 

ed by  Government  and  military  representatives  at  the  Bell  Aerosystems 
plant  in  Niagara  Falls.  Its  unique  characteristic  was  the  ducted  fan 
concept  of  propulsion  consisting  of  four  shrouded  propellers — two  for- 
ward and  two  on  the  tips  of  the  39-ft.  wing  aft — driven  by  four  T-58 
turbine  engines.  The  four  engines,  expected  to  propel  the  aircraft  at  a 
cruising  speed  of  300  mph,  were  run  for  about  five  minutes. 

x-22a  was  constructed  for  the  Army,  Navy,  and  Air  Force  under  a 
Navy-administered  contract  for  $25  million.  First  flight  test  would  be 
made  in  September  1965.  (dod  Release  341-65;  ap,  NYT,  5/26/65, 
94) 

•  Minute  amounts  of  fresh  radioactive  debris  from  detonation  of  Commu- 

nist China's  second  nuclear  bomb  were  registered  over  the  U.S.  by  the 
Division  of  Radiological  Health  of  the  U.S.  Public  Health 
Service.  Pollution  was  far  below  the  hazard  level,  (ap,  Wash.  Eve. 
S^ar,  5/26/65,5) 
May  25-26:  More  than  300  representatives  of  NASA  and  industry  attended 
the  1965  Cost  Reduction  and  Management  Improvement  meeting  at 
NASA  Marshall  Space  Flight  Center.      {Marshall  Star,  6/2/65,  2) 


ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965  249 

May  26:  NASA  launched  an  ionosphere  experiment  from  Wallops  Station, 
Va.,  on  a  four-stage  Javelin  (Argo  D-4)  sounding  rocket.  Primary 
objectives  of  the  flight  were  to  measure  ion  and  electron  densities  and 
temperatures  and  the  ionic  composition  in  the  upper  atmosphere.  A 
malfunction  in  the  launch  vehicle  caused  the  140-lb.  payload  to  reach 
an  altitude  of  only  200  mi.  instead  of  the  planned  520  mi.  Telemetry 
data  were  received  for  about  nine  minutes.  Project  officials  termed 
the  flight  a  partial  success  despite  the  failure  to  achieve  peak 
altitude.      ( Wallops  Release  65-31 ) 

•  PEGASUS    II    had    reported    two    meteoroid    punctures,    NASA    announced. 

The  hits  were  recorded  on  the  .0015-in.  and  .008-in. -thick  aluminum- 
covered  detection  panels.      (NASA  Release  65-175) 

•  On  the  floor  of  the  Senate,  Sen.  Ralph  W.  Yarborough   (D-Tex.)   advo- 

cated that  rights  to  patents  from  Government-sponsored  research 
should  belong  to  the  Government:  "In  this  struggle  between  the  public 
interest  and  those  who  seek  a  public  subsidy  to  enrich  private  coffers, 
the  stakes  are  immense.  The  Federal  Government  every  year  becomes 
more  involved  in  the  financing  of  scientific  research.  This  being  the 
case,  it  is  the  responsibility  of  Congress  to  protect  the  public  purse, 
rather  than  to  construct  private  pipelines  from  the  Public  Treasury  to 
private  recipients."      (CR,  5/26/65) 

•  "Establishment  of  a  communications  satellite  system  for  commercial  pur- 

poses is  a  matter  entrusted  to  the  Corporation  under  the  Communica- 
tions Satellite  Act,"  was  the  reply  of  ComSatCorp  President  Joseph 
Charyk  to  the  FCC  regarding  the  American  Broadcasting  Co.'s  proposal 
to  launch  its  own  satellite.  The  FCC  had  requested  the  views  of  Com- 
SatCorp on  the  proposal.      (ComSatCorp  Release) 

•  In   Second   Annual   Sight   Lecture   to   the   Wings   Club,    Dr.   Jerome   C. 

Hunsaker,  former  Chairman  of  the  naca  and  MIT  professor  of  aer- 
onautics, said: 

"We  cannot  return  to  the  time  when  the  century  was  young,  yet  we 
still  need  the  ingenuity  and  luck  of  gifted  individuals.  It  is  important 
to  establish  an  environment  with  incentives  to  bring  new  ideas  for- 
ward. 

"I  think  of  the  British  Admiralty's  prize  for  a  ship's  chronometer. 
The  chronometer  appeared,  and  changed  the  entire  art  of  navigation. 
Lilienthal's  gliding  experiments,  the  Wrights'  flights  and  Sikorsky's 
helicopter  were  individual  contributions,  not  in  government  programs. 

"Scientists  have  a  favorable  climate  for  their  own  research  provided 
by  the  Universities  and  Foundations,  with  opportunity  for  publication 
and  recognition  through  the  learned  societies.  Could  we  not  devise  a 
plan  to  bring  ideas  of  individuals  before  sensitive  and  wise  people  who 
would  select  wheat  from  chafF  and  arrange  for  development  testing  of 
some  of  the  harvest.  We  must  be  patient.  I  am  reminded  of  Dr. 
Paul  Foote's  remark  that,  for  a  new  chemical,  it  is  usually  seven  years 
from  test  tube  to  tank  car. 

"What  we  must  avoid  is  centralized  control  of  the  exploration  of 
ideas  by  the  people  responsible  for  immediate  needs.  There  is  noth- 
ing more  discouraging  to  an  engineer  than  the  statement:  'We  have  no 
requirement  for  what  you  are  thinking  of.' 


250  ASTRONAUTICS  AND  AERONAUTICS,  1965 

"Today.  U.S.  military  power  is  supreme,  but  our  intent  and  resolve 
are  more  in  question  than  our  strength.  General  LeMay  says,  'We 
must  make  more  determined  and  longer  range  plans  and 
commitments.  .  .  .  We  must  look  further  into  the  future  to  foresee 
the  threats  that  He  ahead.' 

"Quantum  advances  in  technology  follow  availability  of  scientific 
knowledge  plus  creative  imagination  and  financial  risk  taking.  Inter- 
national cooperative  effort  has  been  valuable  in  the  past  in  research, 
and  could  be  valuable  in  development  work  when  the  threat  of  destruc- 
tive purpose  becomes  less. 

"Let  us  never  think  we  have  no  requirement  for  men  with  new 
ideas."  (Text) 
May  26:  First  stage  (s-i-10)  for  the  tenth  and  last  Saturn  I  launch  ve- 
hicle left  MSFc'5  Michoud  Operations  aboard  the  barge  Promise,  to 
arrive  at  KSC  May  31.  This  was  the  second  s-i  stage  built  at 
Michoud  by  Chrysler  Corp.  Space  Div.      (msfc  Release  65-135) 

•  ComSatCorp    may    well    face    competition    from    foreign    satellite    com- 

munications systems  in  the  next  few  years,  David  Sarnolf,  chair- 
man of  the  Board  of  Radio  Corporation  of  America  predicted  at  the 
convention  banquet  of  the  Armed  Forces  Communications  and  Elec- 
tronics Assn.  in  Washington,  D.C.:  "We  can  expect  that  ultimately 
Russia  will  set  up  a  satellite  communications  system  competitive  to  our 
own  and  offer  it  to  other  nations  on  favorable  terms  determined  more 
by  political  than  economic  considerations." 

Mr.  Sarnoff  advocated  creation  of  "a  single,  privately  owned  Ameri- 
can company"  to  handle  all  international  communications  currently 
handled  by  six  private  carriers.  He  argued  that,  among  other 
benefits,  a  single  "unified  carrier"  was  the  only  way  the  U.S.  could 
"deal  on  equal  terms  with  foreign  government  [communications]  mo- 
nopolies. 

The  RCA  chairman  warned  that  in  only  five  years  the  interim  agree- 
ment between  ComSatCorp  and  the  45  participating  nations  would  be 
up  for  re-evaluation.  The  U.S.,  he  said,  "will  have  to  negotiate  a  new 
contract  under  different  circumstances  and  possibly  vastly  altered  bar- 
gaining conditions." 

It  was  technically  feasible,  Mr.  Sarnoff  said,  that  direct  radio/TV 
broadcasting  by  satellite  could  be  undertaken  by  1975.  Three  equato- 
rial, synchronous  orbit  satellites  powered  by  nuclear  energy,  each 
equipped  with  a  three-TV-channel  capability,  would  be  able,  he  said,  to 
broadcast  programs  to  the  entire  United  States  and  parts  of 
Canada.  He  estimated  that  the  three  satellites,  exclusive  of  ground 
stations,  would  cost  S30  million  and  compared  this  with  the  $50  mil- 
lion annual  cost  to  the  three  major  networks  for  leasing  circuits  to 
transmit  programs  to  their  affiliated  stations  or  to  the  $30  million  cost 
of  a  single  large  city  television  station.  (WSJ,  5/27/65,  6;  Wash. 
Eve.  Star,  S/21/6^) 

•  Missile  lead  of  the  U.S.  was  put  at  three  to  one  in  an  article  by  Richard 

Fryklund  in  the  Washington  Evening  Star:  "U.S.  intelligence  estimates 
are  that  the  Soviet  Union